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Ambivalences Of Creating Life

Author: Kristin Hagen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319210882
Size: 46.10 MB
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"Synthetic biology" is the label of a new technoscientific field with many different facets and agendas. One common aim is to "create life", primarily by using engineering principles to design and modify biological systems for human use. In a wider context, the topic has become one of the big cases in the legitimization processes associated with the political agenda to solve global problems with the aid of (bio-)technological innovation. Conceptual-level and meta-level analyses are needed: we should sort out conceptual ambiguities to agree on what we talk about, and we need to spell out agendas to see the disagreements clearly. The book is based on the interdisciplinary summer school "Analyzing the societal dimensions of synthetic biology", which took place in Berlin in September 2014. The contributions address controversial discussions around the philosophical examination, public perception, moral evaluation and governance of synthetic biology.

Information Technology Ethics Cultural Perspectives

Author: Hongladarom, Soraj
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1599043122
Size: 28.80 MB
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"This book is the first publication that takes a genuinely global approach to the diverse ethical issues evoked by Information and Communication Technologies and their possible resolutions. Readers will gain a greater appreciation for the problems and possibilities of genuinely global information ethics, which are urgently needed as information and communication technologies continue their exponential growth"--Provided by publisher.

Meaning In Life And Why It Matters

Author: Susan Wolf
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400834594
Size: 78.38 MB
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Most people, including philosophers, tend to classify human motives as falling into one of two categories: the egoistic or the altruistic, the self-interested or the moral. According to Susan Wolf, however, much of what motivates us does not comfortably fit into this scheme. Often we act neither for our own sake nor out of duty or an impersonal concern for the world. Rather, we act out of love for objects that we rightly perceive as worthy of love--and it is these actions that give meaning to our lives. Wolf makes a compelling case that, along with happiness and morality, this kind of meaningfulness constitutes a distinctive dimension of a good life. Written in a lively and engaging style, and full of provocative examples, Meaning in Life and Why It Matters is a profound and original reflection on a subject of permanent human concern.

Synthetic Biology Analysed

Author: Margret Engelhard
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319251457
Size: 57.16 MB
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Synthetic biology is a dynamic, young, ambitious, attractive, and heterogeneous scientific discipline. It is constantly developing and changing, which makes societal evaluation of this emerging new science a challenging task, prone to misunderstandings. Synthetic biology is difficult to capture, and confusion arises not only regarding which part of synthetic biology the discussion is about, but also with respect to the underlying concepts in use. This book offers a useful toolbox to approach this complex and fragmented field. It provides a biological access to the discussion using a 'layer' model that describes the connectivity of synthetic or semisynthetic organisms and cells to the realm of natural organisms derived by evolution.Instead of directly reviewing the field as a whole, firstly our book addresses the characteristic features of synthetic biology that are relevant to the societal discussion. Some of these features apply only to parts of synthetic biology, whereas others are relevant to synthetic biology as a whole. In the next step, these new features are evaluated with respect to the different areas of synthetic biology. Do we have the right words and categories to talk about these new features? In the third step, traditional concepts like “life” and “artificiality” are scrutinized with regard to their discriminatory power. This approach may help to differentiate the discussion on synthetic biology. Lastly our refined view is utilized for societal evaluation. We have investigated the public views and attitudes to synthetic biology. It also includes the analysis of ethical, risk and legal questions, posed by present and future practices of synthetic biology.This book contains the results of an interdisciplinary research project and presents the authors’ main findings and recommendations. They are addressed to science, industry, politics and the general public interested in this upcoming field of biotechnology.

Why Things Matter To People

Author: Andrew Sayer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139497170
Size: 37.20 MB
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Andrew Sayer undertakes a fundamental critique of social science's difficulties in acknowledging that people's relation to the world is one of concern. As sentient beings, capable of flourishing and suffering, and particularly vulnerable to how others treat us, our view of the world is substantially evaluative. Yet modernist ways of thinking encourage the common but extraordinary belief that values are beyond reason, and merely subjective or matters of convention, with little or nothing to do with the kind of beings people are, the quality of their social relations, their material circumstances or well-being. The author shows how social theory and philosophy need to change to reflect the complexity of everyday ethical concerns and the importance people attach to dignity. He argues for a robustly critical social science that explains and evaluates social life from the standpoint of human flourishing.

Philosophy Of Technology And Engineering Sciences

Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080930749
Size: 74.45 MB
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The Handbook Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences addresses numerous issues in the emerging field of the philosophy of those sciences that are involved in the technological process of designing, developing and making of new technical artifacts and systems. These issues include the nature of design, of technological knowledge, and of technical artifacts, as well as the toolbox of engineers. Most of these have thus far not been analyzed in general philosophy of science, which has traditionally but inadequately regarded technology as mere applied science and focused on physics, biology, mathematics and the social sciences. • First comprehensive philosophical handbook on technology and the engineering sciences • Unparalleled in scope including explorative articles • In depth discussion of technical artifacts and their ontology • Provides extensive analysis of the nature of engineering design • Focuses in detail on the role of models in technology

Visions Of Sts

Author: Stephen H. Cutcliffe
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 0791491129
Size: 76.80 MB
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Maps interconnections between science, technology, and society in order to understand both benefits and costs.

Transforming Technology

Author: Andrew Feenberg
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190208341
Size: 30.69 MB
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Thoroughly revised, this new edition of Critical Theory of Technology rethinks the relationships between technology, rationality, and democracy, arguing that the degradation of labor--as well as of many environmental, educational, and political systems--is rooted in the social values that preside over technological development. It contains materials on political theory, but the emphasis has shifted to reflect a growing interest in the fields of technology and cultural studies.

The Engineering Project

Author: Gene Moriarty
Publisher: Penn State Press
ISBN: 0271045787
Size: 15.59 MB
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We all live our daily lives surrounded by the products of technology that make what we do simpler, faster, and more efficient. These are benefits we often just take for granted. But at the same time, as these products disburden us of unwanted tasks that consumed much time and effort in earlier eras, many of them also leave us more disengaged from our natural and even human surroundings. It is the task of what Gene Moriarty calls focal engineering to create products that will achieve a balance between disburdenment and engagement: &“How much disburdenment will be appropriate while still permitting an engagement that enriches one&’s life, elevates the spirit, and calls forth a good life in a convivial society?&” One of his examples of a focally engineered structure is the Golden Gate Bridge, which &“draws people to it, enlivens and elevates the human spirit, and resonates with the world of its congenial setting. Humans, bridge, and world are in tune.&” These values of engagement, enlivenment, and resonance are key to the normative approach Moriarty brings to the profession of engineering, which traditionally has focused mainly on technical measures of evaluation such as efficiency, productivity, objectivity, and precision. These measures, while important, look at the engineered product in a local and limited sense. But &“from a broader perspective, what is locally benign may present serious moral problems,&” undermining &“social justice, environmental sustainability, and health and safety of affected parties.&” It is this broader perspective that is championed by focal engineering, the subject of Part III of the book, which Moriarty contrasts with &“modern&” engineering in Part I and &“pre-modern&” engineering in Part II.

Post Trial Access To Drugs In Developing Nations

Author: Evaristus Chiedu Obi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319600281
Size: 62.83 MB
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This book begins the discourse on post-trial access to drugs in developing countries. Underlying ethical issues in global health inequalities and global health research serve as the context of the debate. Due to rampant allegations of violations of rights of research participants, especially in developing countries, it discusses the regulatory infrastructure and ethical oversight of international clinical research, thus emphasizing the priority of safeguarding the rights of research participants and host populations as desiderata in conducting clinical trials in developing countries. This is the first book that analyzes the major obstacles of affordable access to drugs in developing countries – patent and non-patent factors and how they can be overcome through a middle ground approach and a new paradigm to establish global health justice which includes national and global health responsibilities. The book also deals extensively with all complex aspects of the discourse on affordable access to drugs in developing countries, including intellectual property law, international regulations, political and cultural systems, international trade agreements. Furthermore it contains a robust ethical debate and in-depth analysis. The book crafts a paradigm of global health justice involving a sliding scale of national and global responsibilities for the realization of the right to health in general and access to drugs in particular.