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Aquatic Organic Matter Fluorescence

Author: Paula Coble
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521764610
Size: 70.66 MB
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Core text on principles, laboratory/field methodologies, and data interpretation for fluorescence applications in aquatic science, for advanced students and researchers.

Linking Optical And Chemical Properties Of Dissolved Organic Matter In Natural Waters

Author: Christopher L. Osburn
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889450813
Size: 44.13 MB
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A substantial increase in the number of studies using the optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a proxy for its chemical properties in estuaries and the coastal and open ocean has occurred during the last decade. We are making progress on finding the actual chemical compounds or phenomena responsible for DOM’s optical properties. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry, in particular, has made important progress in making the key connections between optics and chemistry. But serious questions remain and the last major special issue on DOM optics and chemistry occurred nearly 10 years ago. Controversies remain from the non-specific optical properties of DOM that are not linked to discrete sources, and sometimes provide conflicting information. The use of optics, which is relatively easier to employ in synoptic and high resolution sampling to determine chemistry, is a critical connection to make and can lead to major advances in our understanding of organic matter cycling in all aquatic ecosystems. The contentions and controversies raised by our poor understanding of the linkages between optics and chemistry of DOM are bottlenecks that need to be addressed and overcome.

Subsea Optics And Imaging

Author: John Watson
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857093525
Size: 20.54 MB
Format: PDF
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The use of optical methodology, instrumentation and photonics devices for imaging, vision and optical sensing is of increasing importance in understanding our marine environment. Subsea optics can make an important contribution to the protection and sustainable management of ocean resources and contribute to monitoring the response of marine systems to climate change. This important book provides an authoritative review of key principles, technologies and their applications. The book is divided into three parts. The first part provides a general introduction to the key concepts in subsea optics and imaging, imaging technologies and the development of ocean optics and colour analysis. Part two reviews the use of subsea optics in environmental analysis. An introduction to the concepts of underwater light fields is followed by an overview of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and an assessment of nutrients in the water column. This section concludes with discussions of the properties of subsea bioluminescence, harmful algal blooms and their impact and finally an outline of optical techniques for studying suspended sediments, turbulence and mixing in the marine environment. Part three reviews subsea optical systems technologies. A general overview of imaging and visualisation using conventional photography and video leads onto advanced techniques like digital holography, laser line-scanning and range-gated imaging as well as their use in controlled observation platforms or global observation networks. This section also outlines techniques like Raman spectroscopy, hyperspectral sensing and imaging, laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV), optical fibre sensing and LIDAR systems. Finally, a chapter on fluorescence methodologies brings the volume to a close. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Subsea optics and imaging is a standard reference for those researching, developing and using subsea optical technologies as well as environmental scientists and agencies concerned with monitoring the marine environment. Provides an authoritative review of key principles, technologies and their applications Outlines the key concepts in subsea optics and imaging, imaging technologies and the development of ocean optics and colour analysis Reviews the properties of subsea bioluminescence, harmful algal blooms and their impact

Speleothem Science

Author: Ian J. Fairchild
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444361074
Size: 40.84 MB
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Speleothems (mineral deposits that formed in caves) are currently giving us some of the most exciting insights into environments and climates during the Pleistocene ice ages and the subsequent Holocene rise of civilizations. The book applies system science to Quaternary environments in a new and rigorous way and gives holistic explanations the relations between the properties of speleothems and the climatic and cave setting in which they are found. It is designed as the ideal companion to someone embarking on speleothem research and, since the underlying science is very broad, it will also be invaluable to a wide variety of others. Students and professional scientists interested in carbonate rocks, karst hydrogeology, climatology, aqueous geochemistry, carbonate geochemistry and the calibration of climatic proxies will find up-to-date reviews of these topics here. The book will also be valuable to Quaternary scientists who, up to now, have lacked a thorough overview of these important archives. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/fairchild/speleothem.

Integrative Research On Organic Matter Cycling Across Aquatic Gradients

Author: Nicholas D. Ward
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889452123
Size: 32.81 MB
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The goal of this research topic was to motivate innovative research that blurs traditional disciplinary and geographical boundaries. As the scientific community continues to gain momentum and knowledge about how the natural world functions, it is increasingly important that we recognize the interconnected nature of earth systems and embrace the complexities of ecosystem transitions. We are pleased to present this body of work, which embodies the spirit of research spanning across the terrestrial-aquatic continuum, from mountains to the sea. Sincerely, The Editors

Issues In Life Sciences Aquatic And Marine Life 2011 Edition

Author:
Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 146496548X
Size: 42.58 MB
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Issues in Life Sciences: Aquatic and Marine Life: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Life Sciences—Aquatic and Marine Life. The editors have built Issues in Life Sciences: Aquatic and Marine Life: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Life Sciences—Aquatic and Marine Life in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Life Sciences: Aquatic and Marine Life: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Aquatic Ecosystems

Author: Stuart Findlay
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0122563719
Size: 58.68 MB
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Aquatic Ecosystems explains the interplay between various movements of matter and energy through ecosystems mediated by Dissolved Organic Matter. This book provides information on how much DOM there is in a particular aquatic ecosystem and where it originates. It explains whether the DOM composition varies from time to time and place to place. It also details how DOM becomes incorporated into microbial food webs, and gives a better, clarifying, understanding to its significance of DOM. Dissolved Organic Matter (called DOM) is incredibly important in all aquatic ecosystems. Although it might seem that logs and leaves are more important, in fact the DOM is more crucial because the DOM is in a form that is available for use by all the organisms living in the the water. Furthermore, DOM influences complex food webs by mediating the availability of aquatic nutrients, metals, salts and minerals. DOM also affects water clarity, which of course has alters the way animals and plants live and feed in the water. There are many ways to study DOM and this book focuses on several central questions. How much DOM is there in a particular aquatic ecosytem? Where does it come from? Does the composition of the DOM vary from time to time and place to palce? How does DOM become incorporated into microbial food webs, which are the basis of plant, invertebrate and vertebrate food webs? How can the answers to these and other questions about DOM be considered together so that a better understanding of the significance of DOM can emerge?

Dynamics And Characterization Of Marine Organic Matter

Author: N. Handa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401713197
Size: 52.43 MB
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Over the past decade the scientific activities of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), which focuses on the role of the oceans in controlling climate change via the transport and storage of greenhouse gases and organic matter, have led to an increased interest in the study of the biogeochemistry of organic matter. There is also a growing interest in global climate fluctuations. This, and the need for a precise assessment of the dynamics of carbon and other bio-elements, has led to a demand for an improved understanding of biogeochemical processes and the chemical characteristics of both particulate and dissolved organic matter in the ocean. A large amount of proxy data has been published describing the changes of the oceanic environment, but qualitative and quantitative estimates of the vertical flux of (proxy) organic compounds have not been well documented. There is thus an urgent need to pursue this line of study and, to this end, this book starts with several papers dealing with the primary production of organic matter in the upper ocean. Thereafter, the book goes on to follow the flux and characterization of particulate organic matter, discussed in relation to the primary production in the euphotic zone and resuspension in the deep waters, including the vertical flux of proxy organic compounds. It goes on to explain the decomposition and transformation of organic matter in the ocean environment due to photochemical and biological agents, and the reactivity of bulk and specific organic compounds, including the air-sea interaction of biogenic gases. The 22 papers in the book reflect the interests of JGOFS and will thus serve as a valuable reference source for future biogeochemical investigations of both bio-elements and organic matter in seawater, clarifying the role of the ocean in global climate change.

Handbook Of Water Analysis Third Edition

Author: Leo M.L. Nollet
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 143988966X
Size: 26.82 MB
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Extensively revised and updated, Handbook of Water Analysis, Third Edition provides current analytical techniques for detecting various compounds in water samples. Maintaining the detailed and accessible style of the previous editions, this third edition demonstrates water sampling and preservation methods by enumerating different ways to measure chemical and radiological characteristics. It gives step-by-step descriptions of separation, residue determination, and clean-up techniques. See What’s New in the Second Edition: Includes five new chapters covering ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, and petroleum hydrocarbons, as well as organoleptical and algal analysis methodology Compares older methods still frequently used with recently developed protocols, and examines future trends Features a new section regarding organoleptical analysis of water acknowledging that ultimately the consumers of drinking water have the final vote over its quality with respect to odor, flavor, and color The book covers the physical, chemical, and other relevant properties of various substances found in water. It then describes the sampling, cleanup, extraction, and derivatization procedures, and concludes with detection methods. Illustrated with procedure flow charts and schematics, the text includes numerous tables categorizing methods according to type of component, origin of the water sample, parameters and procedures used, and application range. With contributions from international experts, the book guides you through the entire scientific investigation starting with a sampling strategy designed to capture the real-world situation as closely as possible, and ending with an adequate chemometrical and statistical treatment of the acquired data. By organizing data into more than 300 tables, graphs, and charts, and supplementing the text with equations and illustrations, the editors distill a wealth of knowledge into a single accessible reference.