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An Interactive History Of The Clean Air Act

Author: Jonathan M Davidson
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0123914507
Size: 75.47 MB
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The Clean Air Act of 1970 set out for the United States a basic, yet ambitious, objective to reduce pollution to levels that protect health and welfare. The Act set out state and federal regulations to limit emissions and the Environmental Protection Agency was established to help enforce the regulations. The Act has since had several amendments, notably in 1977 and 1990, and has successfully helped to increase air quality. This book reviews the history of the Clean Air Act of 1970 including the political, business, and scientific elements that went into establishing the Act, emphasizing the importance that scientific evidence played in shaping policy. The analysis then extends to examine the effects of the Act over the past forty years including the Environmental Protection Agency’s evolving role and the role of states and industry in shaping and implementing policy. Finally, the book offers best practices to guide allocation of respective government and industry roles to guide sustainable development. The history and analysis of the Clean Air Act presented in this book illustrates the centrality of scientific analysis and technological capacity in driving environmental policy development. It would be useful for policy makers, environmental scientists, and anyone interested in gaining a clearer understand of the interaction of science and policy. Offers an overview of the 1970 Clean Air Act and its subsequent effects Highlights the relationship between policy and scientific discovery Extracts lessons from the United States to apply to other policy and national contexts

Planning In The Usa

Author: J. Barry Cullingworth
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136456910
Size: 33.82 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This extensively revised and updated fourth edition of Planning in the USA continues to provide a comprehensive introduction to the policies, theory and practice of planning. Outlining land use, urban planning, and environmental protection policies, this fully illustrated book explains the nature of the planning process and the way in which policy issues are identified, defined, and approached. This full colour edition incorporates new planning legislation and regulations at the state and federal layers of government, updated discussion on current economic issues, and examples of local ordinances in a variety of planning areas. Key updates include: a new chapter on planning and sustainability; a new discussion on the role of foundations and giving to communities; a discussion regarding the aftermath of Katrina in New Orleans; a discussion on deindustrialization and shrinking cities; a discussion on digital billboards; a discussion on recent comprehensive planning efforts; a discussion on land banking; a discussion unfunded mandates; a discussion on community character; a companion website with multiple choice and fill the blank questions, and ‘test yourself’ glossary terms. This book gives a detailed account of urbanization in the United States and reveals the problematic nature and limitations of the planning process, the fallibility of experts, and the difficulties facing policy-makers in their search for solutions. Planning in the USA is an essential book for students, planners and all who are concerned with the nature of contemporary urban and environmental problems.

Encyclopedia Of Politics Of The American West

Author: Steven L. Danver
Publisher: CQ Press
ISBN: 1506354912
Size: 80.38 MB
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The Encyclopedia of Politics in the American West is an A to Z reference work on the political development of one of America’s most politically distinct, not to mention its fastest growing, region. This work will cover not only the significant events and actors of Western politics, but also deal with key institutional, historical, environmental, and sociopolitical themes and concepts that are important to more fully understanding the politics of the West over the last century.

Under Pressure

Author: Jen Schneider
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137533153
Size: 76.96 MB
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This book examines five rhetorical strategies used by the US coal industry to advance its interests in the face of growing economic and environmental pressures: industrial apocalyptic, corporate ventriloquism, technological shell game, hypocrite’s trap, and energy utopia. The authors argue that these strategies appeal to and reinforce neoliberalism, a discourse and set of practices that privilege market rationality and individual freedom and responsibility above all else. As the coal industry has become the leading target and leverage point for those seeking more aggressive action to mitigate climate change, their corporate advocacy may foreshadow rhetorical strategies available to other fossil fuel industries as they manage similar economic and cultural shifts. The authors’ analysis of coal’s corporate advocacy also identifies contradictions and points of vulnerability in the organized resistance to climate action as well as the larger ideological formation of neoliberalism.

Silent Spring

Author: Rachel Carson
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 9780618249060
Size: 26.94 MB
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Discusses the reckless annihilation of fish and birds by the use of pesticides and warns of the possible genetic effects on humans.

Air Pollution And Health

Author: Stephen T. Holgate
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080526926
Size: 73.60 MB
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Concern about the impact of air pollution has led governments and local authorities across the world to regulate, among other things, the burning of fossil fuels, industrial effluence, cigarette smoke, and aerosols. This legislation has often followed dramatic findings about the impact of pollution on human health. At the same time there have been significant developments in our ability to detect and quantify pollutants and a proliferation of urban and rural air pollution networks to monitor levels of atmospheric contamination. Air Pollution and Health is the first fully comprehensive and current account of air pollution science and it impact on human health. It ranges in scope from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and particle physics to the causes and scope of allergic reactions and respiratory, cardiovascular, and related disorders. The book has substantial international coverage and includes sections on cost implications, risk assessment, regulation, standards, and information networks. The multidisciplinary approach and the wide range of issues covered makes this an essential book for all concerned with monitoring and regulating air pollution as well as those concerned with its impact on human health. Only comprehensive text covering all the important air pollutants and relating these to human health and regulatory bodies Brings together a wide range of issues concerning air pollution in an easily accessible format Contributions from government agencies in the US and UK provide information on public policy and resource networks in the areas of health promotion and environmental protection

Reproductive Health And The Environment

Author: P. Nicolopoulou-Stamati
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402048289
Size: 42.73 MB
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The scope of environmental impact on reproduction is very large. It aims at covering all aspects of reproductive problems and their links to the environment. Therefore, it deals with female and male reproductive impairments, whatever their severity and their sites, gonad or extra-gonad. For women, effects include direct lesions of the oocyte, with possibilities of chromosomal abnormalities but also malformations of the reproductive tract. Reduced fertility and in some cases total infertility may also result from menstrual irregularities, which can at times include anovulatory cycles. Hormonal changes, even in the absence of menstrual irregularities may also lead to decreased fertility. In addition to congenital malformations, other impairments of the reproductive apparatus may occur, as in the polycystic ovarian syndrome or in endometriosis. Finally one can also include effects during pregnancy leading to spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery still birth or altered sex ratio. Impacts on age at menarche and age at menopause lead to a change in the duration of reproductive life.

The Transport System And Transport Policy

Author: Bert van Wee
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 0857936905
Size: 42.33 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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ÔThis very interesting book provides an excellent multi-disciplinary introduction into the functioning of transport systems and the interaction with their environments.Õ Ð Erik Verhoef, VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands ÔThe editors of this important book have clearly identified that few writings on transport treat the transport system as a whole. Implicit in this is a need for a genuinely multidisciplinary approach. An impressive list of contributors ensures that the book draws on the latest research whilst providing new insights into some of the key challenges facing transport students and researchers, transport providers and policy makers.Õ Ð Roger Vickerman, University of Kent, UK ÔSince ancient times transportation has brought our world together. But the need for connectivity and accessibility in a spatially differentiated world has prompted the emergence of very complex transportation systems. This book offers a fresh and operational contribution to a better understanding of the complexity and manageability of a mobile world, by addressing in a balanced way both conceptual and applied or policy aspects of modern transportation systems.Õ Ð Peter Nijkamp, Free University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands Transport impacts on people and businesses in many different ways, and presents some of the key problems that decision-makers need to address. This comprehensive textbook introduces the transport system in a holistic and multidisciplinary way, bringing together the myriad components of transport. This textbook is written for an international readership of undergraduate and postgraduate students in transport and related subjects, as well as for professionals and policy decision-makers across both public and private sectors. Key features include: ¥ Discussion of the importance of transport accessibility and the impacts of transport on the environment and safety ¥ Policy issues relating to all of the discussed issues and prescribed future options. ¥ Transport evaluation methods and modelling approaches. ¥ Examples to highlight the linkages between components of the transport system Ð for example infrastructures, land-use, vehicle technologies Ð and the relevance of these linkages for decision making.

Sustainability And The U S Epa

Author: Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309212529
Size: 49.95 MB
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Sustainability is based on a simple and long-recognized factual premise: Everything that humans require for their survival and well-being depends, directly or indirectly, on the natural environment. The environment provides the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the food we eat. Recognizing the importance of sustainability to its work, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been working to create programs and applications in a variety of areas to better incorporate sustainability into decision-making at the agency. To further strengthen the scientific basis for sustainability as it applies to human health and environmental protection, the EPA asked the National Research Council (NRC) to provide a framework for incorporating sustainability into the EPA's principles and decision-making. This framework, Sustainability and the U.S. EPA, provides recommendations for a sustainability approach that both incorporates and goes beyond an approach based on assessing and managing the risks posed by pollutants that has largely shaped environmental policy since the 1980s. Although risk-based methods have led to many successes and remain important tools, the report concludes that they are not adequate to address many of the complex problems that put current and future generations at risk, such as depletion of natural resources, climate change, and loss of biodiversity. Moreover, sophisticated tools are increasingly available to address cross-cutting, complex, and challenging issues that go beyond risk management. The report recommends that EPA formally adopt as its sustainability paradigm the widely used "three pillars" approach, which means considering the environmental, social, and economic impacts of an action or decision. Health should be expressly included in the "social" pillar. EPA should also articulate its vision for sustainability and develop a set of sustainability principles that would underlie all agency policies and programs.