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Alchemy And Authority In The Holy Roman Empire

Author: Tara Nummedal
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226608570
Size: 49.83 MB
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What distinguished the true alchemist from the fraud? This question animated the lives and labors of the common men—and occasionally women—who made a living as alchemists in the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Holy Roman Empire. As purveyors of practical techniques, inventions, and cures, these entrepreneurs were prized by princely patrons, who relied upon alchemists to bolster their political fortunes. At the same time, satirists, artists, and other commentators used the figure of the alchemist as a symbol for Europe’s social and economic ills. Drawing on criminal trial records, contracts, laboratory inventories, satires, and vernacular alchemical treatises, Alchemy and Authority in the Holy Roman Empire situates the everyday alchemists, largely invisible to modern scholars until now, at the center of the development of early modern science and commerce. Reconstructing the workaday world of entrepreneurial alchemists, Tara Nummedal shows how allegations of fraud shaped their practices and prospects. These debates not only reveal enormously diverse understandings of what the “real” alchemy was and who could practice it; they also connect a set of little-known practitioners to the largest questions about commerce, trust, and intellectual authority in early modern Europe.

Spuren Der Avantgarde Theatrum Anatomicum

Author: Ludger Schwarte
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110245795
Size: 78.29 MB
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The book series Theatrum Scientiarum presents original contributions at the interface of philosophy, history of the humanities, cultural and theater studies. This 5th volume focuses on the anatomical theater representing a model which became formative for the production of knowledge and also for the practices of the arts, law, politics and culture. The avant-garde movements of the 20th century with their strategies of fragmentation and the systematic cut are a pithy, programmatic counterpole of the Early Modern Age.

Das Zeitalter Des Geheimnisses

Author: Daniel Jütte
Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
ISBN: 3647300276
Size: 10.66 MB
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Die Frühe Neuzeit war das Zeitalter des Geheimnisses. Selten zuvor und niemals danach hat es in der europäischen Geschichte eine solche Faszination für Geheimnisse und Geheimhaltung gegeben. Dennoch ist dieser Bereich der Kultur- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte bisher nur wenig erforscht. Daniel Jütte untersucht den frühneuzeitlichen Geheimnisbegriff, rekonstruiert den Markt für Geheimnisse und zeigt, dass die jüdische Minderheit auf diesem Feld eine überragende Rolle spielte. Ihre Arkankompetenz in der Alchemie, Magie, Spionage und Technologie ist dabei nur ein Beispiel. Warum galten Juden in der christlichen Mehrheitsgesellschaft als Hüter eines genuinen geheimen Wissens?Die Studie bringt nicht nur neue Erkenntnisse für die jüdische Geschichte, sondern auch für die allgemeine Wissenschafts- und Kulturgeschichte.

Spuren Der Avantgarde Theatrum Alchemicum

Author: Helmar Schramm (†)
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110387999
Size: 79.49 MB
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Examining the recourse to alchemical experimental practices by the early 20th century avant-garde movement in Europe opens up a surprising perspective on the relationship between art and science in the early modern and modern eras. This volume explores the Theatrum alchemicum as a natural philosophical labyrinth, a hybrid melting pot of mythical knowledge and rational understanding, and as a skillful practice of philosophizing with materials.

Achieving Nuclear Ambitions

Author: Jacques E. C. Hymans
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107376807
Size: 65.31 MB
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Despite the global spread of nuclear hardware and knowledge, at least half of the nuclear weapons projects launched since 1970 have definitively failed, and even the successful projects have generally needed far more time than expected. To explain this puzzling slowdown in proliferation, Jacques E. C. Hymans focuses on the relations between politicians and scientific and technical workers in developing countries. By undermining the workers' spirit of professionalism, developing country rulers unintentionally thwart their own nuclear ambitions. Combining rich theoretical analysis, in-depth historical case studies of Iraq, China, Yugoslavia and Argentina and insightful analyses of current-day proliferant states, Achieving Nuclear Ambitions develops a powerful new perspective that effectively counters the widespread fears of a coming cascade of new nuclear powers.

Everyday Magic In Early Modern Europe

Author: Kathryn A. Edwards
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317138341
Size: 13.37 MB
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While pre-modern Europe is often seen as having an 'enchanted' or 'magical' worldview, the full implications of such labels remain inconsistently explored. Witchcraft, demonology, and debates over pious practices have provided the main avenues for treating those themes, but integrating them with other activities and ideas seen as forming an enchanted Europe has proven to be a much more difficult task. This collection offers one method of demystifying this world of everyday magic. Integrating case studies and more theoretical responses to the magical and preternatural, the authors here demonstrate that what we think of as extraordinary was often accepted as legitimate, if unusual, occurrences or practices. In their treatment of and attitudes towards spirit-assisted treasure-hunting, magical recipes, trials for sanctity, and visits by guardian angels, early modern Europeans showed more acceptance of and comfort with the extraordinary than modern scholars frequently acknowledge. Even witchcraft could be more pervasive and less threatening than many modern interpretations suggest. Magic was both mundane and mysterious in early modern Europe, and the witches who practiced it could in many ways be quite ordinary members of their communities. The vivid cases described in this volume should make the reader question how to distinguish the ordinary and extraordinary and the extent to which those terms need to be redefined for an early modern context. They should also make more immediate a world in which magic was an everyday occurrence.

Making Money In Sixteenth Century France

Author: Jotham Parsons
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801454972
Size: 20.21 MB
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Coinage and currency—abstract and socially created units of value and power—were basic to early modern society. By controlling money, the people sought to understand and control their complex, expanding, and interdependent world. In Making Money in Sixteenth-Century France, Jotham Parsons investigates the creation and circulation of currency in France. The royal Cour des Monnaies centralized monetary administration, expanding its role in the emerging modern state during the sixteenth century and assuming new powers as an often controversial repository of theoretical and administrative expertise. The Cour des Monnaies, Parsons shows, played an important role in developing the contemporary understanding of money, as a source of both danger and opportunity at the center of economic and political life. More practically, the Monnaies led generally successful responses to the endemic inflation of the era and the monetary chaos of a period of civil war. Its work investigating and prosecuting counterfeiters shone light into a picaresque world of those who used the abstract and artificial nature of money for their own ends. Parson's broad, multidimensional portrait of money in early modern France also encompasses the literature of the age, in which money’s arbitrary and dangerous power was a major theme.

Scientific Revolution Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

Author: Sheila Rabin
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199810826
Size: 70.23 MB
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This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of Islamic studies find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated related. This ebook is a static version of an article from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Renaissance and Reformation, a dynamic, continuously updated, online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through scholarship and other materials relevant to the study of European history and culture between the 14th and 17th centuries. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit www.oxfordbibliographies.com.