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Analytical Supercritical Fluid Extraction Techniques

Author: E.D. Ramsey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401149488
Size: 67.91 MB
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During the past decade supercritical fluid extration (SFE) has attracted considerable attention as a sample preparation procedure in analytical chemistry. The successful implementation of this technique can lead to improved sample throughput, more efficient recovery of analytes, cleaner extracts, economic replacement of halogenated solvents and a high level of automation, compared to conventional sample preparation procedures. This book provides an overview of basic principles of SFE as well as in-depth reviews of both on- and off-line SFE methods. The on-line coupling of SFE with both chromatographic and spectroscopics techniques has been the subject of a great deal of research effort and is dealt with in detail. Newer developments, such as off-line SFE of solid and liquid matrices, are starting to attract a great deal of interest, and the coverage of these areas will prove of particular value to the analytical chemist. The international team of authors has illustrated these topics with many `state-of-the-art' applications, and each chapter provides a comprehensive list of references. For the convenience of the reader, an appendix which contains pressure conversion scales and supercritical fluid carbon dioxide density tables appears at the end of the book. The volume's extensive coverage of both on-line and off-line extraction will be particularly useful to analytical chemists, in a wide range of environments, seeking to develop high quality, simple and robust SFE methods.

Analytical Supercritical Fluid Extraction Techniques

Author: E.D. Ramsey
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0751404462
Size: 64.16 MB
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During the past decade supercritical fluid extration (SFE) has attracted considerable attention as a sample preparation procedure in analytical chemistry. The successful implementation of this technique can lead to improved sample throughput, more efficient recovery of analytes, cleaner extracts, economic replacement of halogenated solvents and a high level of automation, compared to conventional sample preparation procedures. This book provides an overview of basic principles of SFE as well as in-depth reviews of both on- and off-line SFE methods. The on-line coupling of SFE with both chromatographic and spectroscopics techniques has been the subject of a great deal of research effort and is dealt with in detail. Newer developments, such as off-line SFE of solid and liquid matrices, are starting to attract a great deal of interest, and the coverage of these areas will prove of particular value to the analytical chemist. The international team of authors has illustrated these topics with many `state-of-the-art' applications, and each chapter provides a comprehensive list of references. For the convenience of the reader, an appendix which contains pressure conversion scales and supercritical fluid carbon dioxide density tables appears at the end of the book. The volume's extensive coverage of both on-line and off-line extraction will be particularly useful to analytical chemists, in a wide range of environments, seeking to develop high quality, simple and robust SFE methods.

Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Author: Larry T. Taylor
Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
ISBN: 9780471119906
Size: 78.62 MB
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Clear, Practical Coverage of an Important Reemerging Technology Supercritical Fluid Extraction provides a clear, practical, step-by-step introduction to a sample preparation method that helps laboratories reduce or eliminate the use of halogenated solvents, extract samples more quickly and efficiently, and improve the accuracy of their results. By encouraging a deliberate, systematic approach to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) methods and techniques, this book enables scientists and technicians to avoid disappointing results and erroneous conclusions and develop reliable guidelines for using this versatile technology. It demonstrates how to make the most of a process that is highly reproducible, fast, and quantitative at sub-ppb levels; preserves the chemical integrity of the analyte to be extracted; and yields a concentrated sample solution that can be easily manipulated. Topics covered include: * Properties of supercritical fluids * Functional group solubility in supercritical fluids * Collection efficiency in off-line SFE * Extraction strategies * Applications of analytical SFE For analytical chemists, technicians, and laboratory managers, this book is the key to a technology that can make every sample extraction and analysis cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable.

Applications Of Supercritical Fluids In Industrial Analysis

Author: J.R. Dean
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940112146X
Size: 76.97 MB
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The continued search for rapid, efficient and cost-effective means of analytical measurement has introduced supercritical fluids into the field of analytical chemistry. Two areas are common: supercritical fluid chroma tography and supercritical fluid extraction. Both seek to exploit the unique properties of a gas at temperatures and pressures above the critical point. The most common supercritical fluid is carbon dioxide, employed because of its low critical temperature (31 °C), inertness, purity, non-toxicity and cheapness. Alternative supercritical fluids are also used and often in conjunction with modifiers. The combined gas-like mass transfer and liquid-like solvating characteristics have been used for improved chroma tographic separation and faster sample preparation. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is complementary to gas chro matography ( GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), providing higher efficiency than HPLC, together with the ability to analyse thermally labile and high molecular weight analytes. Both packed and open tubular columns can be employed, providing the capability to analyse a wide range of sample types. In addition, flame ionization detection can be used, thus providing 'universal' detection.

Supercritical Fluid Extraction And Its Use In Chromatographic Sample Preparation

Author: S.A. Westwood
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401121648
Size: 40.30 MB
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by Professor D. E. Games, Mass Spectrometry Research Unit, University College of Swansea Sample preparation can be viewed as occupying a Cinderella role in analytical science. However, the quality of sample preparation plays a key role in high In the past decade, there has been quality analysis and deserves higher stature. considerable interest in the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) as an alternative to conventional procedures for the preparation of samples for ana lysis. The driving force for this development is the need for automated, sim pler, faster, non-destructive and selective methods for extraction, preferably using non-toxic extraction media which are easily disposed of. Utilization of supercritical fluids for extraction fulfils these requirements because of their unique physical chemical properties and usually low toxicity. Selectivity can be achieved by suitable selection of pressure (density), temperature and modi fier conditions which enable solvating power to be varied. The high diffusivity of supercritical fluids provides rapid sample penetration and extraction. Use of fluids with low critical temperatures enables extraction to be conducted under mild thermal conditions ensuring that thermally labile compounds do not decompose. The technique can be used off-line, and the extracts analysed by appropriate techniques, or it can be used on-line, by coupling with a variety of chromatographic techniques. These can then, if necessary, be coupled fur ther with spectroscopic techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared, ultra violet or mass spectrometry, to provide specific identification or structural information.

Hyphenated Techniques In Supercritical Fluid Chromatography And Extraction

Author: K. Jinno
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080858616
Size: 74.24 MB
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This is the first book to focus on the latest developments in hyphenated techniques using supercritical fluids. The advantages of SFC in hyphenation with various detection modes, such as FTIR, MS, MPD and ICP and others are clearly featured throughout the book. Special attention is paid to coupling of SFE with GC or SFC. In this edited volume, chapters are written by leading experts in the field. The book will be of interest to professionals in academia, as well as to those researchers working in an industrial environment, such as analytical instrumentation, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, food, petrochemicals and environmental.

Analytical Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Author: Maria D. Luque de Castro
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642786731
Size: 25.24 MB
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Recent advances in analytical chemistry have turned it into a virtually unrecognizable science compared to a few decades ago, when it lagged behind other sciences and techniques. However, advances in analytical science have been far from universal: while innovations in instrumentation and data acquisition and processing systems have reached unprecedented levels thanks to parallel breakthroughs in computer science and chemo metrics, progress in preliminary operations has been much slower despite their importance to analytical results. Thus, such clear trends in analytical process development as automation and miniaturization have not reached preliminary operations to the same extent, even though this area is pro bably in the greatest need. Improvement in preliminary operations is thus an urgent goal of analytical chemistry on the verge of the twenty first century. Increased R&D endeavours and manufacture of commercially available automatic equipment for implementation of the wide variety of operations that separate the uncollected, unmeasured, untreated sample from the signal measuring step are thus crucial on account of the wide variability of such operations, which precludes development of all-purpose equipment, and the complexity of some, particularly relating to solid samples. Supercritical fluid extraction opens up interesting prospects in this context and is no doubt an effective approach to automatioI1 and mini aturization in the preliminary steps of the analytical process. The dramatic developments achieved in its short life are atypical in many respects.

Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Author: Mark McHugh
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080518176
Size: 34.72 MB
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Supercritical Fluid Extraction is a technique in which CO2 is used under extremely high pressure to separate solution (e.g., removing caffeine from coffee). Separations is basic to all process industries and supercritical fluid extraction is a specific type which is receiving a high level of attention. The book will combine basic fundamentals with industrial applications. The second edition has been expanded and updated and includes new chapters on chromatography and food processing. "...this is an excellent book which is both instructive and amusing to read. Its true value is neatly summarised in one of the closing sentences: 'We have supplied you with the guidelines and criteria which you can now apply when considering supercritical fluids for your own needs.'' - Chemistry in Britain, February 1995

Modern Extraction Techniques

Author: Charlotta Turner
Publisher: Amer Chemical Society
ISBN: 9780841239401
Size: 69.27 MB
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During the last ten years, several new extraction techniques have been developed that are faster, more automated and use less organic solvents compared to classical solvent extraction techniques. Furthermore, there is a clear trend going towards the use of (and research on) environmentally sustainable methods, which is encouraging for the future. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) are two of the most useful techniques for extraction of non-polar and medium polar solutes from solid and semi-solid samples. These techniques commonly use pressurized carbon dioxide or hot liquids such as water as extraction solvents, respectively. For aqueous samples, stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) has recently been developed. These are some of the techniques that will be described in the proposed symposium series book. Focus will be on the extraction of various compounds from food and agricultural samples in either an analytical or a process-scale point-of-view. Several of the book chapters will compare the different techniques, and describe their advantages and disadvantages. Applications discussed in this book include SFE of biopolymers from distillers dried grains, SFE of lipids from oilseeds, PLE of functional ingredients from plants and herbs, tandem SFE/PLE of acrylamide from potato chips, SFE and PLE of cholesterol and fat from hamster liver, and steam distillation-extraction (SDE) and SBSE of flavors from shitake mushrooms.