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Architecture And Mathematics In Ancient Egypt

Author: Corinna Rossi
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107320518
Size: 19.34 MB
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In this fascinating study, architect and Egyptologist Corinna Rossi analyses the relationship between mathematics and architecture in ancient Egypt by exploring the use of numbers and geometrical figures in ancient architectural projects and buildings. While previous architectural studies have searched for abstract 'universal rules' to explain the history of Egyptian architecture, Rossi attempts to reconcile the different approaches of archaeologists, architects and historians of mathematics into a single coherent picture. Using a study of a specific group of monuments, the pyramids, and placing them in the context of their cultural and historical background, Rossi argues that theory and practice of construction must be considered as a continuum, not as two separated fields, in order to allow the original planning process of a building to re-emerge. Highly illustrated with plans, diagrams and figures, this book is essential reading for all scholars of Ancient Egypt and the architecture of ancient cultures.

Ancient Egyptian Masonry

Author: Somers Clarke
Publisher: Book Tree
ISBN: 9781585090594
Size: 57.18 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Reveals the methods Egyptians used to build their stone constructions. We marvel at the structures they built, not knowing exactly how it was done. The authors state that their explanation of the Great Pyramids construction is not the final answer and that many mysteries still remain, yet do a fascinating job in detailing how the huge stones were dressed and laid out. Many mysteries are cleared up in this book, which includes over 250 sketches and pictures that back up the authors claims. They reveal how hard work, ingenuity, and an advanced knowledge of mathematics and physics account for some of the amazing architectural feats performed in early Egypt. Yet when a mystery remains, the authors openly admit it. Any serious researcher on ancient Egypt should not be without this book.

Mathematics In Ancient Egypt

Author: Annette Imhausen
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400874300
Size: 79.86 MB
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Mathematics in Ancient Egypt traces the development of Egyptian mathematics, from the end of the fourth millennium BC—and the earliest hints of writing and number notation—to the end of the pharaonic period in Greco-Roman times. Drawing from mathematical texts, architectural drawings, administrative documents, and other sources, Annette Imhausen surveys three thousand years of Egyptian history to present an integrated picture of theoretical mathematics in relation to the daily practices of Egyptian life and social structures. Imhausen shows that from the earliest beginnings, pharaonic civilization used numerical techniques to efficiently control and use their material resources and labor. Even during the Old Kingdom, a variety of metrological systems had already been devised. By the Middle Kingdom, procedures had been established to teach mathematical techniques to scribes in order to make them proficient administrators for their king. Imhausen looks at counterparts to the notation of zero, suggests an explanation for the evolution of unit fractions, and analyzes concepts of arithmetic techniques. She draws connections and comparisons to Mesopotamian mathematics, examines which individuals in Egyptian society held mathematical knowledge, and considers which scribes were trained in mathematical ideas and why. Of interest to historians of mathematics, mathematicians, Egyptologists, and all those curious about Egyptian culture, Mathematics in Ancient Egypt sheds new light on a civilization's unique mathematical evolution.

Egyptian Tomb Architecture

Author: David I. Lightbody
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited
ISBN:
Size: 17.69 MB
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The objective of this monograph is to describe and explain the meanings underlying some otherwise anomalous archaeological data drawn from the study of Ancient Egypt. An explanation for the phenomena observed has hitherto proved elusive. The data is principally concerned with royal funerary architecture from the Old Kingdom, and the underlying systems of measurement and geometry that were employed therein. As well as providing a description and explanation for the data, this work also has the objective of providing the first synthesis of related cultural information drawn from several different textual and archaeological resources. The general subject matter is pharaonic funerary architecture from Old Kingdom Egypt, and the work focuses specifically on the circular proportions deliberately incorporated into the tomb designs by the architects. Contents: Introduction; 1) Fundamentals of Ancient Egyptian mathematics and architecture; 2) The Evidence and facts of Egyptian circular proportions; 3) The symbolism; 4) Methodology, analysis and discussion of mathematics; 5) Arguments from authorities; 6) Archaeology and philology; fieldwork and deskwork; 7) Conclusions; Appendix 1: Secondary Issues; Appendix 2: Social Context of early Egyptology; Appendix 3: Egyptian and Greek Mathematics; Appendix 4: Quotes from the Greeks.

Nexus Network Journal 10 1

Author: Kim Williams
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783764387280
Size: 58.62 MB
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Leonardo da Vinci was well aware of the fundamental importance of mathematics for architecture. This book examines Leonardo’s knowledge of theoretical mathematics, explores how he used concepts of geometry in his designs for architectural projects, and reports on a real-life construction project using Leonardo’s principles. Authors include Sylvie Duvernoy, Kim Williams, Rinus Roelofs, Biagio Di Carlo, Mark Reynolds, João Pedro Xavier, Vesna Petresin, Christopher Glass, and Jane Burry.

The Ancient Egyptian Metaphysical Architecture

Author: Moustafa Gadalla
Publisher: Moustafa Gadalla
ISBN: 1931446628
Size: 76.97 MB
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This book reveals the Ancient Egyptian knowledge of harmonic proportion, sacred geometry, and number mysticism, as manifested in their texts, temples, tombs, art, hieroglyphs, ...etc., throughout their known history. It shows how the Egyptians designed their buildings to generate cosmic energy, and the mystical application of numbers in Egyptian works. The book explains in detail the harmonic proportion of about 20 Ancient Egyptian buildings throughout their recorded history. Everything that the Ancient Egyptians built/molded/sculptured was for the purpose of generating energies and/or to embody energies. And just like our electrical system that needs activation by turning a switch on, all Egyptian works also require/required activation by the right actions [sounds, gestures, etc.]. And while these 'stone' marvels appears static because they appears stationary, they are no different than [stationary] energy generating units—like our solar panels that absorb solar energy from the sun and convert it to energy supply for our earthly human needs. This book reveals the Ancient Egyptian knowledge of harmonic proportion, sacred geometry, and number mysticism, as manifested in their texts, temples, tombs, art, ...etc., throughout their known history. It shows how the Egyptians designed their buildings to generate cosmic energy, and the mystical application of numbers in Egyptian works. The book explains in detail the harmonic proportion of about 20 Ancient Egyptian buildings throughout their recorded history. It is the aim of this book to provide such an exposition, one which, while based on sound scholarship, will present the issues in language comprehensible to non specialist readers. Technical terms have been kept to a minimum. These are explained, as non technically as possible, in the glossary. This Expanded Edition of the book is divided into three parts containing a total of 13 chapters, as well as 10 appendices being A through I. Part I: Architectural Concepts—Function and From consists of five chapters—1 through 5: Chapter 1: The Architectural Canon will cover the deep rooted Egyptian beliefs of 'As above So below' and its application to Egyptian art and architecture, the existence and adherence to a divine building code, as well as utilizing design and construction plans prior to [as well as] during the construction stages, which extended over several centuries for large projects. Chapter 2: The Metaphysical Structure of The Universe will cover the realms of creation and its correspondence in Man, as the image of all creation. Chapter 3: Visitation Sites of The Lower Heavenly Court will cover the interactions between earthly livings and the lower realms of the metaphysical cosmic structure, the significance of landscape architecture in such interactions, and the major types of visitation buildings—both burial and non burial sites—to facilitate such interactions. Chapter 4: The Sealed Pharaohs' Tombs will cover the concept and role of the pharaohs which require their tombs to be sealed and inaccessible for further communications after their earthly existence, as well as samples of some pharaoniac tombs. Chapter 5: Egyptian Temples of The Divine Forces will cover the main function of Egyptian temples, being divine generation, the overall conceptual temple layout, the metaphysical funnel conduit design, the generative significance of jointing patterns, outer walls physical/metaphysical protection, and the organic foundation roots of the Egyptian temple. Part II: The Physical Manifestation of Metaphysical Concepts consists of five chapters—6 through 11: Chapter 6: Architectural Constituent Forms of Metaphysical Functions will cover the various architectural forms as manifestation of their corresponding functions [both physically and metaphysically] for "false doors", recessed wall panels, columns and pillars, capitals of columns, porticoes, peristyles, colonnade formations at four different locations, obelisks, statuary images of various roof forms (flat, gable, corbelled, arch & vaulted), stylistic architectural details (architrave, cornice, and torus) and stylistic ornamentation and decoration such as starry ceilings, floral, geometric, figurative, a combination of two or all three, guilloche (misnamed as the Tuscan border), chevron, and scroll pattern. Chapter 7: The Primary Geometrical Shapes/Forms will cover the principles and application of sacred geometry of Divine Architecture, the Egyptian sacred cord [tool], general layout of sample geometric shapes, the sacred circle as the archetype of Creation, squaring the circle, the primary triangles, and the combined square-triangles 3-D pyramids. Chapter 8: The Generative Square Root Rectangles—"Irrational numbers" will cover the generative root rectangles as the hypotenuse of right angle triangles, beginning with a square, and generating square roots of 2, 3 and 5; formation of cosmic solids; generation of the Golden Proportion from the root five rectangle; the construction of whirling square spirals; and example application of this form of dynamic design to four locations in Ancient Egyptian monuments. Chapter 9: The Arithmetic Generative Progression will cover the role of numbers as generators of orderly growth and progression, the Summation Series and the Golden Proportion, and the Cosmic Proportion of the Human Figure. Chapter 10: Combined—Arithmetic and Graphic Harmonic Design of Egyptian Buildings will cover combining both the arithmetic and graphic elements into a harmonic design of the parts and the whole of an Egyptian temple, that includes: active axes, significant points, the telescopic triangles, and the rectangular perimeters in both the horizontal and vertical planes. Chapter 11: Harmonic Analysis of Ancient Egyptian Works will cover several examples in Ancient Egypt from all eras and throughout Egypt that show the Egyptian applications of the design elements discussed in this book. Examples include temples, tombs, pyramids, shrines, capitals of columns, stelae, pylons and doorways. Part III: The Spirited Communications has two chapters—12 and 13: Chapter 12: The Animated Metaphysical Images on Walls will cover the metaphysical significance of walls' decoration as well as explanations of various depictions. Chapter 13: Human Activities will cover the roles of humans in activating, maintaining, participating in various rituals and festivities as well as deactivating the powers of the temple when temples and the whole Egypt is under siege. Appendices has ten appendices—A through J: Appendix A: General Plans of Sample Egyptian Temples covers layout plans of several Egyptian temples with a short description of each. Appendix B: Practical Mathematics in Ancient Egypt covers reference to the four most recognized Ancient Egyptian "mathematical" Papyri and the practical mathematical contents within such papyri. Appendix C: Fraction Mysticism covers the reasons that in Egypt, a fraction—any fraction—could only be a fraction of unity and Egyptian tables to deal with "complex' fractions which will be similar to modern Logarithmic Tables. Appendix D: Intentional "Irregularities" In Egyptian Works covers the religious reasons for what seems to be "irregularities" in the highly executed Egyptian works. Appendix E: Monument Appropriations Reconsidered covers clarification of what appears to be monument appropriation by one pharaoh of another. Appendix F: Sample Egyptian Sculpture Works covers a very short list of recognizable Egyptian sculptures. Appendix G: Concrete Blocks Various Types covers the advanced Egyptian knowledge of concrete mixes and application examples of such knowledge throughout Ancient Egypt. Appendix H: The Masonic Egyptian Roots covers the Egyptian roots of the widespread secret fraternal society called ‘Free and Accepted Masons’ (popularly known as Freemasonry). Appendix I: Egyptian Influence on Modern Architecture covers several examples worldwide of such influence. Appendix J: Types and Forms of Mortals' buildings will cover types and forms of residential, private, communal and public buildings as associated with its earthly existence' function, as well as highlighting that mortals of all classes—including pharaohs and priestly staff—resided in mud-brick houses.

Pyramids

Author: Joyce Filer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195305213
Size: 20.66 MB
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Telling the story of the pyramids from their earliest beginnings, this volume describes not only the pyramids themselves but the whole complex of temples and walls that surrounded every one, and the stories of the kings and builders who created them.

Egyptian Pyramid Geometry

Author: Hadyn Robin Butler
Publisher: Mississauga, Ont. : Benben Publications
ISBN: 9780920808191
Size: 22.40 MB
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Books on the mathematics of pyramids tend to provoke sighs of resignation from Egyptologists. Not only are they often filled with impenetrable jargon and equantions, but also they tend to be based on deeply-felt underlying beliefs in alien contact or conspiracy. As Sally Katary writes in the introduction, this is not one of those books, but an interesting exploration into the way in which the whole Egyptian pyramid complexes at sites like Giza and Dahshur were tied into plans stretching over generations of pharaohs, and linking in waterworks, roads and drainage ditches, as well as the monuments themselves.