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Arsenic In Soil And Groundwater Environment

Author: Prosun Bhattacharya
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080522906
Size: 36.60 MB
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This volume presents the recent developments in the field of arsenic in soil and groundwater. Arranged into nine sections, the text emphasizes the global occurrences of arsenic in the environment, particularly on its source, pathways, behavior, and effects it has on soils, plants, water, animals, and humans. It also covers the diverse issues of arsenic in the mining environment, arsenic emanating from hydrothermal springs, and the geochemical modeling of arsenic adsorption to oxide surfaces. Finally, the text includes different cost effective removal mechanisms of arsenic from drinking water using natural red earth, solar oxidation, and arsenic oxidation by ferrrate. Written in simple English, and few technical terms, the book is designed to create interest within the countries with occurrences of arsenic in drinking water with · an update the current status of knowledge on the dynamics of natural arsenic from the aquifers through groundwater to food chain and efficient techniques for arsenic removal. · serve as a standard text book for graduate, postgraduate students and researchers in the field of Environmental Sciences and Hydrogeochemistry as well as researchers, environmental scientists and chemists, toxicologists, medical scientists and even for general public seeking an in-depth view of arsenic which had been classed as a carcinogen. · bring awareness, among administrators, policy makers and company executives, on the problem and to improve the international cooperation

Long Term Performance Of Permeable Reactive Barriers

Author: K.E. Roehl
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 9780080535616
Size: 58.52 MB
Format: PDF
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While extensive research has been performed on many technological aspects of permeable reactive barriers and a number of contaminants have so far been successfully treated by PRB systems, long-term performance has not been extensively considered and little is known about the processes influencing long-term behaviour. This gap in our knowledge is all the more disadvantageous as design life has a decisive influence on the economic viability of PRBs. The book describes methods for evaluation and enhancement of the long-term performance of PRB systems, especially of those targeting heavy metals, specifically uranium, and organic contaminants by sorption and/or precipitation mechanisms. Major topics in the book are: Selection and characterisation of suitable reactive materials Characterisation of the relevant contaminant attenuation processes Developing new contaminant-binding chemical compounds ("ligands") Accelerated testing methods to assess the long-term performance of the attenuation mechanisms in PRBs Evaluation of the influence of site characteristics on PRB performance Monitoring of existing and new field installations Coupling of electrokinetic techniques and PRB systems Large-scale laboratory and field tests and their results It addresses the long-term performance of PRBs, an important feature of this novel remediation technology, systematically. It deals extensively with heavy metal removal, with special emphasis on uranium. A number of case studies, experiences with large-scale modelling and test site experiments provide insight into the practical application of the results. This volume will contribute to the science underpinning groundwater remediation, and this will result in the improvement of quality of life and health and safety. * A systematic approach to investigating the long-term performance of permeable reactive barriers * Development of new contaminant-binding chemical compounds ("ligands"), accelerated testing methods to assess the long-term performance, and efficiency enhancing electrokinetic techniques * Extensive data and information on a Hungarian uranium mining facility; once a carefully kept secret of the Soviet Union

Safe And Sustainable Use Of Arsenic Contaminated Aquifers In The Gangetic Plain

Author: AL. Ramanathan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319161245
Size: 44.98 MB
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This book offers a meaningful and practicable guide to better management of arsenic problems in the groundwater of the Gangetic Plain. It gathers contributions from distinguished researchers who have been actively working in the area for over a decade. The arsenic contamination of groundwater is a growing concern in the central Gangetic Plain, where the local population’s main sources of fresh water are surface water, groundwater and rain water; of these sources, only the last two generally meet the most important criteria for drinking water in their natural state. Natural geological changes are presumed to be the primary reason for arsenic contamination in this region. Further, most of the people living in this area have developed the habit of drinking water (groundwater) from the arsenic-contaminated tubewells in many parts of the region. As a result, many are suffering from arsenicosis and many more are at risk. Since the cause of arsenic contamination in groundwater still remains unclear, this book seeks to address the arsenic issue in this region by pursuing a holistic and systematic scientific approach. Accordingly, it delineates various sources, processes, hypotheses and remedial approaches that are needed to manage the arsenic contamination in the Central Gangetic Plain.

Groundwater For Sustainable Development

Author: Prosun Bhattacharya
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203894569
Size: 35.13 MB
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Groundwater is the most important source of domestic, industrial, and agricultural water and also a finite resource. Population growth has created an unprecedented demand for water, with the situation most critical in the developing world, where several million people depend on contaminated groundwater for drinking purposes. Geogenic contaminants, such as arsenic and fluoride at toxic levels, pose major environmental risks and endanger public health. This book is a collection of papers providing a multi-disciplinary overview for scientists and professionals involved in the sustainable development of groundwater resources.

Arsenic Removal From Contaminated Groundwater

Author: Sirshendu De
Publisher: The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)
ISBN: 8179933830
Size: 20.17 MB
Format: PDF
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Contamination of groundwater with arsenic is being considered a pervasive and critical issue in recent years. Large areas in India, Bangladesh, South East Asia, and other parts of the world are suffering from this problem. Arsenic Removal from Contaminated Groundwater presents a comprehensive discussion on various important issues, including state-of-the-art arsenic removal technologies, preparation and performance analysis of laterite, and scale-up issues and design of a household filter. It also expounds the potentiality of raw laterite and treated laterite as low-cost arsenic adsorbents. The efficiency of adsorbent capacity is evaluated using real arsenic contaminated groundwater collected from an affected area in West Bengal, India. The topic is an emerging area and most of the work presented has the potential of field application.

Arsenic

Author: Robert Bowell
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 1614517975
Size: 50.98 MB
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Environmental Mineralogy and Bio-Geochemistry of Arsenic provides a comprehensive understanding of arsenic geochemistry in the near-surface environment.

Lead And Public Health

Author: Paul Mushak
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444515542
Size: 28.95 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The book presents a detailed assessment of the health science of lead and the human health risk assessment models for lead's human health impacts, followed by an account of various regulatory efforts in the United States and elsewhere to eliminate or reduce human toxic exposures to lead. The science of lead as presented here covers releases of lead into the environment, lead's movement through the environment to reach humans who are then exposed, and the spectrum of toxic effects, particularly low-level toxic effects, on the developing central nervous system of the very young child. The section on human health risk assessment deals with quantifying not only the dose-response relationships that underlie toxic responses to lead in sensitive populations but also with the likelihood of toxic responses vis-à-vis environmental lead at some level of exposure. This section includes a treatment of computer models of lead exposure, particularly those that use lead in whole blood as a key measure. Various models convert lead intake via various body compartments into measures of body lead burden. Such measures are then directly related to severity of injury. The final section of the book deals with past and present regulatory efforts to control lead releases into the human environment. Current control efforts present a mixed picture. The most problematic issue is the continued presence of lead paint in older housing and lead in soils of urban and mining industry communities. Comprehensive assessment of the three major facets of the public health problem of lead: the voluminous science, the risk assessment approaches, and approaches to controlling lead as a public health problem. Integration of the above three elements to provide a coherent whole Provides a single source of information that will be extremely valuable to all professionals working in areas impacted by this toxic substance

Trace Elements In The Environment

Author: M.N.V. Prasad
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420032046
Size: 16.93 MB
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New analytical techniques have enhanced current understanding of the behavior of trace and ultratrace elements in the biogeochemical cycling, chemical speciation, bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and as applied to the phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Addressing worldwide regulatory, scientific, and environmental issues, Trace Elements in the Environment explores these frontiers, including biotechnological aspects of metal-binding proteins and peptides and phytoremediation strategies using trees, grasses, crop plants, aquatics, and risks to ecological and human health. Discussing trace elements in the holistic environment, this book covers advances in state-of-the-art analytical techniques, molecular biotechology, and contemporary biotechnology that enhances knowledge of the behavior of trace elements in the biogeosphere and at the cellular and molecular level. The editors and their hand-picked panel of contributors provide authoritative coverage of trace elements in the environment. They highlight cutting-edge applications of emerging strategies and technologies to the problems of trace elements in the environment. The editors discuss emerging areas such as bacterial biosorption of trace elements, processes, and applications of electroremediation of heavy metals-contaminated soils, application of novel nanoporous sorbents for the removal of heavy metals, metalloids, and radionuclides. The book focuses on the effects of increasing levels of trace elements on ecological and human health, evaluates the effectiveness of methods of phytoremediation, and covers risk assessment, pathways, and trace element toxicity. Containing more than 150 illustrations, tables, photographs, and equations, the book's coverage spans the entire body of knowledge available about how and why plants interact with metals and other trace elements.

Arsenic Contamination In The Environment

Author: Dharmendra Kumar Gupta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319543563
Size: 64.68 MB
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This book provides an overview to researchers, graduate, and undergraduate students, as well as academicians who are interested in arsenic. It covers human health risks and established cases of human ailments and sheds light on prospective control measures, both biological and physico-chemical. Arsenic (As) is a widely distributed element in the environment having no known useful physiological function in plants or animals. Historically, this metalloid has been known to be used widely as a poison. Effects of arsenic have come to light in the past few decades due to its increasing contamination in several parts of world, with the worst situation being in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. The worrying issue is the ingestion of arsenic through water and food and associated health risks due to its carcinogenic and neurotoxic nature. The impact of the problem is widespread, and it has led to extensive research on finding both the causes and solutions. These attempts have allowed us to understand the various probable causes of arsenic contamination in the environment, and at the same time, have provided a number of possible solutions. It is reported that more than 200 mineral species contain As. Generally, As binds with iron and sulfur to form arsenopyrite. According to one estimate from the World Health Organization (WHO), contextual levels of As in soil ranges from 1 to 40 mg kg-1. Arsenic toxicity is related to its oxidation state which is present in the medium. As is a protoplastic toxin, due to its consequence on sulphydryl group it interferes in cell enzymes, cell respiration and in mitosis. Exposure of As may occur to humans via several industries, such as refining or smelting of metal ores, microelectronics, wood preservation, battery manufacturing, and also to those who work in power plants that burn arsenic-rich coal.

Environmental Geochemistry Site Characterization Data Analysis And Case Histories

Author: Benedetto DeVivo
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 044464007X
Size: 29.15 MB
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Environmental Geochemistry: Site Characterization, Data Analysis and Case Histories, Second Edition, reviews the role of geochemistry in the environment and details state-of-the-art applications of these principles in the field, specifically in pollution and remediation situations. Chapters cover both philosophy and procedures, as well as applications, in an array of issues in environmental geochemistry including health problems related to environment pollution, waste disposal and data base management. This updated edition also includes illustrations of specific case histories of site characterization and remediation of brownfield sites. Covers numerous global case studies allowing readers to see principles in action Explores the environmental impacts on soils, water and air in terms of both inorganic and organic geochemistry Written by a well-respected author team, with over 100 years of experience combined Includes updated content on: urban geochemical mapping, chemical speciation, characterizing a brownsfield site and the relationship between heavy metal distributions and cancer mortality