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Affirmative Action Around The World

Author: Thomas Sowell
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300107753
Size: 67.45 MB
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An eminent authority presents a new perspective on affirmative action in a provocative book that will stir fresh debate about this vitally important issue

Affirmative Action Matters

Author: Laura Dudley Jenkins
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317748468
Size: 79.23 MB
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Affirmative Action Matters focuses specifically on affirmative action policies in higher education admissions, the sphere that has been the most controversial in many of the nations that have such policies. It brings together distinguished scholars from diverse nations to examine and discuss the historical, political and philosophical contexts of affirmative action and clarify policy developments to further the meaningful equality of educational opportunity. This unique volume includes both well established and emerging policies from the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Asia, policies which developed under a variety of political systems and target a range of underrepresented groups, based on race, ethnicity, gender, class, social background, or region. Accessible and thought provoking case studies of affirmative action demonstrate that such policies are expanding to different countries and target populations. While some countries, such as India, have affirmative action policies that predate those in the United States, affirmative action is a recent development in countries such as Brazil and France. Legal or political pressures to move away from explicitly race-based policies in several countries have complicated affirmative action and make this assessment of international alternatives particularly timely. New or newly modified policies target a variety of disadvantaged groups, based on geography, class, or caste, in addition to race or sex. International scholars in six countries spanning five continents offer insights into their own countries’ experiences to examine the implications of policy shifts from race toward other categories of disadvantage, to consider best practices in student admission policies, and to assess the future of affirmative action.

Affirmative Action

Author: Julio Faúndez
Publisher: International Labour Organization
ISBN: 9789221087588
Size: 78.52 MB
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This work outlines perspectives essential to understanding the debate on affirmative action. Affirmative action is used as a social policy tool in several countries around the world, and is endorsed in some constitutions, laws and international human rights conventions. Nevertheless, it is controversial, especially because both its proponents and critics rely on the notion of equality to justify their position. Even when they agree about the need to equalize opportunities, they argue over how this is to be done.

Affirmative Action Ethnicity And Conflict

Author: Edmund Terence Gomez
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415645069
Size: 27.84 MB
Format: PDF
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In recent years a number of countries have introduced affirmative action programmes in order to put right historical injustices and economic inequalities involving ethnic communities. This book examines affirmative action programmes in a range of countries around the world. It discusses how such programmes came about and how they have been implemented, and examines their effectiveness. Throughout it explores how far affirmative action programmes reinforce ethnic identities and thereby contribute to division and conflict. The countries covered are India, the United States, South Africa, Northern Ireland, Brazil, Malaysia and Fiji.

Affirmative Action In Plural Societies

Author: Graham Brown
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 1137271558
Size: 42.53 MB
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Across the developmental spectrum, the prospects and problems of 'affirmative action' are increasingly important issues facing multi-ethnic countries. Drawing on philosophy, economics and sociology, the contributors explore the merits and demerits of affirmative action, and explain why affirmative action may be needed in countries facing large inequalities across ethnic, religious or racial groups. They analyse the origin, nature and consequences of affirmative action in Brazil, South Africa, the United States, Malaysia, Northern Ireland and Nigeria. Evaluating alternatives, they seek to provide guidance on the design of policies in different circumstances, with the aim of reducing horizontal inequalities, while minimising possible negative consequences.

Affirmative Action Policies And Judicial Review Worldwide

Author: George Gerapetritis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331922395X
Size: 67.51 MB
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This book discusses affirmative action or positive discrimination, defined as measures awarding privileges to certain groups that have historically suffered discrimination or have been underrepresented in specific social sectors. The book’s underlying rationale is that one cannot place at the same starting point people who have been treated differently in the past because in this way one merely perpetuates a state of difference and, in turn, social gaps are exaggerated and social cohesion is endangered. Starting out with an introduction on the meaning and typology of affirmative action policies, the book goes on to emphasise the interaction of affirmative action with traditional values of liberal state, such as equality, meritocracy, democracy, justice, liberalism and socialism. It reveals the affirmative action goals from a legal and sociological point of view, examining the remedial, cultural, societal, pedagogical and economy purposes of such action. After applying an institutional narrative of the implementation of affirmative action worldwide, the book explains the jurisprudence on the issue through syntheses and antitheses of structural and material variables, such as the institutional recognition of the policies, the domains of their implementation and their beneficiaries. The book eventually makes an analytical impact assessment following the implementation of affirmative action plans and the judicial response, especially in relation to the conventional human rights doctrine, by establishing a liaison between affirmative action and social and group rights.. The book applies a multi-disciplinary and comparative methodology in order to assess the ethical standing of affirmative action policies, the public interests involved and their effectiveness towards actual equality. In the light of the above analysis, the monograph explains the arguments considering affirmative action as a theology for substantive equality and the arguments treating this policy as anathema for liberalism. A universal discussion currently at its peak.

Controversies In Affirmative Action 3 Volumes

Author: James A. Beckman
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1440800839
Size: 27.79 MB
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An engaging and eclectic collection of essays from leading scholars on the subject, which looks at affirmative action past and present, analyzes its efficacy, its legacy, and its role in the future of the United States. • Provides the most up-to-date, comprehensive information available relating to the practice of affirmative action in the United States • Features contributions and perspectives from fields as diverse as law, political science, history, critical race theory, women's studies, African American studies, sociology, criminal justice, education, and philosophy • Offers original research from experts in numerous disciplines • Covers major U.S. Supreme Court decisions on affirmative action, ranging from Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) to Fisher v. University of Texas (2013) • Includes endnotes with each chapter to facilitate research

The Sage Handbook Of Gender And Psychology

Author: Michelle K Ryan
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1446287149
Size: 12.58 MB
Format: PDF
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The SAGE Handbook of Gender and Psychology is a unique, state-of-the-art synthesis of the known work, combined with current research trends, in the broad field of gender and psychology. In the past 35 years academic publications on the subject have increased tenfold, and this level of activity as well the diversity of research looks set to increase in the coming years too. The time is ideal for a systematic review of the field. Contributions come from academics around the world and many different disciplines, and as a result multiple perspectives and a diversity of methodologies are presented to understand gender and its implications for behaviour. Chapters cover a wide variety of topics, theoretical approaches, contexts, and social issues; they also critically examine the key issues and current debates. Both advanced students and scholars will find extensive range and depth in the topics covered across the Handbook's 29 chapters. Published as a single volume, the handbook is aimed at individuals as well as the library market. The SAGE Handbook of Gender and Psychology will have mass appeal across the field of psychology, including social psychology and gender and psychology, as well a number of other subject groups such as gender studies, sociology, organizational behaviour and political science.

Encyclopedia Of Race Ethnicity And Society

Author: Richard T. Schaefer
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412926947
Size: 33.56 MB
Format: PDF
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This three volume reference set offers a comprehensive look at the roles race and ethnicity play in society and in our daily lives. General readers, students, and scholars alike will appreciate the informative coverage of intergroup relations in the United States and the comparative examination of race and ethnicity worldwide. These volumes offer a foundation to understanding as well as researching racial and ethnic diversity from a multidisciplinary perspective. Over a hundred racial and ethnic groups are described, with additional thematic essays offering insight into broad topics that cut across group boundaries and which impact on society. The encyclopedia has alphabetically arranged author-signed essays with references to guide further reading. Numerous cross-references aid the reader to explore beyond specific entries, reflecting the interdependent nature of race and ethnicity operating in society. The text is supplemented by photographs, tables, figures and custom-designed maps to provide an engaging visual look at race and ethnicity. An easy-to-use statistical appendix offers the latest data with carefully selected historical comparisons to aid study and research in the area