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A Theory Of Action Identification

Author: Robin R. Vallacher
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 131776787X
Size: 27.24 MB
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First published in 1985. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Cognitive And Behavioral Theories In Clinical Practice

Author: Nikolaos Kazantzis
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 1606233599
Size: 55.11 MB
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Demonstrating the importance of theory for effective clinical practice, this thought-provoking volume brings together leading experts on a range of contemporary cognitive and behavioral approaches. The contributors probe the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of each model—its assumptions about normal psychological processes, the development and maintenance of psychopathology, and the mechanisms by which therapeutic changes take place. The historical antecedents of the theories are examined and studies that have tested them are reviewed. Vivid case studies show practitioners how theory informs clinical decision making and technique in each of the respective approaches.

Encyclopedia Of Human Behavior

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080961800
Size: 59.95 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, Second Edition is an award-winning three-volume reference on human action and reaction, and the thoughts, feelings, and physiological functions behind those actions. Presented alphabetically by title, 300 articles probe both enduring and exciting new topics in physiological psychology, perception, personality, abnormal and clinical psychology, cognition and learning, social psychology, developmental psychology, language, and applied contexts. Written by leading scientists in these disciplines, every article has been peer-reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. The most comprehensive reference source to provide both depth and breadth to the study of human behavior, the encyclopedia will again be a much-used reference source. This set appeals to public, corporate, university and college libraries, libraries in two-year colleges, and some secondary schools. Carefully crafted, well written, and thoroughly indexed, the encyclopedia helps users—whether they are students just beginning formal study of the broad field or specialists in a branch of psychology—understand the field and how and why humans behave as we do. Named a 2013 Outstanding Academic Title by the American Library Association's Choice publication Concise entries (ten pages on average) provide foundational knowledge of the field Each article features suggested further readings, a list of related websites, a 5-10 word glossary and a definition paragraph, and cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedi Newly expanded editorial board and a host of international contributors from the United States, Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom

Brooks Cole Empowerment Series Understanding Human Behavior And The Social Environment

Author: Charles Zastrow
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 0840028652
Size: 42.67 MB
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Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman’s UNDERSTANDING HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT looks at lifespan through the lens of social work theory and practice, covering human development and behavior theories within the context of family, organizational, and community systems. Using a chronological lifespan approach, the book presents separate chapters on biological, psychological, and social impacts at the different lifespan stages with an emphasis on strengths and empowerment. As part of the Brooks/Cole Empowerment Series, this edition is completely up to date and thoroughly integrates the core competencies and recommended practice behaviors outlined in the 2008 Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) set by the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE). Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Toward A General Theory Of Action

Author: Talcott Parsons
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 9781412840163
Size: 41.47 MB
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This new edition introduces the social science audiences of a new century to one of the classic highlights of the mid-twentieth century. This is the most general statement of the general theory of action as it was developed by its principle exponent, Talcott Parsons, and his close collaborators who formed the core of the fabled department of social relations at Harvard University. Toward a General Theory of Action is an extremely ambitious formulation of the ingredients, dimensions, and ranges that determine human behavior. Parsons and Shils enunciate principles that are at the core of contemporary social science preoccupations-including the precarious balance between social integration and conflict. The volume is at once universal in intent and highly personal, an expression of Parsons' thought, one of the most notable sociological theorists of the century. Finally, the book symbolizes the interdisciplinary impulse that typified a widespread belief in the unity of the sciences. This edition includes the collaborative group's introductory statement, Richard Sheldon's essay on the theoretical and philosophical status of the general theory of action, and "Values, Motives and Systems of Action" by Parsons and Shils. Guy Swanson, writing in the The American Sociological Review, noted that "Parsons and Shils have performed a major service in clearing away many old controversies, in showing the reasonableness of a behavioral foundation for general theory in social science as a whole and in sociology in particular, in clarifying the interrelations among many concepts, and in the insightful interpretation of particular pieces of data." It is testimony to this book's continuing significance that it continues to generate new lines of research and writings. Talcott Parsons and Edward A. Shils are now deceased. Parsons had a lifelong association with Harvard University, and Shils had an equally long distinguished service at Chicago University in the United States and Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. The special editor for the Transaction edition, Neil J. Smelser is director of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, at Stanford University. From 1958 through 1994 he served on the sociology faculty at the University of California at Berkeley. He is author of many books in the areas of social theory, social change, economic sociology, social movements and the sociology of education.

Waging War Planning Peace

Author: Aaron Rapport
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801455634
Size: 27.36 MB
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As the U.S. experience in Iraq following the 2003 invasion made abundantly clear, failure to properly plan for risks associated with postconflict stabilization and reconstruction can have a devastating impact on the overall success of a military mission. In Waging War, Planning Peace, Aaron Rapport investigates how U.S. presidents and their senior advisers have managed vital noncombat activities while the nation is in the midst of fighting or preparing to fight major wars. He argues that research from psychology—specifically, construal level theory—can help explain how individuals reason about the costs of postconflict noncombat operations that they perceive as lying in the distant future. In addition to preparations for "Phase IV" in the lead-up to the Iraq War, Rapport looks at the occupation of Germany after World War II, the planned occupation of North Korea in 1950, and noncombat operations in Vietnam in 1964 and 1965. Applying his insights to these cases, he finds that civilian and military planners tend to think about near-term tasks in concrete terms, seriously assessing the feasibility of the means they plan to employ to secure valued ends. For tasks they perceive as further removed in time, they tend to focus more on the desirability of the overarching goals they are pursuing rather than the potential costs, risks, and challenges associated with the means necessary to achieve these goals. Construal level theory, Rapport contends, provides a coherent explanation of how a strategic disconnect can occur. It can also show postwar planners how to avoid such perilous missteps.

Behaviour Change

Author: Great Britain: Parliament: House of Lords: Science and Technology Committee
Publisher: The Stationery Office
ISBN: 9780108473647
Size: 40.40 MB
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The currently influential book 'Nudge' by Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein advocates a range of non-regulatory interventions that seek to influence behaviour by altering the context or environment in which people choose, and seek to influence behaviour in ways which people often do not notice. This approach differs from more traditional government attempts to change behaviour, which have either used regulatory interventions or relied on overt persuasion. The current Government have taken a considerable interest in the use of 'nudge interventions'. One aim of this inquiry, therefore, is to assess the evidence-base for the effectiveness of this approach. However it also examines evidence for the effectiveness of other types of policy intervention and asks whether the Government make good use of the full range of available evidence. The Committee's central finding is that non-regulatory measures used in isolation, including 'nudges', are less likely to be effective. Effective policies often use a range of interventions. A lot more could, and should, be done to improve the evaluation of interventions. Specific recommendations include: the Government must invest in gathering more evidence about what measures work to influence population behaviour change; they should appoint an independent Chief Social Scientist to provide them with robust and independent scientific advice; the Government should take steps to implement a traffic light system of nutritional labelling on all food packaging.

Planned Behavior

Author: Christopher J. Armitage
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 9781412830874
Size: 31.54 MB
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Psychologists regard the relationship between attitudes and behavior as a key to understanding human behavior. Here leading researchers discuss basic and applied issues relating to how human thought translates into action. The contributors focus on the theory of planned behavior, a model of attitude-behavior relations that takes into account not just attitudes, but also the influence of significant others around us, issues of personal agency, and motivation. The book begins with an overview of the theory of planned behavior, from the initial impetus to better understand attitude-behavior relations, through the theory of reasoned action, to the theory of planned behavior. Among the applied issues discussed in subsequent chapters are using the model to predict homeless persons' use of services, understanding the motivation underpinning suicide in an at-risk sample, and experimentally manipulating antecedents of risky driving behavior. More methodologically oriented chapters explore how the theory of planned behavior may be developed in the future. Several chapters discuss the potential integration of the theory of planned behavior with social identity theory and goal theory; other chapters discuss the key components of the theory of planned behavior and whether the theory might usefully be extended with the concept of descriptive norms. This book considers a full spectrum of important developments that enhance our understanding of the theory of planned behavior and efforts to extend it. From applications to new avenues for research, the chapters that make up this book address important issues surrounding theoretical and practical approaches to addressing problems in attitude-behavior research. Christopher J. Armitage is a senior lecturer in the Department of Psychology at the University of Sheffield, UK. His research interests focus on the relationships between attitudes and behaviors, and on behavior change. Julie Christian is a lecturer of social psychology in the School of Psychology at the University of Birmingham, UK. Her research interests include attitudes and inter-group processes, in particular how these variables relate to enhancing our understanding of behavioral outcomes.