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Agrobiodiversity And The Law

Author: Juliana Santilli
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136580026
Size: 62.97 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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A wide range of crop genetic resources is vital for future food security. Loss of agricultural biodiversity increases the risk of relying on a limited number of staple food crops. However, many laws, such as seed laws, plant varieties protection and access and benefit-sharing laws, have direct impacts on agrobiodiversity, and their effects have been severely underestimated by policy-makers. This is of concern not only to lawyers, but also to agronomists, biologists, and social scientists, all of whom need clear guidance as to the relevance of the law to their work. This book analyzes the impact of the legal system on agrobiodiversity (or agricultural biodiversity) – the diversity of agricultural species, varieties, and ecosystems. Using an interdisciplinary approach, it takes up the emerging concept of agrobiodiversity and its relationship with food security, nutrition, health, environmental sustainability, and climate change. It assesses the impacts on agrobiodiversity of key legal instruments, including seeds laws, the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, plant breeders’ rights, the Convention on Biological Diversity (regarding specifically its impact on agrobiodiversity), and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. It also reviews the options for the implementation of these instruments at the national level in several countries. It discusses the interfaces between the free software movement, the ‘commons’ movement, and seeds, as well as the legal instruments to protect cultural heritage and their application to safeguard agrobiodiversity-rich systems. Finally, it analyzes the role of protected areas and the possibility of using geographical indications to enhance the value of agrobiodiversity products and processes.

Crop Genetic Diversity In The Field And On The Farm

Author: Devra I. Jarvis
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300220820
Size: 63.57 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Based on twenty years of global research, this is the first comprehensive reference on crop genetic diversity as it is maintained on farmland around the world. Showcasing the findings of seven experts representing the fields of ecology, crop breeding, genetics, anthropology, economics, and policy, this invaluable resource places farmer-managed crop biodiversity squarely in the center of the science needed to feed the world and restore health to our productive landscapes. It will prove to be an essential tool in the training of agricultural and environmental scientists seeking the solutions necessary to ensure healthy, resilient ecosystems for future generations.

The Commons Plant Breeding And Agricultural Research

Author: Fabien Girard
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351615890
Size: 41.67 MB
Format: PDF
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The joint challenges of population increase, food security and conservation of agrobiodiversity demand a rethink of plant breeding and agricultural research from a different perspective. While more food is undeniably needed, the key question is rather about how to produce it in a way that sustains biological diversity and mitigates climate change. This book shows how social sciences, and more especially law, can contribute towards reconfiguring current legal frameworks in order to achieving a better balance between the necessary requirements of agricultural innovation and the need for protection of agrobiodiversity. On the assumption that the concept of property can be rethought against the background of the 'right to include', so as to endow others with a common 'right to access' genetic resources, several international instruments and contractual arrangements drawn from the plant-breeding field (including the Convention on Biological Diversity, technology exchange clearing houses and open sources licenses) receive special consideration. In addition, the authors explore the tension between ownership and the free circulation and exchange of germplasm and issues such as genetic resources managed by local and indigenous communities, the ITPGRFA and participatory plant-breeding programmes. As a whole, the book demonstrates the relevance of the 'Commons' for plant breeding and agricultural innovation.

The State Of The World S Animal Genetic Resources For Food And Agriculture In Brief

Author: Barbara Rischkowsky
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.
ISBN: 9789251057636
Size: 44.65 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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This "in brief" version, intended for use by decision-makers and the wider public, presents a summary of the key findings of the main report (see above). Part 1 outlines the state of agricultural biodiversity in the livestock sector. Part 2 considers the livestock production systems of which animal genetic resources form a part. Part 3 - largely based on the 148 Country reports - is an assessment of institutional and human capacity in the field of animal genetic resources management. Part 4 presents the state of the art in terms of the methods available for the management of animal genetic resources. As well as providing a technical reference document, the country-based preparation of The State of the World" has led to a process of policy development and a Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources, which once adopted, will provide an agenda for action by the international community.

Plant Genetic Resources And Food Security

Author: Christine Frison
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136536833
Size: 17.75 MB
Format: PDF
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The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) is a pivotal piece of recent legislation, providing a route map for the use of such resources for sustainable agriculture and food security. Plant Genetic Resources and Food Security explains clearly the different interests and views at stake between all players in the global food chain. It touches upon many issues such as international food governance and policy, economic aspects of food and seed trade, conservation and sustainable use of food and agricultural biodiversity, hunger alleviation, ecological concerns, consumers' protection, fairness and equity between nations and generations, plant breeding techniques and socio-economic benefits related to food local economies. The book shows that despite the conflicting interests at stake, players managed to come to an agreement on food and agriculture for the sake of food security and hunger alleviation in the world. Published with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and with Bioversity International.

Farmers Crop Varieties And Farmers Rights

Author: Michael Halewood
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136537546
Size: 78.66 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Crop plant varieties developed by local farmers, commonly referred to as ‘farmers' varieties’, are problematic because there are no fixed taxonomic or legal definitions of them. As a result, policies to increase the share of benefits farmers receive from the use of such varieties struggle to have an effect. Aiming to clarifying these issues, this volume explores the nature of farmers’ varieties in the context of their biological, social and legal significance. The book addresses the complexities of defining what farmers’ varieties are and how they differ from one another and from generic varieties. It then charts the evolution of the concept of ‘farmers’ rights’, from the dawn of ‘genetic resources’ as a subject worthy of international attention, to the first legal recognition of the concept, through to current efforts to develop national level policies and laws. Further, the book examines outstanding policy-making challenges linked to the absence of fixed taxonomic or legal definitions of farmers’ varieties. Case studies are included from Africa, Asia, Europe and South America in which farmers, researchers and policy advocates have been confronted with the issues raised in this book. Various solutions are considered based on revised or new definitions of farmers’ varieties that reflect the biological and cultural realities in which they are produced, and the relative costs and benefits of attempting to implement each of the policies discussed.

Diversifying Food And Diets

Author: Jessica Fanzo
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136461469
Size: 71.22 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Currently 868 million people are undernourished and 195 million children under five years of age are stunted. At the same time, over 1 billion people are overweight and obese in both the developed and developing world. Diseases previously associated with affluence, such as cancer, diabetes and cardio-vascular disease, are on the rise. Food system-based approaches to addressing these problems that could enhance food availability and diet quality through local production and agricultural biodiversity often fall outside the traditional scope of nutrition, and have been under-researched. As a consequence, there remains insufficient evidence to support well-defined, scalable agricultural biodiversity interventions that can be linked to improvements in nutrition outcomes. Agricultural biodiversity is important for food and nutritional security, as a safeguard against hunger, a source of nutrients for improved dietary diversity and quality, and strengthening local food systems and environmental sustainability. This book explores the current state of knowledge on the role of agricultural biodiversity in improving diets, nutrition and food security. Using examples and case studies from around the globe, the book explores current strategies for improving nutrition and diets and identifies key research and implementation gaps that need to be addressed to successfully promote the better use of agricultural biodiversity for rural and urban populations and societies in transition.

Plant Genetic Resources And Traditional Knowledge For Food Security

Author: Romesh Kumar Salgotra
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811000603
Size: 14.82 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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With exponentially increasing population across the globe and shrinking resources, the concern of food security is looming large over the world community. To catch up with the fierce pace of growth in all the sectors of development, ensuring uninhibited availability of food resources is a prime agenda. The growing global demand for food, feed, fiber and bio-based renewable materials, such as bio-fuels, is changing the conditions for genetic resources development and bio-resource production worldwide. The crucial role in ensuring food security is played by the agro-based industries and enterprises. Advances in plant genetic resources coupled with traditional knowledge of the local tribes and native practices facilitate achievement of food security.

Crop Genetic Resources As A Global Commons

Author: Michael Halewood
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1844078922
Size: 38.21 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Earth's plant genetic resources are a common inheritance of all humankind, which should be held in shared trust for a common future. A key component of the global genetic commons is agricultural biodiversity. Our food and livelihood security depend on the sustained management of these diverse biological resources that are important for food and agriculture. Whilst agricultural biodiversity originates in specific farming communities, it has been shared widely and is considered by many to be part of the much-threatened global commons.This book is about the creation, management and use of the global crop commons. It focuses primarily on the legal and administrative construct that provides the basis of the global crop commons, that is, the multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing created by the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. This is particularly significant because it transcends the traditional dichotomy between privatization and total governmental control. It came into effect in 2006 and the book describes its origins and implementation since then, showing how many international organizations and some developing countries are moving quickly with implementation, while other countries are moving slowly and some multinational corporations are expressing misgivings about the system overall. The authors further analyze current challenges and how they might be resolved.