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An Introduction To Number Theory

Author: G. Everest
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1852339179
Size: 65.61 MB
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Includes up-to-date material on recent developments and topics of significant interest, such as elliptic functions and the new primality test Selects material from both the algebraic and analytic disciplines, presenting several different proofs of a single result to illustrate the differing viewpoints and give good insight

Number Theory Fourier Analysis And Geometric Discrepancy

Author: Giancarlo Travaglini
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107044030
Size: 61.78 MB
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"The first part of this book is dedicated to the first goal. The reader will find some topics typically presented in introductory books on Number Theory: factorization, arithmetic functions and integer points, congruences and cryptography, quadratic reciprocity, and sums of two and four squares. Starting from the first few pages we introduce some simple and captivating findings, such as Chebyshev's theorem and the elementary results for the Gauss circle problem and for the Dirichlet divisor problem, which may lead the reader to a deeper study of Number Theory, particularly students who are interested in Calculus and Analysis"--

Algebraic Number Theory

Author: Serge Lang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387942254
Size: 29.88 MB
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The present book gives an exposition of the classical basic algebraic and analytic number theory and supersedes my Algebraic Numbers, including much more material, e. g. the class field theory on which 1 make further comments at the appropriate place later. For different points of view, the reader is encouraged to read the collec tion of papers from the Brighton Symposium (edited by Cassels-Frohlich), the Artin-Tate notes on class field theory, Weil's book on Basic Number Theory, Borevich-Shafarevich's Number Theory, and also older books like those of W eber, Hasse, Hecke, and Hilbert's Zahlbericht. It seems that over the years, everything that has been done has proved useful, theo retically or as examples, for the further development of the theory. Old, and seemingly isolated special cases have continuously acquired renewed significance, often after half a century or more. The point of view taken here is principally global, and we deal with local fields only incidentally. For a more complete treatment of these, cf. Serre's book Corps Locaux. There is much to be said for a direct global approach to number fields. Stylistically, 1 have intermingled the ideal and idelic approaches without prejudice for either. 1 also include two proofs of the functional equation for the zeta function, to acquaint the reader with different techniques (in some sense equivalent, but in another sense, suggestive of very different moods).

A Course In The Theory Of Groups

Author: Derek Robinson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468401289
Size: 39.47 MB
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" A group is defined by means of the laws of combinations of its symbols," according to a celebrated dictum of Cayley. And this is probably still as good a one-line explanation as any. The concept of a group is surely one of the central ideas of mathematics. Certainly there are a few branches of that science in which groups are not employed implicitly or explicitly. Nor is the use of groups confined to pure mathematics. Quantum theory, molecular and atomic structure, and crystallography are just a few of the areas of science in which the idea of a group as a measure of symmetry has played an important part. The theory of groups is the oldest branch of modern algebra. Its origins are to be found in the work of Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736-1813), Paulo Ruffini (1765-1822), and Evariste Galois (1811-1832) on the theory of algebraic equations. Their groups consisted of permutations of the variables or of the roots of polynomials, and indeed for much of the nineteenth century all groups were finite permutation groups. Nevertheless many of the fundamental ideas of group theory were introduced by these early workers and their successors, Augustin Louis Cauchy (1789-1857), Ludwig Sylow (1832-1918), Camille Jordan (1838-1922) among others. The concept of an abstract group is clearly recognizable in the work of Arthur Cayley (1821-1895) but it did not really win widespread acceptance until Walther von Dyck (1856-1934) introduced presentations of groups.

Representation Theory Of Finite Groups

Author: Steven H. Weintraub
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821832220
Size: 45.96 MB
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'We explore widely in the valley of ordinary representations, and we take the reader over the mountain pass leading to the valley of modular representations, to a point from which (s)he can survey this valley, but we do not attempt to widely explore it. We hope the reader will be sufficiently fascinated by the scenery to further explore both valleys on his/her own' - from the Preface. Representation theory plays important roles in geometry, algebra, analysis, and mathematical physics. In particular, it has been one of the great tools in the study and classification of finite groups. The theory contains some particularly beautiful results: Frobenius' theorem, Burnside's theorem, Artin's theorem, Brauer's theorem - all of which are covered in this textbook. Some seem uninspiring at first but prove to be quite useful. Others are clearly deep from the outset.And when a group (finite or otherwise) acts on something else (as a set of symmetries, for example), one ends up with a natural representation of the group. This book is an introduction to the representation theory of finite groups from an algebraic point of view, regarding representations as modules over the group algebra. The approach is to develop the requisite algebra in reasonable generality and then to specialize it to the case of group representations. Methods and results particular to group representations, such as characters and induced representations, are developed in depth. Arithmetic comes into play when considering the field of definition of a representation, especially for subfields of the complex numbers.The book has an extensive development of the semisimple case, where the characteristic of the field is zero or is prime to the order of the group, and builds the foundations of the modular case, where the characteristic of the field divides the order of the group. The book assumes only the material of a standard graduate course in algebra. It is suitable as a text for a year-long graduate course. The subject is of interest to students of algebra, number theory and algebraic geometry. The systematic treatment presented here makes the book also valuable as a reference.

Algebraic Number Theory

Author: Ian Stewart
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9780412138409
Size: 54.82 MB
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The title of this book may be read in two ways. One is 'algebraic number-theory', that is, the theory of numbers viewed algebraically; the other, 'algebraic-number theory', the study of algebraic numbers. Both readings are compatible with our aims, and both are perhaps misleading. Misleading, because a proper coverage of either topic would require more space than is available, and demand more of the reader than we wish to; compatible, because our aim is to illustrate how some of the basic notions of the theory of algebraic numbers may be applied to problems in number theory. Algebra is an easy subject to compartmentalize, with topics such as 'groups', 'rings' or 'modules' being taught in comparative isolation. Many students view it this way. While it would be easy to exaggerate this tendency, it is not an especially desirable one. The leading mathematicians of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries developed and used most of the basic results and techniques of linear algebra for perhaps a hundred years, without ever defining an abstract vector space: nor is there anything to suggest that they suf fered thereby. This historical fact may indicate that abstrac tion is not always as necessary as one commonly imagines; on the other hand the axiomatization of mathematics has led to enormous organizational and conceptual gains.

Topics In Group Theory

Author: Geoff Smith
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447104617
Size: 42.83 MB
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The theory of groups is simultaneously a branch of abstract algebra and the study of symmetry. Designed for readers approaching the subject for the first time, this book reviews all the essentials. It recaps the basic definitions and results, including Lagranges Theorem, the isomorphism theorems and group actions. Later chapters include material on chain conditions and finiteness conditions, free groups and the theory of presentations. In addition, a novel chapter of "entertainments" demonstrates an assortment of results that can be achieved with the theoretical machinery.

Elementary Number Theory

Author: Gareth A. Jones
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 144710613X
Size: 29.45 MB
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An undergraduate-level introduction to number theory, with the emphasis on fully explained proofs and examples. Exercises, together with their solutions are integrated into the text, and the first few chapters assume only basic school algebra. Elementary ideas about groups and rings are then used to study groups of units, quadratic residues and arithmetic functions with applications to enumeration and cryptography. The final part, suitable for third-year students, uses ideas from algebra, analysis, calculus and geometry to study Dirichlet series and sums of squares. In particular, the last chapter gives a concise account of Fermat's Last Theorem, from its origin in the ancient Babylonian and Greek study of Pythagorean triples to its recent proof by Andrew Wiles.

Homology Theory

Author: James W. Vick
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387941264
Size: 73.79 MB
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This book is designed to be an introduction to some of the basic ideas in the field of algebraic topology. In particular, it is devoted to the foundations and applications of homology theory. The only prerequisite for the student is a basic knowledge of abelian groups and point set topology. The essentials of singular homology are given in the first chapter, along with some of the most important applications. In this way the student can quickly see the importance of the material. The successive topics include attaching spaces, finite CW complexes, the Eilenberg-Steenrod axioms, cohomology products, manifolds, Poincare duality, and fixed point theory. Throughout the book, the approach is as illustrative as possible, with numerous examples and diagrams. Extremes of generality are sacrificed when they are likely to obscure the essential concepts involved. The book is intended to be easily read by students as a textbook for a course or as a source for individual study. This second edition has been expanded to include a new chapter on covering spaces, as well as additional illuminating exercises. The conceptual approach is again used to show how lifting problems give rise to the fundamental group and its properties.

Number Theory

Author: Henri Cohen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387499237
Size: 74.98 MB
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The central theme of this book is the solution of Diophantine equations, i.e., equations or systems of polynomial equations which must be solved in integers, rational numbers or more generally in algebraic numbers. This theme, in particular, is the central motivation for the modern theory of arithmetic algebraic geometry. In this text, this is considered through three of its most basic aspects. The book contains more than 350 exercises and the text is largely self-contained. Much more sophisticated techniques have been brought to bear on the subject of Diophantine equations, and for this reason, the author has included five appendices on these techniques.