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Analytical Supercritical Fluid Extraction Techniques

Author: E.D. Ramsey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401149488
Size: 45.96 MB
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During the past decade supercritical fluid extration (SFE) has attracted considerable attention as a sample preparation procedure in analytical chemistry. The successful implementation of this technique can lead to improved sample throughput, more efficient recovery of analytes, cleaner extracts, economic replacement of halogenated solvents and a high level of automation, compared to conventional sample preparation procedures. This book provides an overview of basic principles of SFE as well as in-depth reviews of both on- and off-line SFE methods. The on-line coupling of SFE with both chromatographic and spectroscopics techniques has been the subject of a great deal of research effort and is dealt with in detail. Newer developments, such as off-line SFE of solid and liquid matrices, are starting to attract a great deal of interest, and the coverage of these areas will prove of particular value to the analytical chemist. The international team of authors has illustrated these topics with many `state-of-the-art' applications, and each chapter provides a comprehensive list of references. For the convenience of the reader, an appendix which contains pressure conversion scales and supercritical fluid carbon dioxide density tables appears at the end of the book. The volume's extensive coverage of both on-line and off-line extraction will be particularly useful to analytical chemists, in a wide range of environments, seeking to develop high quality, simple and robust SFE methods.

Analytical Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Author: Maria D. Luque de Castro
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642786731
Size: 48.80 MB
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Recent advances in analytical chemistry have turned it into a virtually unrecognizable science compared to a few decades ago, when it lagged behind other sciences and techniques. However, advances in analytical science have been far from universal: while innovations in instrumentation and data acquisition and processing systems have reached unprecedented levels thanks to parallel breakthroughs in computer science and chemo metrics, progress in preliminary operations has been much slower despite their importance to analytical results. Thus, such clear trends in analytical process development as automation and miniaturization have not reached preliminary operations to the same extent, even though this area is pro bably in the greatest need. Improvement in preliminary operations is thus an urgent goal of analytical chemistry on the verge of the twenty first century. Increased R&D endeavours and manufacture of commercially available automatic equipment for implementation of the wide variety of operations that separate the uncollected, unmeasured, untreated sample from the signal measuring step are thus crucial on account of the wide variability of such operations, which precludes development of all-purpose equipment, and the complexity of some, particularly relating to solid samples. Supercritical fluid extraction opens up interesting prospects in this context and is no doubt an effective approach to automatioI1 and mini aturization in the preliminary steps of the analytical process. The dramatic developments achieved in its short life are atypical in many respects.

Hyphenated Techniques In Supercritical Fluid Chromatography And Extraction

Author: K. Jinno
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080858616
Size: 74.49 MB
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This is the first book to focus on the latest developments in hyphenated techniques using supercritical fluids. The advantages of SFC in hyphenation with various detection modes, such as FTIR, MS, MPD and ICP and others are clearly featured throughout the book. Special attention is paid to coupling of SFE with GC or SFC. In this edited volume, chapters are written by leading experts in the field. The book will be of interest to professionals in academia, as well as to those researchers working in an industrial environment, such as analytical instrumentation, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, food, petrochemicals and environmental.

Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Author: Larry T. Taylor
Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
ISBN: 9780471119906
Size: 18.20 MB
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Clear, Practical Coverage of an Important Reemerging Technology Supercritical Fluid Extraction provides a clear, practical, step-by-step introduction to a sample preparation method that helps laboratories reduce or eliminate the use of halogenated solvents, extract samples more quickly and efficiently, and improve the accuracy of their results. By encouraging a deliberate, systematic approach to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) methods and techniques, this book enables scientists and technicians to avoid disappointing results and erroneous conclusions and develop reliable guidelines for using this versatile technology. It demonstrates how to make the most of a process that is highly reproducible, fast, and quantitative at sub-ppb levels; preserves the chemical integrity of the analyte to be extracted; and yields a concentrated sample solution that can be easily manipulated. Topics covered include: * Properties of supercritical fluids * Functional group solubility in supercritical fluids * Collection efficiency in off-line SFE * Extraction strategies * Applications of analytical SFE For analytical chemists, technicians, and laboratory managers, this book is the key to a technology that can make every sample extraction and analysis cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable.

Applications Of Supercritical Fluids In Industrial Analysis

Author: J.R. Dean
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940112146X
Size: 32.13 MB
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The continued search for rapid, efficient and cost-effective means of analytical measurement has introduced supercritical fluids into the field of analytical chemistry. Two areas are common: supercritical fluid chroma tography and supercritical fluid extraction. Both seek to exploit the unique properties of a gas at temperatures and pressures above the critical point. The most common supercritical fluid is carbon dioxide, employed because of its low critical temperature (31 °C), inertness, purity, non-toxicity and cheapness. Alternative supercritical fluids are also used and often in conjunction with modifiers. The combined gas-like mass transfer and liquid-like solvating characteristics have been used for improved chroma tographic separation and faster sample preparation. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is complementary to gas chro matography ( GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), providing higher efficiency than HPLC, together with the ability to analyse thermally labile and high molecular weight analytes. Both packed and open tubular columns can be employed, providing the capability to analyse a wide range of sample types. In addition, flame ionization detection can be used, thus providing 'universal' detection.

Analysis With Supercritical Fluids Extraction And Chromatography

Author: Bernd Wenclawiak
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642774741
Size: 24.83 MB
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The use of supercritical fluids in analytical chemistry is still grow ing. More and more analysts are discovering the favorable advan tages for a number of applications. Especially supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has attracted a lot of interest in recent years due to its simplicity. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has become better established and the development of this technique has been accelerated by the many applications with capillary col umns which have been published in the literature. At first SFC equipment was based on instruments commonly used for liquid chromatography, and the first commercial in struments were derived from this technology. However, capillary columns can be much more easily interfaced to gas chromatogra phy equipment especially to the detectors commonly used for Oc. Many stationary phases both for packed micro columns and capillary columns have been designed for SFC purposes extending this technology to LC and OC. The most common fluid applied in SFC and SFE is carbon dioxide. The advantages of supercritical CO , such as having dif 2 fusivity like a gas and solvating power depending on temperature and pressure, are also valid for other fluids and modified fluids. Both properties are valuable for sample extraction and extraction selectivity.

Extraction Techniques In Analytical Sciences

Author: John R. Dean
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470682500
Size: 64.97 MB
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This book coves one of the most important areas in analytical sciences, extraction techniques for organic compounds in environmental and related matrices. This text discusses all of the key stages for analysing a sample for organic compounds from the initial sampling protocols, the range of different extraction techniques for solid, liquid and air samples through to the final chromatographic analysis. The topics covered include: Initial steps for solid, aqueous and air sampling. Extraction techniques for aqueous samples, including LLE, purge and trap, SPE, SPME, SBSE, SDME, membrane microextraction and MPES. Extraction techniques for solid samples, including Soxhlet, 'Soxtec', Shake-flask, sonication, PFE, MAE, SFE and MSPD. Extraction techniques for air sampling, including whole air, enrichment approaches and desorption techniques. Pre-concentration approaches for post-extraction. Practical aspects for chromatographic analysis (GC and HPLC) of organic compounds. Quality assurance aspects of analysis. Health and safety considerations. Key features include: Up-to-date information on the latest development in extraction techniques for organic compounds in environmental and food matrices. Ideal for use as a self-study guide, as the basis of a taught course or guided reading for new 'early-career' researchers. Includes a guide for the reader to other sources of information. Extraction Techniques in Analytical Sciences is suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as providing an invaluable starting point for individuals undertaking applied research in the fields of analytical, bioanalytical, environmental and food sciences. The Analytical Techniques in the Sciences series of books provides coverage of all of the major analytical techniques and their application in the most important areas of physical, life and materials science. Each text is presented in an open learning/distance learning style, in which the learning objectives are clearly identified. the reader's understanding of the material is constantly evaluated by the use of self-assessment and discussion questions.

Green Extraction Techniques Principles Advances And Applications

Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444638695
Size: 48.47 MB
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Green Extraction Techniques: Principles, Advances and Applications, Volume 76, the first work to compile all the multiple green extraction techniques and applications currently available, provides the most recent analytical advances in the main green extraction techniques. This new release includes a variety of comprehensively presented topics, including chapters on Green Analytical Chemistry: The Role of Green Extraction Techniques, Bioactives Obtained From Plants, Seaweeds, Microalgae and Food By-Products Using Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Pressurized Hot Water Extraction of Bioactives, and Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Organic Contaminants in Environmental and Food Samples. In this ongoing serial, in-depth, emerging green extraction approaches are discussed, together with their miniaturization and combination, showing the newest technologies that have been developed in the last few years for each case and providing a picture of the most innovative applications with further insights into future trends. Compiles all the multiple green extraction techniques currently available, along with their applications Includes the most recent analytical advances in the main green extraction techniques, along with their working principles Covers emerging green extraction approaches, their miniaturization and combination and an insight into future trends

Supercritical Fluid Extraction Of Nutraceuticals And Bioactive Compounds

Author: Jose L. Martinez
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420006513
Size: 66.96 MB
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Enhanced concern for the quality and safety of food products, increased preference for natural products, and stricter regulations on the residual level of solvents, all contribute to the growing use of supercritical fluid technology as a primary alternative for the extraction, fractionation, and isolation of active ingredients. As a solvent-free process, supercritical fluid technology is a popular answer for the functional foods and nutraceutical sector, one of the fastest growing consumer driven markets. Recent advancements in the technology and increased utilization of the process demand a comprehensive, single-source review of current and future trends in supercritical fluid technology. Compiling contributions from international experts in the field, Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Compounds presents the state-of-the-science in the extraction and fractionation of bioactive ingredients by supercritical fluids. Focusing on implemented industrial processes and trends, it reviews the fundamentals of the technology and examines the economics of supercritical fluid extraction systems and processes. Over the course of twelve chapters, the book presents the supercritical fluid extraction processes in edible oils, including fish oils and specialty oils; herbs, such as Latin American plants and those used in Traditional Chinese Medicine; algae; spices; antioxidants and essential oils; as well as the processing of micro and nano-scale materials by supercritical fluid technology. Each chapter covers the major active components in the target material, including chemical, physical, nutritional, and pharmaceutical properties; an analysis of the specific supercritical fluid process used; a comparison of traditional processing methods versus supercritical fluid technology; and a set of conclusions with supporting data and insight.