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An Introduction To Number Theory

Author: G. Everest
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1852339179
Size: 71.27 MB
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Includes up-to-date material on recent developments and topics of significant interest, such as elliptic functions and the new primality test Selects material from both the algebraic and analytic disciplines, presenting several different proofs of a single result to illustrate the differing viewpoints and give good insight

A Classical Introduction To Modern Number Theory

Author: Kenneth Ireland
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387973296
Size: 61.62 MB
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Bridging the gap between elementary number theory and the systematic study of advanced topics, A Classical Introduction to Modern Number Theory is a well-developed and accessible text that requires only a familiarity with basic abstract algebra. Historical development is stressed throughout, along with wide-ranging coverage of significant results with comparatively elementary proofs, some of them new. An extensive bibliography and many challenging exercises are also included. This second edition has been corrected and contains two new chapters which provide a complete proof of the Mordell-Weil theorem for elliptic curves over the rational numbers, and an overview of recent progress on the arithmetic of elliptic curves.

A Course In The Theory Of Groups

Author: Derek Robinson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468401289
Size: 16.33 MB
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" A group is defined by means of the laws of combinations of its symbols," according to a celebrated dictum of Cayley. And this is probably still as good a one-line explanation as any. The concept of a group is surely one of the central ideas of mathematics. Certainly there are a few branches of that science in which groups are not employed implicitly or explicitly. Nor is the use of groups confined to pure mathematics. Quantum theory, molecular and atomic structure, and crystallography are just a few of the areas of science in which the idea of a group as a measure of symmetry has played an important part. The theory of groups is the oldest branch of modern algebra. Its origins are to be found in the work of Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736-1813), Paulo Ruffini (1765-1822), and Evariste Galois (1811-1832) on the theory of algebraic equations. Their groups consisted of permutations of the variables or of the roots of polynomials, and indeed for much of the nineteenth century all groups were finite permutation groups. Nevertheless many of the fundamental ideas of group theory were introduced by these early workers and their successors, Augustin Louis Cauchy (1789-1857), Ludwig Sylow (1832-1918), Camille Jordan (1838-1922) among others. The concept of an abstract group is clearly recognizable in the work of Arthur Cayley (1821-1895) but it did not really win widespread acceptance until Walther von Dyck (1856-1934) introduced presentations of groups.

Number Theory Fourier Analysis And Geometric Discrepancy

Author: Giancarlo Travaglini
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139992821
Size: 39.47 MB
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The study of geometric discrepancy, which provides a framework for quantifying the quality of a distribution of a finite set of points, has experienced significant growth in recent decades. This book provides a self-contained course in number theory, Fourier analysis and geometric discrepancy theory, and the relations between them, at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level. It starts as a traditional course in elementary number theory, and introduces the reader to subsequent material on uniform distribution of infinite sequences, and discrepancy of finite sequences. Both modern and classical aspects of the theory are discussed, such as Weyl's criterion, Benford's law, the Koksma–Hlawka inequality, lattice point problems, and irregularities of distribution for convex bodies. Fourier analysis also features prominently, for which the theory is developed in parallel, including topics such as convergence of Fourier series, one-sided trigonometric approximation, the Poisson summation formula, exponential sums, decay of Fourier transforms, and Bessel functions.

Combinatorial Set Theory

Author: Lorenz J. Halbeisen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781447121732
Size: 70.19 MB
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This book provides a self-contained introduction to modern set theory and also opens up some more advanced areas of current research in this field. The first part offers an overview of classical set theory wherein the focus lies on the axiom of choice and Ramsey theory. In the second part, the sophisticated technique of forcing, originally developed by Paul Cohen, is explained in great detail. With this technique, one can show that certain statements, like the continuum hypothesis, are neither provable nor disprovable from the axioms of set theory. In the last part, some topics of classical set theory are revisited and further developed in the light of forcing. The notes at the end of each chapter put the results in a historical context, and the numerous related results and the extensive list of references lead the reader to the frontier of research. This book will appeal to all mathematicians interested in the foundations of mathematics, but will be of particular use to graduates in this field.

Algebraic Number Theory

Author: Serge Lang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387942254
Size: 42.85 MB
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The present book gives an exposition of the classical basic algebraic and analytic number theory and supersedes my Algebraic Numbers, including much more material, e. g. the class field theory on which 1 make further comments at the appropriate place later. For different points of view, the reader is encouraged to read the collec tion of papers from the Brighton Symposium (edited by Cassels-Frohlich), the Artin-Tate notes on class field theory, Weil's book on Basic Number Theory, Borevich-Shafarevich's Number Theory, and also older books like those of W eber, Hasse, Hecke, and Hilbert's Zahlbericht. It seems that over the years, everything that has been done has proved useful, theo retically or as examples, for the further development of the theory. Old, and seemingly isolated special cases have continuously acquired renewed significance, often after half a century or more. The point of view taken here is principally global, and we deal with local fields only incidentally. For a more complete treatment of these, cf. Serre's book Corps Locaux. There is much to be said for a direct global approach to number fields. Stylistically, 1 have intermingled the ideal and idelic approaches without prejudice for either. 1 also include two proofs of the functional equation for the zeta function, to acquaint the reader with different techniques (in some sense equivalent, but in another sense, suggestive of very different moods).

Algebraic Number Theory

Author: Ian Stewart
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9780412138409
Size: 30.45 MB
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The title of this book may be read in two ways. One is 'algebraic number-theory', that is, the theory of numbers viewed algebraically; the other, 'algebraic-number theory', the study of algebraic numbers. Both readings are compatible with our aims, and both are perhaps misleading. Misleading, because a proper coverage of either topic would require more space than is available, and demand more of the reader than we wish to; compatible, because our aim is to illustrate how some of the basic notions of the theory of algebraic numbers may be applied to problems in number theory. Algebra is an easy subject to compartmentalize, with topics such as 'groups', 'rings' or 'modules' being taught in comparative isolation. Many students view it this way. While it would be easy to exaggerate this tendency, it is not an especially desirable one. The leading mathematicians of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries developed and used most of the basic results and techniques of linear algebra for perhaps a hundred years, without ever defining an abstract vector space: nor is there anything to suggest that they suf fered thereby. This historical fact may indicate that abstrac tion is not always as necessary as one commonly imagines; on the other hand the axiomatization of mathematics has led to enormous organizational and conceptual gains.

Classical Topics In Complex Function Theory

Author: Reinhold Remmert
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475729561
Size: 18.93 MB
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An ideal text for an advanced course in the theory of complex functions, this book leads readers to experience function theory personally and to participate in the work of the creative mathematician. The author includes numerous glimpses of the function theory of several complex variables, which illustrate how autonomous this discipline has become. In addition to standard topics, readers will find Eisenstein's proof of Euler's product formula for the sine function; Wielandts uniqueness theorem for the gamma function; Stirlings formula; Isssas theorem; Besses proof that all domains in C are domains of holomorphy; Wedderburns lemma and the ideal theory of rings of holomorphic functions; Estermanns proofs of the overconvergence theorem and Blochs theorem; a holomorphic imbedding of the unit disc in C3; and Gausss expert opinion on Riemanns dissertation. Remmert elegantly presents the material in short clear sections, with compact proofs and historical comments interwoven throughout the text. The abundance of examples, exercises, and historical remarks, as well as the extensive bibliography, combine to make an invaluable source for students and teachers alike

Elementary Number Theory

Author: Gareth A. Jones
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 144710613X
Size: 34.52 MB
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An undergraduate-level introduction to number theory, with the emphasis on fully explained proofs and examples. Exercises, together with their solutions are integrated into the text, and the first few chapters assume only basic school algebra. Elementary ideas about groups and rings are then used to study groups of units, quadratic residues and arithmetic functions with applications to enumeration and cryptography. The final part, suitable for third-year students, uses ideas from algebra, analysis, calculus and geometry to study Dirichlet series and sums of squares. In particular, the last chapter gives a concise account of Fermat's Last Theorem, from its origin in the ancient Babylonian and Greek study of Pythagorean triples to its recent proof by Andrew Wiles.

Representation Theory Of Finite Groups

Author: Steven H. Weintraub
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821832220
Size: 69.81 MB
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'We explore widely in the valley of ordinary representations, and we take the reader over the mountain pass leading to the valley of modular representations, to a point from which (s)he can survey this valley, but we do not attempt to widely explore it. We hope the reader will be sufficiently fascinated by the scenery to further explore both valleys on his/her own' - from the Preface. Representation theory plays important roles in geometry, algebra, analysis, and mathematical physics. In particular, it has been one of the great tools in the study and classification of finite groups. The theory contains some particularly beautiful results: Frobenius' theorem, Burnside's theorem, Artin's theorem, Brauer's theorem - all of which are covered in this textbook. Some seem uninspiring at first but prove to be quite useful. Others are clearly deep from the outset.And when a group (finite or otherwise) acts on something else (as a set of symmetries, for example), one ends up with a natural representation of the group. This book is an introduction to the representation theory of finite groups from an algebraic point of view, regarding representations as modules over the group algebra. The approach is to develop the requisite algebra in reasonable generality and then to specialize it to the case of group representations. Methods and results particular to group representations, such as characters and induced representations, are developed in depth. Arithmetic comes into play when considering the field of definition of a representation, especially for subfields of the complex numbers.The book has an extensive development of the semisimple case, where the characteristic of the field is zero or is prime to the order of the group, and builds the foundations of the modular case, where the characteristic of the field divides the order of the group. The book assumes only the material of a standard graduate course in algebra. It is suitable as a text for a year-long graduate course. The subject is of interest to students of algebra, number theory and algebraic geometry. The systematic treatment presented here makes the book also valuable as a reference.