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An Institutional Assessment Of Antitrust Policy

Author: Ignacio De León
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 9041124780
Size: 12.65 MB
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Antitrust policy nominally plays an instrumental public interest role. The generally accepted notion is that it is a government instrument designed to intervene in relatively unregulated markets in order to preserve rivalry among independent buyers and sellers. Competition authorities are supposed to restrain business conduct that exercises monopoly power aimed at excluding competitors or exploiting consumers and clients. Thus it can be said - although few pro-market theorists make the insight explicit - that antitrust provisions reveal mistrust of the capacity of markets to promote social welfare. The inner logic, enforcement mechanisms, and practical outcomes of antitrust provisions are all intrinsically contradictory to the natural dynamic course of market functioning. In Dr. De Leon's challenging thesis, this mistrust of the market lies at the root of antitrust policy, giving rise always to a preference towards 'predicting' the result of impersonal market forces rather than interpreting the entrepreneurial behaviour which creates those forces. And it is in Latin America that he finds the powerful evidence he needs to support his case. From the formative years of Latin American economic institutions, during the Spanish Empire, economic regulations - far from being driven by the pursuit of promoting free trade and economic freedom - have been conceived, enacted and implemented in the context of deeply anti-market public policies, trade mercantilism and government dirigisme. The so-called "neoliberal" revolution of the 1990s triggered by the Washington Consensus did not really change the interventionist innuendo of these policies, but merely restated the social welfare goal to be achieved: the pursuit of economic efficiency. Dr. De Leon presents his case against the assumption that consumer welfare orientated policies such as antitrust do really promote entrepreneurship and market goals. Paradoxically, antitrust enforcement has undermined the transparency of market institutions, in the name of promoting market competition. The author's provocative analysis marshals several sets of facts in support of his thesis, including the actual functioning of antitrust policy as reflected in case law in various Latin American countries, the preference of merger control over other less intrusive forms of market surveillance, the constrained role of competition advocacy against government acts, and the ineffective institutional structure created to apply the policy. Among the many specific topics treated are the following: government immunity; strategic industries; state-owned enterprises; politically influential groups; measurement of market concentration; the burden of proof of social welfare benefits; the role of joint trade associations and professional guilds; institutional arrangements that favour collusion; selective distribution; sector regulation; erosion of property rights; marginal role of courts in the antitrust system; leniency programs; and privatized public utilities. The growing significance of Latin America in the context of economic globalization endows this book with huge international interest. Written by a leading authority on the topic, this is the first book that presents a detailed description of Latin American antitrust law and policy as it has been developed through numerous judicial opinions. A wide variety of audiences around the world will find it of extraordinary value: competition law specialists, scholars and students of the subject, policymakers and politicians in Latin America, as well as all interested lawyers, jurists, and economists.

Law And Policy In Latin America

Author: Pedro Fortes
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137566949
Size: 35.16 MB
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This book offers a comprehensive introduction to law and policy responses to contemporary problems in Latin America, such as human rights violations, regulatory dilemmas, economic inequality, and access to knowledge and medicine. It includes 19 chapters written by sociologists, lawyers, and political scientists on the transformations of courts, institutions and rights protection in Latin America, all of which stem from presentations at conferences in Oxford and UCL organised by the editors. The contributors present original analyses based on rigorous research, innovative case-studies, and interdisciplinary perspectives, all written in an accessible style. Topics include the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, institutional design, financial regulation, competition, discrimination, gender quotas, police violence, orphan works, healthcare, and environmental protection, among others. The book will be of interest to students and scholars interested in policymaking, public law, and development.

The Global Limits Of Competition Law

Author: D. Daniel Sokol
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804782679
Size: 66.29 MB
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Over the last three decades, the field of antitrust law has grown increasingly prominent, and more than one hundred countries have enacted competition law statutes. As competition law expands to jurisdictions with very different economic, social, cultural, and institutional backgrounds, the debates over its usefulness have similarly evolved. This book, the first in a new series on global competition law, critically assesses the importance of competition law, its development and modern practice, and the global limits that have emerged. This volume will be a key resource to both scholars and practitioners interested in antitrust, competition law, economics, business strategy, and administrative sciences.

The Limits Of Competition Policy

Author: A. E. Rodriguez
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 9041131779
Size: 32.14 MB
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What the authors offer is a thoroughgoing analysis clearly demonstrating that, whatever economic path developing countries pursue, imposing Western-style antitrust regimes will engender uncertainty, chill economic behaviour, and foster an unhealthy climate for business. They employ the influential error-cost methodology to appraise the performance of competition policy and to show how such a policy creates irresolvable tensions in fragile economies with weak institutions - economies characterized by informal rules of business practice, long-standing symbiotic business-state relationships, and unpredictable state action. They mount a powerful critique of the arguments of neo-institutionalists (who fail to recognize the vulnerable nature of emerging market economies) and competition `advocates' (who presume to stand ready and vigilant to enforce competition policy on state entities). --

Global Competition

Author: David Gerber
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199228221
Size: 32.15 MB
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Global competition now shapes economies and societies in ways unimaginable only a few years ago, and laws shape and maintain global competition, determining how effective global markets are and how they distribute benefits and harms. Competition (or "antitrust") law plays a central role inthis framework of law. These laws are intended to protect the competitive process from distortion and restraint, and in the domestic context, they embody and reflect the relationships between markets, their participants and those affected by them. On the global level, however, competition law is provided by those players that have sufficient "power" to apply their laws transnationally. In practice, this means that the US and the EU generally provide the competition law principles for global competition. This book examines this important andcontroversial aspect of globalization. Part I examines the evolution of the current system of competition law for global markets, the factors that have shaped it, and how it operates today. There was once a widespread belief that harm to global competition was an international problem that should be addressed through internationalcoordination, but the Cold War submerged this ideal and led to the current system. Since the 1990s efforts have been made to develop transnational cooperation in this area, but the basic system remains in place. The evolution and operation of this system cannot be understood without understandingthe factors in national experience that have shaped them The second part of the book focuses on these national experiences and the roles they have played in the evolution of the global system. It examines US and European experience as well as the experience of the newer players such as China that will necessarily play major roles in the future. Finally, the book examines the potential for creating a system that functions more effectively and provides more support for global economic and political development. Drawing on parts I and II and on social science as well as legal literature, it identifies the factors that will play a role inmoving towards a more effective legal framework for global competition and suggests a pathway for needed reforms.

Latin American Competition Law And Policy A Policy In Search Of Identity

Author: Ignacio De León
Publisher: Springer
ISBN:
Size: 40.25 MB
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Thanks to the strategy of `apertura' that has characterized economic policy throughout Latin America since the debt crisis, foreign investment is on the rise and a significant degree of economic stability has been achieved. In the global arena, however, the enormous promise of Latin American trade remains only partially realized, as policy makers in the region struggle to design a `fair' level playing field for encouraging sustained and equitable development, through implementing transparent regulatory business environments across the region. Competition policy has accordingly become a major regulatory issue in both individual Latin American countries and in regional cooperation arrangements. In considering the development of the 'second generation' of regulatory policy initiatives implemented in the region, this important book analyzes the role of competition policy in the promotion of successful and sustained economic development. Examples of the vital and diverse aspects of the region's competition policy agenda covered are: comparative assessments of the legal regime of different Latin American countries for dealing with business restrictive practices, including cartels, vertical restraints, market foreclosures and mergers the increasing introduction of competition principles in the promotion of institutional reforms in the promotion of investments and technology, privatization processes, antidumping policy and trade remedies, and the regulation of public utilities the institutional factors influencing the relationship between competition authorities and other regulatory agencie The author combines the legal description of the jurisdictions reviewed with the analytical tools of institutional economics, to give a fully rounded picture of this complex and evolving subject.

Criminalising Cartels

Author: Caron Beaton-Wells
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847318134
Size: 66.99 MB
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This book is inspired by the international movement towards the criminalisation of cartel conduct over the last decade. Led by US enforcers, criminalisation has been supported by a growing number of regulators and governments. It derives its support from the simple yet forceful proposition that criminal sanctions, particularly jail time, are the most effective deterrent to such activity. However, criminalisation is much more complex than that basic proposition suggests. There is complexity both in terms of the various forces that are driving and shaping the movement (economic, political and social) and in the effects on the various actors involved in it (government, enforcement agencies, the business community, judiciary, legal profession and general public). Featuring contributions from authors who have been at the forefront of the debate around the world, this substantial 19-chapter volume captures the richness of the criminalisation phenomenon and considers its implications for building an effective criminal cartel regime, particularly outside of the US. It adopts a range of approaches, including general theoretical perspectives (from criminal theory, economics, political science, regulation and criminology) and case-studies of the experience with the design and enforcement of existing or contemplated criminal cartel regimes in various jurisdictions (including in Australia, Canada, EU, Germany, Ireland and the UK). The book also explores the international dimensions of criminalisation - its specific practical consequences (such as increased potential for extradition) as well as its more general implications for trends of harmonisation or convergence in competition law and enforcement.

International Economic Regulation

Author: Jane Kelsey
Publisher: Ashgate Pub Limited
ISBN: 9780754622253
Size: 80.49 MB
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The volume aims to inform the debate and reflection on the prospects for, and complexities of, international economic regulation.

Des Institutions Pour Les March S Rapport 2002

Author:
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0195216067
Size: 36.40 MB
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The World Development Report, now in its 24th edition, is the standard reference work for international economic data. It contains an appendix of social and economic statistics for more than 200 countries. World Development Report 2001--Institutions for Markets--focuses on the performance of transition countries in their progress toward market economies. This edition is centered around the issues related to market reform and how reforms can improve and sustain living standards. It answers such questions as: How can institutions better support markets? and What are the institutions which make markets effective in delivering inclusive growth?