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American Foundations

Author: Helmut K. Anheier
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815704577
Size: 11.64 MB
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Foundations play an essential part in the philanthropic activity that defines so much of American life. No other nation provides its foundations with so much autonomy and freedom of action as does the United States. Liberated both from the daily discipline of the market and from direct control by government, American foundations understandably attract great attention. As David Hammack and Helmut Anheier note in this volume, "Americans have criticized foundations for... their alleged conservatism, liberalism, elitism, radicalism, devotion to religious tradition, hostility to religion—in short, for commitments to causes whose significance can be measured, in part, by the controversies they provoke. Americans have also criticized foundations for ineffectiveness and even foolishness." Their size alone conveys some sense of the significance of American foundations, whose assets amounted to over $530 billion in 2008 despite a dramatic decline of almost 22 percent in the previous year. And in 2008 foundation grants totaled over $45 billion. But what roles have foundations actually played over time, and what distinctive roles do they fill today? How have they shaped American society, how much difference do they make? What roles are foundations likely to play in the future? This comprehensive volume, the product of a three-year project supported by the Aspen Institute's program on the Nonprofit Sector and Philanthropy, provides the most thorough effort ever to assess the impact and significance of the nation's large foundations. In it, leading researchers explore how foundations have shaped—or failed to shape—each of the key fields of foundation work. American Foundations takes the reader on a wide-ranging tour, evaluating foundation efforts in education, scientific and medical research, health care, social welfare, international relations, arts and culture, religion, and social change.

A Versatile American Institution

Author: David C. Hammack
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 0815721943
Size: 57.26 MB
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America's grantmaking foundations have grown rapidly over the course of recent decades, even in the face of financial and economic crises. Foundations have a great deal of freedom, enjoy widespread legitimacy, and wield considerable influence. In this book, David Hammack and Helmut Anheier follow up their edited volume, American Foundations, with a comprehensive historical account of what American foundations have done with that independence and power. While philanthropic foundations play important roles in other parts of the world, theU.S. sector stands out as exceptional. Nowhere else are they so numerous, prominent,or autonomous. What have been the main contributions of philanthropic foundationsto American society? And what might the future hold for them? A Versatile American Institution considers foundations in a new way. Previous accountstypically focused narrowly on their organization, donors, and leaders, and their intentions—but not on the outcome of philanthropy. Rather than looking at foundations ina vacuum, Hammack and Anheier consider their roles and contributions in the contextof their times and their economic and political circumstances.

American Foundations

Author: Mark Dowie
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262262385
Size: 60.74 MB
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In American Foundations, Mark Dowie argues that organized philanthropy is on the verge of an evolutionary shift that will transform America's nearly 50,000 foundations from covert arbiters of knowledge and culture to overt mediators of public policy and aggressive creators of new orthodoxy. He questions the wisdom of placing so much power at the disposal of nondemocratic institutions. As American wealth expands, old foundations such as Ford, Carnegie, Rockefeller, Pew, and MacArthur have grown exponentially, while newer trusts such as Mott, Johnson, Packard, Kellogg, Hughes, Annenberg, Hewlett, Duke, and Gates have surpassed them. Foundation assets now total close to $400 billion. Though this is a tiny sum compared to corporate and government treasuries, and foundation grants still total less than 10 percent of contributions made by individuals, foundations have power and influence far beyond their wealth. Their influence derives from the conditional nature of their grant making, their power from its leverage. Unlike previous historians of philanthropy who have focused primarily on the grant maker, Dowie examines foundations from the public's perspective. He focuses on eight key areas in which foundations operate: education, science, health, environment, food, energy, art, and human services. He also looks at their imagination, or lack thereof, and at the strained relationship between American foundations and American democracy. Dowie believes that foundations deserve to exist and that they can assume an increasingly vital role in American society, but only if they transform themselves from private to essentially public institutions. The reforms he proposes to make foundations more responsive to pressing social problems and more accountable to the public will almost certainly start an important national debate.

Philanthropy And Gerontology

Author: Ann H. L. Sontz
Publisher: Greenwood Pub Group
Size: 14.27 MB
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As pressures on public resources increase, more consideration is given to the role of private foundations in responding to the needs of the elderly--our fastest-growing population sector. Focusing on the philanthropic funding of social science research on aging, this study looks at the potential of the private sector and suggests strategies for addressing the research priorities posed by a rapidly aging population. Sontz begins by examining the contributions of modern philanthropy to the growth of social science. She summarizes the evolution of major American foundations and their impact on the academic expansion of anthropology, sociology, and social work, and she discusses the recent growth of late-age studies in these disciplines. Based on a survey of the research plans and funding requirements of social gerontology scholars, Sontz evaluates the present underdeveloped role of foundation grant making in supporting studies relating to the elderly. She notes that most foundations continue to adhere to a mandate that encompasses social reform. Foundations need, however, to show marked interest in sponsoring interdisciplinary approaches to aging within the social sciences. In her final chapter, Sontz suggests possible research areas in social and cultural gerontology that could attract grant funding and increase the effectiveness of foundation programming, especially to researchers in university settings. Written by a social science scholar with extensive experience in foundation management, this study addresses the interests of foundations, university planners and administrators, and researchers in gerontology and related policy studies.

Foundations Of The American Century

Author: Inderjeet Parmar
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231517939
Size: 38.82 MB
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Inderjeet Parmar reveals the complex interrelations, shared mindsets, and collaborative efforts of influential public and private organizations in the building of American hegemony. Focusing on the involvement of the Ford, Rockefeller, and Carnegie foundations in U.S. foreign affairs, Parmar traces the transformation of America from an "isolationist" nation into the world's only superpower, all in the name of benevolent stewardship. Parmar begins in the 1920s with the establishment of these foundations and their system of top-down, elitist, scientific giving, which focused more on managing social, political, and economic change than on solving modern society's structural problems. Consulting rare documents and other archival materials, he recounts how the American intellectuals, academics, and policy makers affiliated with these organizations institutionalized such elitism, which then bled into the machinery of U.S. foreign policy and became regarded as the essence of modernity. America hoped to replace Britain in the role of global hegemon and created the necessary political, ideological, military, and institutional capacity to do so, yet far from being objective, the Ford, Rockefeller, and Carnegie foundations often advanced U.S. interests at the expense of other nations. Incorporating case studies of American philanthropy in Nigeria, Chile, and Indonesia, Parmar boldly exposes the knowledge networks underwriting American dominance in the twentieth century.

The Theology Of Dallas Willard

Author: Gary Black
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
ISBN: 1621898202
Size: 61.55 MB
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Evangelical Christianity in the United States is currently in a dramatic state of change. Yet amidst this sometimes tumultuous religious environment a rather unique blend of both ancient and contemporary Christian theology has found its way into the hearts and minds of emerging generations of Christians. The Theology of Dallas Willard both describes and conveys the essence of this increasingly popular and perhaps mediating view of the gospel of Jesus Christ. Blending both a prophetic critique with pastoral encouragement, Willard's unique understanding of the reality present within a life lived as a disciple of Jesus in the kingdom of God is attracting both new and traditional Christians to reconsider their faith.

Money To Burn

Author: Horace Coon
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 9781412828963
Size: 18.61 MB
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Originally published in 1938, this is a classic muckraking account of the role of philanthropic foundations. Horace Coon's journalistic indictment of the state of philanthropy in the 1920s and 1930s emphasizes how great wealth perpetuates itself through the mechanism of the foundation. Coon looks at how foundations influence education and public thinking, the extent to which they support scientific, medical, and social science research, and their financial operations. But "Money to Burn "is more than an example of what we today would call investigative journalism. It is also one of the first serious efforts to describe the history of modern American philanthropy. Coon discusses the origins of philanthropic foundations in Western history and the establishment of the Carnegie and Rockefeller foundations, reviews the founders' motives, and launches a biting critique in the context of the economic disaster of the Great Depression. He grapples with the concept of the foundation as a "semi-public institution" that links political, economic, and public concerns, and he questions what degree of accountability to the public is appropriate. While Coon's interpretive criticism of the American philanthropic foundations reflects the political and economic concerns of the late 1930s, it stays honestly close to the facts. "Money ""to "Burn ""can be read profitably today as both a good general history of the emergence of modern American philanthropy and as an example of the public's concern with concentration of money and power at the end of the 1930s. Money to Burn, another volume in the Philanthropy in Society series, will be of interest to social scientists, philanthropists, public policy analysts, and decision makers interested in the role of the voluntary sector in American society.

Writing Off Ideas

Author: Randall G. Holcombe
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 9781412841863
Size: 64.28 MB
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In the 20th century tax-exempt charitble foundations in the US have grown substantially, both in their financial importance, and in the scope of their activties. This book examines the economic, cultural, and intellectual implications of these organizations.