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Applications Of Seasonal Climate Forecasting In Agricultural And Natural Ecosystems

Author: Graeme L. Hammer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401593515
Size: 20.53 MB
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Climate variability has major impacts in many parts of the world, including Australia. Developments in understanding of the El Niño - Southern Oscillation Phenomenon have introduced some skill in seasonal to inter-annual climate forecasting. Can this skill be harnessed to advantage? Or do we just continue to observe these impacts? How does a decision-maker managing an agricultural or natural ecosystem modify decisions in response to a skillful, but imprecise, seasonal climate forecast? Using Australian experience as a basis, this book focuses on these questions in pursuing means to better manage climate risks. The state of the science in climate forecasting is reviewed before considering detailed examples of applications to: farm scale agricultural decisions (such as management of cropping and grazing systems); regional and national scale agricultural decisions (such as commodity trading and government policy); and natural systems (such as water resources, pests and diseases, and natural fauna). Many of the examples highlight the participatory and inter-disciplinary approach required among decision-makers, resource systems scientists/analysts, and climate scientists to bring about the effective applications. The experiences discussed provide valuable insights beyond the geographical and disciplinary focus of this book. The book is ideally suited to professionals and postgraduate students in ecology, agricultural climatology, environmental planning, and climate science.

Rangeland Systems

Author: David D. Briske
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319467093
Size: 21.59 MB
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This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. This book provides an unprecedented synthesis of the current status of scientific and management knowledge regarding global rangelands and the major challenges that confront them. It has been organized around three major themes. The first summarizes the conceptual advances that have occurred in the rangeland profession. The second addresses the implications of these conceptual advances to management and policy. The third assesses several major challenges confronting global rangelands in the 21st century. This book will compliment applied range management textbooks by describing the conceptual foundation on which the rangeland profession is based. It has been written to be accessible to a broad audience, including ecosystem managers, educators, students and policy makers. The content is founded on the collective experience, knowledge and commitment of 80 authors who have worked in rangelands throughout the world. Their collective contributions indicate that a more comprehensive framework is necessary to address the complex challenges confronting global rangelands. Rangelands represent adaptive social-ecological systems, in which societal values, organizations and capacities are of equal importance to, and interact with, those of ecological processes. A more comprehensive framework for rangeland systems may enable management agencies, and educational, research and policy making organizations to more effectively assess complex problems and develop appropriate solutions.

Variability Of Air Temperature And Atmospheric Precipitation In The Arctic

Author: Rajmund Przybylak
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306482223
Size: 16.23 MB
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It has been known at least since the end of the century that the polar areas play a very important role in the formation of the Earth’s climates. It is also known today that they are the most sensitive regions to climatic change, and are thus perfect case studies for the detection of such changes. The most serious obstacle to the study of climatic and other geographical elements of the polar areas (including the Arctic) has always been the severe climatic conditions which prevail in these regions. Because of these extreme con- tions, research into particular elements of the climatic system (including the atmosphere) began here much later than it did in lower latitudes. For instance, the whole area of the Arctic was not sufficiently covered with a network of meteorological stations until the late 1940s (and even then there were large areas of the central Arctic and the Greenland interior for which no data were available). This is probably why it was not until the start of the 1990s that a body of work began to appear which analysed in any depth climatic variability for the Arctic as a whole. While a considerable number of papers had been p- lished before this period, most of them were local studies presenting highly localised information, providing air temperature measurements but often little else.

Nonlinear Physical Oceanography

Author: Henk A. Dijkstra
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402022638
Size: 60.85 MB
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Taken from a review of the first edition in SIAM: "This text is different from most others in that it combines several different disciplines and draws on many scientific studies in order to deduce mechanisms of ocean circulation. (...) Therefore (it) cannot be substituted, and (...) it meets its unique goals with clarity and thoroughness".

The Near Surface Layer Of The Ocean

Author: Alexander Soloviev
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402040528
Size: 29.15 MB
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Until the 1980s, a tacit agreement among many physical oceanographers was that nothing deserving attention could be found in the upper few meters of the ocean. The lack of adequete knowledge about the near-surface layer of the ocean was mainly due to the fact that the widely used oceanographic instruments (such as bathythermographs, CTDs, current meters, etc.) were practically useless in the upper few meters of the ocean. Interest in the ne- surface layer of the ocean rapidly increased along with the development of remote sensing techniques. The interpretation of ocean surface signals sensed from satellites demanded thorough knowledge of upper ocean processes and their connection to the ocean interior. Despite its accessibility to the investigator, the near-surface layer of the ocean is not a simple subject of experimental study. Random, sometimes huge, vertical motions of the ocean surface due to surface waves are a serious complication for collecting quality data close to the ocean surface. The supposedly minor problem of avoiding disturbances from ships’ wakes has frustrated several generations of oceanographers attempting to take reliable data from the upper few meters of the ocean. Important practical applications nevertheless demanded action, and as a result several pioneering works in the 1970s and 1980s laid the foundation for the new subject of oceanography – the near-surface layer of the ocean.

Climate Change 2001 Impacts Adaptation And Vulnerability

Author: James J. McCarthy
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521015004
Size: 49.96 MB
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Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability is the most comprehensive and up-to-date scientific assessment of the consequences of, and adaptation responses to, climate change. The report:'¢ Evaluates evidence that recent observed changes in climate have already affected a variety of physical and biological systems. '¢ Studies the vulnerabilities of human populations to future climate change, including associated sea-level rise and climate extremes such as floods.'¢ Takes into account potential impacts on water resources, agriculture and food, human health, settlements, and economic activities. '¢ Assesses potential responses to climate change of natural environments and the wildlife that inhabit them and identifies environments at particular risk.'¢ Considers how adaptation to climate change might lessen adverse impacts or enhance beneficial impacts.'¢ Provides an overview of the vulnerabilities and adaptation possibilities for all major regions of the world.'¢ Contrasts the different vulnerabilities of the developed and developing parts of the world and explores the implications for sustainable development and equity concerns.This latest IPCC assessment will again form the standard scientific reference for all concerned with environmental and social consequences of climate change, including students and researchers in environmental and social sciences, and policymakers and managers in governmental, industry and other organizations responsible for resources likely to be affected by climate change.

Philosophical Transactions

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Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 46.50 MB
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Each issue of Transactions B is devoted to a specific area of the biological sciences, including clinical science. All papers are peer reviewed and edited to the highest standards. Published on the 29th of each month, Transactions B is essential reading for all biologists.

Seasonal Climate Forecasting And Managing Risk

Author: Alberto Troccoli
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402069928
Size: 42.16 MB
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Originally formed around a set of lectures presented at a NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI), this book has grown to become organised and presented rather more as a textbook than as a standard "collection of proceedings". This therefore is the first unified reference ‘textbook’ in seasonal to interannual climate predictions and their practical uses. Written by some of the world’s leading experts, the book covers a rapidly-developing science of prime social concern.