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Affect And Cognition In Criminal Decision Making

Author: Jean-Louis van Gelder
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135123101
Size: 26.49 MB
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Research and theorizing on criminal decision making has not kept pace with recent developments in other fields of human decision making. Whereas criminal decision making theory is still largely dominated by cognitive approaches such as rational choice-based models, psychologists, behavioral economists and neuroscientists have found affect (i.e., emotions, moods) and visceral factors such as sexual arousal and drug craving, to play a fundamental role in human decision processes. This book examines alternative approaches to incorporating affect into criminal decision making and testing its influence on such decisions. In so doing it generalizes extant cognitive theories of criminal decision making by incorporating affect into the decision process. In two conceptual and ten empirical chapters it is carefully argued how affect influences criminal decisions alongside rational and cognitive considerations. The empirical studies use a wide variety of methods ranging from interviews and observations to experimental approaches and questionnaires, and treat crimes as diverse as street robbery, pilfering, and sex offences. It will be of interest to criminologists, social psychologists, judgment and decision making researchers, behavioral economists and sociologists alike.

The Oxford Handbook Of Offender Decision Making

Author: Wim Bernasco
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199338817
Size: 71.91 MB
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Although the issue of offender decision-making pervades almost every discussion of crime and law enforcement, only a few comprehensive texts cover and integrate information about the role of decision-making in crime. The Oxford Handbook of Offender Decision Making provide high-quality reviews of the main paradigms in offender decision-making, such as rational choice theory and dual-process theory. It contains up-to-date reviews of empirical research on decision-making in a wide range of decision types including not only criminal initiation and desistance, but also choice of locations, times, targets, victims, methods as well as large variety crimes including homicide, robbery, domestic violence, burglary, street crime, sexual crimes, and cybercrime. Lastly, it provides in-depth treatments of the major methods used to study offender decision-making, including experiments, observation studies, surveys, offender interviews, and simulations. Comprehensive and authoritative, the Handbook will quickly become the primary source of theoretical, methodological, and empirical knowledge about decision-making as it relates to criminal behavior.

After The Crime

Author: Martin S. Greenberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461533341
Size: 58.71 MB
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Analyzing the findings of 20 studies, involving more than 5,000 people, this book explores the decision making process of the crime victim in the immediate aftermath of victimization. Using a broad range of innovative research techniques, the authors assess the effects of rape, robbery, burglary, and theft on individuals from diverse nationalities and ethnic backgrounds. This work will be of value to people who work directly with crime victims, and to researchers who are interested in the process of decision making under stressful circumstances.

Inside The Juror

Author: Reid Hastie
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521477550
Size: 28.63 MB
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Provides a comprehensive and understandable summary of the major theories of juror decision making.

Emotion And The Law

Author: Brian H. Bornstein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441906967
Size: 39.43 MB
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From questions surrounding motives to the concept of crimes of passion, the intersection of emotional states and legal practice has long interested professionals as well as the public—recent cases involving extensive pretrial publicity, highly charged evidence, and instances of jury nullification continue to make the subject particularly timely. With these trends in mind, Emotion and the Law brings a rich tradition in social psychology into sharp forensic focus in a unique interdisciplinary volume. Emotion, mood and affective states, plus patterns of conduct that tend to arise from them in legal contexts, are analyzed in theoretical and practical terms, using real-life examples from criminal and civil cases. From these complex situations, contributors provide answers to bedrock questions—what roles affect plays in legal decision making, when these roles are appropriate, and what can be done so that emotion is not misused or exploited in legal procedures—and offer complementary legal and social/cognitive perspectives on these and other salient issues: Positive versus negative affect in legal decision making, emotion, eyewitness memory, and false memory, the influence of emotions on juror decisions, and legal approaches to its control, a terror management theory approach to the understanding of hate crimes, policy recommendations for managing affect in legal proceedings, additional legal areas that can benefit from the study of emotion. Emotion and the Law clarifies theoretical grey areas, revisits current practice, and suggests possibilities for both new scholarship and procedural guidelines, making it a valuable reference for psycho legal researchers, forensic psychologists, and policymakers.

Modelling The Criminal Lifestyle

Author: Glenn D. Walters
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319577719
Size: 72.49 MB
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This book offers Walters's latest evolution of criminal lifestyle theory. It introduces the concept of criminal thought content to illustrate how the potential interplay between what offenders think and their thought processes can greatly aid our understanding of both crime and criminals. In this new study on criminal behaviour, Walters calls for criminological theory to be placed within a broader scientific context, and provides us with several key models which embrace constructs from numerous important theories including: the general theory of crime, social cognitive and social learning theories, general strain theory, psychopathic personality theories of crime, and labelling theory. Another unique aspect of this work is that it places lifestyle theory within a larger scientific framework, namely, nonlinear dynamical systems theory or chaos. Seven principles from chaos theory are used to explain relationships and processes central to lifestyle theory and Walters uses this to draw conclusions on what affects criminal decision-making and desistance from crime. Highly original and innovative in scope, this book will be useful to practitioners and scholars of criminal justice alike, with chapters focussed on decision-making, assessment, and intervention.

Perceptions Of Female Offenders

Author: Brenda Russell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461458714
Size: 52.79 MB
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​Female offenders are often perceived as victims who commit crimes as a self-defense mechanism or as criminal deviants whose actions strayed from typical ‘womanly’ behavior. Such cultural norms for violence exist in our gendered society and there has been scholarly debate about how male and female offenders are perceived and how this perception leads to differential treatment in the criminal justice system. This debate is primarily based upon theories associated with stereotypes and social norms and how these prescriptive norms can influence both public and criminal justice response. Scholars in psychology, sociology, and criminology have found that female offenders are perceived differently than male offenders and this ultimately leads to differential treatment in the criminal justice system. This interdisciplinary book provides an evidence based approach of how female offenders are perceived in society and how this translates to differential treatment within the criminal justice system and explores the ramifications of such differences. Quite often perceptions of female offenders are at odds with research findings. This book will provide a comprehensive evidence-based review of the research that is valuable to laypersons, researchers, practitioners, advocates, treatment providers, lawyers, judges, and anyone interested in equality in the criminal justice system. ​

Choosing White Collar Crime

Author: Neal Shover
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139445245
Size: 24.71 MB
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For more than three decades, rational-choice theory has reigned as the dominant approach both for interpreting crime and as underpinning for crime-control programs. Although it has been applied to an array of street crimes, white-collar crime and those who commit it have thus far received less attention. Choosing White-Collar Crime is a systematic application of rational-choice theory to problems of explaining and controlling white-collar crime. It distinguishes ordinary and upperworld white-collar crime and presents reasons theoretically for believing that both have increased substantially in recent decades. Reasons for the increase include the growing supply of white-collar lure and non-credible oversight. Choosing White-Collar Crime also examines criminal decision making by white-collar criminals and their criminal careers. The book concludes with reasons for believing that problems of white-collar crime will continue unchecked in the increasingly global economy and calls for strengthened citizen movements to rein in the increases.

Every Contact Leaves A Trace

Author: Anthony Laird
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3668799059
Size: 48.62 MB
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Master's Thesis from the year 2016 in the subject Law - Criminal process, Criminology, Law Enforcement, grade: Pass, Credits, University of Portsmouth (Institute of Criminal Justice Studies), course: MSc Criminology and Criminal Psychology, language: English, abstract: Initially this research took the form of a literature review of relevant psychological and sociological theories in an attempt to discover how/if these affect forensic examiners in the course of their duties. It was discovered that psychological and sociological influences do indeed impose powerful, yet subtle, effects on examiners, and are likely to impact not only on the understanding examiners have of their function in a forensic environment, but also on their decision-making abilities. The literature review was followed by a review and analysis of professional bodies related to forensic examination. It was found that although their message is generally well intended, the language being used is at times less than impartial. This may prove problematic as there is evidence to suggest that inappropriate use of language and terminology can affect perception. Primary data was obtained by way of an online survey. This highlighted several points that could be considered to be of concern. Among these were an apparent lack of standardisation in working practices, and the degree to which some examiners are prepared to expose themselves to biasing influences.

Forensic Nursing Science E Book

Author: Virginia A. Lynch
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323066380
Size: 15.95 MB
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Written and edited by the most respected authorities in forensic nursing and forensic sciences, this new edition provides the tools and concepts you need to collect evidence that is admissible in court, determine the significance of that evidence, and provide accurate, reliable testimony while administering high-quality patient care. Now in full color throughout, it remains the most comprehensive, highly illustrated text of its kind. Provides a comprehensive, updated guide to forensic nursing science, paying special attention to the International Association of Forensic Nurses’s (IAFN) goals for forensic nursing. Retains a focus on assessment skills and the collection and preservation of evidence, following the established guidelines of the forensic sciences. Prepares you to provide testimony as a fact witness or a forensic nursing expert. Includes an illustrated case study in almost every chapter, helping you relate the information to clinical practice. Highlights important recommendations for interventions in Best Practice boxes, including the evidence base for each. Summarizes important points in Key Point boxes, so you can quickly review the most important concepts in each chapter. Explores the evolving role of forensic nurses in today’s health care facilities and the community. Edited by Virginia Lynch, founding member and first President of the International Association of Forensic Nurses and Janet Barber Duval, both well-respected pioneers and educators in the field. Contains 300 full-color illustrations integrated throughout the text, so you can view evidence quickly and easily, as it is likely to appear in practice. Presents information on courtroom testimony and depositions in one reorganized, streamlined chapter, giving you a full, organized treatment of this extremely important topic. Includes twelve new chapters: Digital Evidence, Medical Evidence Recovery at the Death Scene, Asphyxia, Electrical and Thermal Injury, Intrafamilial Homicide and Unexplained Childhood Death, Human Trafficking, Credential Development for Forensic Nurses, Gangs and Hate Crimes, Ethics Issues in Forensic Nursing, Forensic Physics and Fracture Analysis, Sexual Deviant Behaviors and Crime and Forensic Epidemiology. Contains heavily revised information on Prehospital Evidence, Forensic Investigation in the Hospital, and Human Abuse and Deaths in Custody. Features critical thinking questions with every case study, so you can thoroughly consider the implications of each clinical scenario. Evolve site will include appendices and additional documentation materials.