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Algal Biorefinery An Integrated Approach

Author: Debabrata Das
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319228137
Size: 13.34 MB
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This book critically discusses different aspects of algal production systems and several of the drawbacks related to microalgal biomass production, namely, low biomass yield, and energy-consuming harvesting, dewatering, drying and extraction processes. These provide a background to the state-of-the-art technologies for algal cultivation, CO2 sequestration, and large-scale application of these systems. In order to tap the commercial potential of algae, a biorefinery concept has been proposed that could help to extract maximum benefits from algal biomass. This refinery concept promotes the harvesting of multiple products from the feedstock so as to make the process economically attractive. For the last few decades, algal biomass has been explored for use in various products such as fuel, agricultural crops, pigments and pharmaceuticals, as well as in bioremediation. To meet the huge demand, there has been a focus on large-scale production of algal biomass in closed or open photobioreactors. Different nutritional conditions for algal growth have been explored, such as photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, mixotrophic and oleaginous. This book is aimed at a wide audience, including undergraduates, postgraduates, academics, energy researchers, scientists in industry, energy specialists, policy makers and others who wish to understand algal biorefineries and also keep abreast of the latest developments.

Biomass Biofuels Biochemicals

Author: S.Venkata Mohan
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444640533
Size: 65.67 MB
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Biomass, Biofuels, Biochemicals encompasses the potential of microbial electrochemical technologies, delineating their role in developing a technology for abating environmental crisis and enabling transformation to a sustainable future. The book provides new and futuristic methods for bioelectrogenesis, multiple product synthesis, waste remediation strategies, and electromicrobiology generation which are widely essential to individuals from industry, marketing, activists, writers, etc. In addition, it provides essential knowledge transfer to researchers, students and science enthusiasts on Microbial Electrochemical Technologies, detailing the functional mechanisms employed, various operational configurations, influencing factors governing the reaction progress and integration strategies. With these key topics and features, the book generates interest among a wide range of people related to renewable energy generation and sustainable environmental research. Depicts the holistic view of the multiple applications of Microbial Electrochemical Technologies (METs) in a unified comprehensible manner Provides strategic integrations of MET with various bioprocesses that are essential in establishing a circular biorefinery Widens the scope of the existing technologies, giving up-to date, state-of-the-art information and knowledge on research and commercialization Contains topics that are lucid, providing interdisciplinary knowledge on the environment, molecular biology, engineering, biotechnology, microbiology and economic aspects Includes more than 75 illustrations, figures, diagrams, flow charts, and tables for further study

Biogas

Author: Meisam Tabatabaei
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319773356
Size: 66.67 MB
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This book presents the state of the art in biogas production using anaerobic digestion technology, with an emphasis on waste utilization/valorization. Offering a comprehensive reference guide to biogas production from different waste streams, it covers various aspects of anaerobic digestion technology from the basics, i.e., microbiological aspects to prominent parameters governing biogas production systems, as well as major principles of their operation, analysis, process control, and troubleshooting. Written and edited by internationally recognized experts in the field of biogas production from both academia and industry, it provides in-depth and cutting-edge information on central developments in the field. In addition, it discusses and reviews major issues affecting biogas production, including the type of feedstock, pretreatment techniques, production systems, design and fabrication of biogas plants, as well as biogas purification and upgrading technologies. ‘Biogas: Fundamentals, Process, and Operation’ also addresses the application of advanced environmental and energy evaluation tools including life cycle assessment (LCA), exergy, techno-economics, and modeling techniques. This book is intended for all researchers, practitioners and students who are interested in the current trends and future prospects of biogas production technologies.

Algae Biomass Characteristics And Applications

Author: Katarzyna Chojnacka
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319747037
Size: 33.34 MB
Format: PDF
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This book is a compendium of knowledge on the useful properties of algae in the context of application as a useful component of innovative natural products. It presents all aspects of industrial applications of macroalgae biomass derived from the natural environment. Despite many interesting characteristics, algae are still regarded as undervalued raw material, therefore, present in the following chapters are not only environmental benefits arising from the development of excessive algal biomass, but also the distribution and biology of algae in natural conditions in reservoirs, methods of obtaining extracts from biomass of algae for industrial purposes. Furthermore, it also includes topics such as the use of biomass and algae extracts for the industrial purposes, in animal breeding and for agricultural purposes, as well as the economic aspects of algae biomass harvesting for industrial purposes. The book is intended for a wide audience interested in new methods of obtaining the biomass from the natural environment for industrial purposes and the manufacture of products based on bioactive substances obtained from the environment.

Sapphire Energy Integrated Algal Biorefinery

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Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 62.36 MB
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Sapphire Energy, Inc. (SEI) is a leader in large-scale photosynthetic algal biomass production, with a strongly cohesive research, development, and operations program. SEI takes a multidiscipline approach to integrate lab-based strain selection, cultivation and harvest and production scale, and extraction for the production of Green Crude oil, a drop in replacement for traditional crude oil. SEI's technical accomplishments since 2007 have produced a multifunctional platform that can address needs for fuel, feed, and other higher value products. Figure 1 outlines SEI's commercialization process, including Green Crude production and refinement to drop in fuel replacements. The large scale algal biomass production facility, the SEI Integrated Algal Biorefinery (IABR), was built in Luna County near Columbus, New Mexico (see fig 2). The extraction unit was located at the existing SEI facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico, approximately 95 miles from the IABR. The IABR facility was constructed on time and on budget, and the extraction unit expansion to accommodate the biomass output from the IABR was completed in October 2012. The IABR facility uses open pond cultivation with a proprietary harvesting method to produce algal biomass; this biomass is then shipped to the extraction facility for conversion to Green Crude. The operation of the IABR and the extraction facilities has demonstrated the critical integration of traditional agricultural techniques with algae cultivation knowledge for algal biomass production, and the successful conversion of the biomass to Green Crude. All primary unit operations are de-risked, and at a scale suitable for process demonstration. The results are stable, reliable, and long-term cultivation of strains for year round algal biomass production. From June 2012 to November 2014, the IABR and extraction facilities produced 524 metric tons (MT) of biomass (on a dry weight basis), and 2,587 gallons of Green Crude. Additionally, the IABR demonstrated significant year over year yield improvements (2013 to 2014), and reduction in the cost of biomass production. Therefore, the IABR fulfills a number of critical functions in SEI's integrated development pipeline. These functions are critical in general for the commercialization of algal biomass production and production of biofuels from algal biomass.

The Science Of Algal Fuels

Author: Richard Gordon
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400751109
Size: 41.27 MB
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This volume, The Science of Algal Fuels (volume 25 of COLE), contains 26 chapters dealing with biofuels contributed by experts from numerous countries and covers several aspects of algal products, one being “oilgae from algae,” mainly oils and fuels for engines. Among the prominent algal groups that participate in this process are the diatoms and green algae (Chlorophyceae). Their metabolism and breeding play an important role in biomass and extraction of crude oil and algal fuel. There is a strong relation between solar energy influencing algal culture and the photobiology of lipid metabolism. Currently, many international meetings and conferences on biofuel are taking place in many countries, and several new books and proceedings of conferences have appeared on this topic. All this indicates that this field is “hot” and in the forefront of applied bioscience.

Algal Biofuels

Author: Sanjay Kumar Gupta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331951010X
Size: 64.50 MB
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This edited volume focuses on comprehensive state-of-the-art information about the practical aspects of cultivation, harvesting, biomass processing and biofuel production from algae. Chapters cover topics such as synthetic ecological engineering approaches towards sustainable production of biofuel feedstock, and algal biofuel production processes using wastewater. Readers will also discover more about the role of biotechnological engineering in improving ecophysiology, biomass and lipid yields. Particular attention is given to opportunities of commercialization of algal biofuels that provides a realistic assessment of various techno-economical aspects of pilot scale algal biofuel production. The authors also explore the pre-treatment of biomass, catalytic conversion of algal lipids and hydrothermal liquefaction with the biorefinery approach in detail. In a nut shell, this volume will provide a wealth of information based on a realistic evaluation of contemporary developments in algal biofuel research with an emphasis on pilot scale studies. Researchers studying and working in the areas of environmental science, biotechnology, genetic engineering and biochemistry will find this work instructive and informative.

Plant Sciences Reviews 2011

Author: David Hemming
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 9781780640167
Size: 10.62 MB
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& Quot;Plant Sciences Reviews 2011" provides scientists and students in the field with timely analysis on key topics in current research. Originally published online in CAB Reviews, this volume makes available in printed form the reviews in plant sciences published during 2011.

Biofuel Co Products As Livestock Feed

Author: Harinder P. S. Makkar
Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization
ISBN:
Size: 63.63 MB
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This publication presents current state-of-the-art knowledge on the use of co-products from the biofuel industry as livestock feed. At present, biofuel production makes use of agricultural crops grown primarily on arable land, in particular maize and wheat, and sugar cane used for the production of ethanol. This publication examines the future availability of co-products in the context of climate change and predicted shortages of fossil fuel, and emphasizes the need to ensure economic sustainability and avoid conflict with tradition usage of arable land to produce food and animal feed.

Algae As Promising Feedstocks For Fermentative Biohydrogen Production According To A Biorefinery Approach A Comprehensive Review

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ISBN:
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Abstract: Interest is growing in the production of biohydrogen from algae through dark fermentation, as alternative to fossil fuels. However, one of the limiting steps of biohydrogen production is the conversion of polymeric carbohydrates into monomeric sugars. Thus, physical, chemical and biological pretreatments are usually employed in order to facilitate carbohydrates de-polymerization and enhancing biohydrogen production from algae. Considering the overall process, biohydrogen production through dark fermentation leads generally to negative net energy balances of the difference between the energy produced as biohydrogen and the direct ones (heat and electricity) consumed to produce it. Thus, to make the overall process economically feasible, dark fermentation of algae must be integrated in a biorefinery approach, where the outlets are valorized into bioenergy or value added biomolecules.The present study reviews recent findings on pretreatments and biohydrogen production through dark fermentation of algae looking at the perspectives of integrating side streams of dark fermentation from algal biomass, according to a biorefinery approach.