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Analysis Of Plant Waste Materials

Author: Hans F. Linskens
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662038870
Size: 68.77 MB
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Modern Methods of Plant Analysis When the handbook Modern Methods of Plant Analysis, was first introduced in 1954, the considerations were: 1. the dependence of scientific progress in biology on the improvement of existing and the introduction of new methods; 2. the difficulty in finding many new analytical methods in specialized journals which are normally not accessible to experimental plant biologists; 3. the fact that in the methods sections of papers the description of methods is frequently so compact, or even sometimes so incomplete, that it is difficult to reproduce experiments. These considerations still stand today. The series was highly successful, seven volumes appearing between 1956 and 1964. Since there is still today a demand for the old series, the publisher has decided to resume publication of Modern Methods of Plant Analysis. It is hoped that the New Series will be just as acceptable to those working in plant sciences and related fields as the early volumes undoubtedly were. It is difficult to single out the major reasons for the success of any publication, but we believe that the methods published in the first series were up-to-date at the time and presented in a way that made description, as applied to plant material, complete in itself with little need to consult other publications. Contribution authors have attempted to follow these guidelines in this New Series of volumes. Editorial The earlier series of Modern Methods of Plant Analysis was initiated by Michel V.

Moderne Methoden Der Pflanzenanalyse Modern Methods Of Plant Analysis

Author: K. Paech
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642649580
Size: 80.94 MB
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If, following the solvent extraction of a hydrocarbon from a plant, it is not known whether it is one or the other, a method of distinguishing the two is described by HENDRICKS, WILDMAN and JONES (1946). The technique involves the infra-red absorption spectra of the two isomers. At about 12 mp. the relative absorption coefficient of rubber is 42% greater than for gutta. ScHLESINGER and LEPER (1951) describe two procedures for separation of the rubber and gutta hydrocarbons from large quantities of crude chicle. In one, the chicle is extracted with benzene which dissolves both isomers. An excess absolute ethyl acetate is added and the mixture stored at 5° C overnight. The gutta precipitates out and the rubber remains in solution. The other method is as follows: (1) Ten grams of chicle are extracted with acetone for 24 hours in a Soxhlet extraction apparatus. (2) The insoluble material in the thimble is allowed to .. it dry, then immersed in 150 ml. of cold Skellysolve B in a refrigerator at 10° C and· allowed to stand for 48 hours with occasional agitation. (3) The thimble is then removed from the solvent and the enclosed residue washed several times with fresh, cold Skellysolve B. (4) An excess of acetone and a few drops of a concentrated aqueous solution of sodium iodide are added to the combined Skellysolve B extract and washings and allowed to stand overnight in a refrigerator.

Gene Expression Systems In Fungi Advancements And Applications

Author: Monika Schmoll
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319279513
Size: 76.46 MB
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Biotechnology has emerged as one of the key environmentally safe technologies for the future which enables use of biomass to develop novel smart materials and to replace oil derived products. Fungi are the most efficient producers of the enzymes needed for this purpose and in addition they produce a plethora of secondary metabolites, among which novel antibiotics can be found. Industrial application and exploitation of the metabolic capacities of fungi requires highly productive and robust gene expression systems, which can be achieved by selection of appropriate species and strain improvement. In this book we aim to summarize homologous and heterologous gene expression systems of fungi for production of enzymes and secondary metabolites. A broad overview on requirements, challenges and successful applications shall serve as a basis for further development of fungi as biotechnological workhorses in research and industry.

The Exergy Method Of Thermal Plant Analysis

Author: T. J. Kotas
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483100367
Size: 45.50 MB
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The Exergy Method of Thermal Plant Analysis aims to discuss the history, related concepts, applications, and development of the Exergy Method - analysis technique that uses the Second Law of Thermodynamics as the basis of evaluation of thermodynamic loss. The book, after an introduction to thermodynamics and its related concepts, covers concepts related to exergy, such as physical and chemical exergy, exergy concepts for a control method and a closed-system analysis, the exergy analysis of simple processes, and the thermocentric applications of exergy. A seven-part appendix is also included. Appendices A-D covers miscellaneous information on exergy, and Appendix E features charts of thermodynamic properties. Appendix F is a glossary of terms, and Appendix G contains the list of references. The text is recommended for physicists who would like to know more about the Exergy Method, its underlying principles, and its applications not only in thermal plant analysis but also in certain areas.

Computer Simulated Plant Design For Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention

Author: Stan Bumble
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420032970
Size: 78.17 MB
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Environmental science combined with computer technology. One click on a mouse and information flows into your PC from up to 10,000 miles away. When you receive this information you can ferret through the data and use it in any number of computer programs. The result: solutions to plant design problems that affect the health and well being of people around the globe. What does that mean to you, the environmental professional, scientist, or engineer? Computer Simulated Plant Design for Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention builds on the concepts introduced in Stan Bumble's Computer Generated Physical Properties, the first volume of the Computer Modeling for Environmental Management series. Bumble discusses using computer simulation programs to solve problems in plant design before they occur. He covers design issues for stationary and non-stationary sources of pollution, global warming, troposcopic ozone, and stratospheric ozone. With Computer Simulated Plant Design for Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention you will understand how to use computer technology to design plants that generate little or no pollution. Even better, you can use the information generated by computer simulation for technical data in proposals, presentations and as the basis for making policy decisions.

Application Of Agricultural Analysis In Environmental Studies

Author: Keith B. Hoddinott
Publisher: ASTM International
ISBN: 9780803114753
Size: 30.72 MB
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Selected papers from the symposium on [title] held in Atlantic City, New Jersey, June 1991, address topics in general soil tests, nutrient status, organic constitutents, heavy metal content, and liming requirement. No index. Annotation copyright Book News, Inc. Portland, Or.

Modern Methods Of Plant Analysis Moderne Methoden Der Pflanzenanalyse

Author: K. Biemann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642459935
Size: 11.58 MB
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123 phase and hence have no direct bearing on the retention time of solutes. However in gas-solid chromatography, a considerable quantity of the mobile phase may be adsorbed on the surface of the stationary adsorbent which diminishes the column's effective length and ability to retain solutes. In this respect helium has been found to be preferable to most other gases (GREENE and Roy, 1957) because it is adsorbed to the least extent. 3. Packed columns offer a considerable resistance to flow, which may create a pressure differential between inlet and outlet of sufficient magnitude to cause an unfavorable flow rate through a significant length of the column. A reduced inlet/outlet pressure ratio can be obtained by using light molecular weight gases toward which the column packing shows the greatest permeability. The flow rate of the mobile phase is normally adjusted by altering the column inlet pressure, for which purpose commercial pressure regulators of sufficient accuracy are available. Quantitative measurements of the flow rate can be made by a number of methods, including rotameters, orifice meters, soapfilm flow meters and displacement of water. The former two methods are the most con venient but the least accurate; moreover they create a back pressure and are temperature dependent whereas although the moving soap bubble is cumbersome to employ and unusable for continuous readings, it is preferred when the highest accuracy is required.

Principles Of Plant Genetics And Breeding

Author: George Acquaah
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118313690
Size: 21.40 MB
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To respond to the increasing need to feed the world's population as well as an ever greater demand for a balanced and healthy diet there is a continuing need to produce improved new cultivars or varieties of plants, particularly crop plants. The strategies used to produce these are increasingly based on our knowledge of relevant science, particularly genetics, but involves a multidisciplinary understanding that optimizes the approaches taken. Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding, 2nd Edition introduces both classical and molecular tools for plant breeding. Topics such as biotechnology in plant breeding, intellectual property, risks, emerging concepts (decentralized breeding, organic breeding), and more are addressed in the new, updated edition of this text. Industry highlight boxes are included throughout the text to contextualize the information given through the professional experiences of plant breeders. The final chapters provide a useful reference on breeding the largest and most common crops. Up-to-date edition of this bestselling book incorporating the most recent technologies in the field Combines both theory and practice in modern plant breeding Updated industry highlights help to illustrate the concepts outlined in the text Self assessment questions at the end of each chapter aid student learning Accompanying website with artwork from the book available to instructors

Plant Biochemistry

Author: Hans-Walter Heldt
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0120883910
Size: 44.51 MB
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1 A Leaf Cell Consists of Several Metabolic Compartments 2 The Use of Energy from Sunlight by Photosynthesis is the Basis of Life on Earth 3 Photosynthesis is an Electron Transport Process 4 ATP is Generated by Photosynthesis 5 Mitochondria are the Power Station of the Cell 6 The Calvin Cycle Catalyzes Photosynthetic CO2 Assimilation 7 In the Photorespiratory Pathway Phosphoglycolate Formed by the Oxygenase Activity of RubisCo is Recycled 8 Photosynthesis Implies the Consumption of Water 9 Polysaccharides are Storage and Transport Forms of Carbohydrates Produced by Photosynthesis 10Nitrate Assimilation is Essential for the Synthesis of Organic Matter 11 Nitrogen Fixation Enables the Nitrogen in the Air to be Used for Plant Growth 12 Sulfate Assimilation Enables the Synthesis of Sulfur Containing Substances 13 Phloem Transport Distributes Photoassimilates to the Various Sites of Consumption and Storage 14 Products of Nitrate Assimilation are Deposited in Plants as Storage Proteins 15 Glycerolipids are Membrane Constituents and Function as Carbon Stores 16 Secondary Metabolites Fulfill Specific Ecological Functions in Plants 17 Large Diversity of Isoprenoids has Multiple Funtions in Plant Metabolism 18 Phenylpropanoids Comprise a Multitude of Plant Secondary Metabolites and Cell Wall Components 19 Multiple Signals Regulate the Growth and Development of Plant Organs and Enable Their Adaptation to Environmental Conditions 20 A Plant Cell has Three Different Genomes 21 Protein Biosynthesis Occurs at Different Sites of a Cell 22 Gene Technology Makes it Possible to Alter Plants to Meet Requirements of Agriculture, Nutrition, and Industry.