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Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering

Author: Kyriacos A. Athanasiou
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1598298755
Size: 79.94 MB
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Cartilage injuries in children and adolescents are increasingly observed, with roughly 20% of knee injuries in adolescents requiring surgery. In the US alone, costs of osteoarthritis (OA) are in excess of $65 billion per year (both medical costs and lost wages). Comorbidities are common with OA and are also costly to manage. Articular cartilage's low friction and high capacity to bear load makes it critical in the movement of one bone against another, and its lack of a sustained natural healing response has necessitated a plethora of therapies. Tissue engineering is an emerging technology at the threshold of translation to clinical use. Replacement cartilage can be constructed in the laboratory to recapitulate the functional requirements of native tissues. This book outlines the biomechanical and biochemical characteristics of articular cartilage in both normal and pathological states, through development and aging. It also provides a historical perspective of past and current cartilage treatments and previous tissue engineering efforts. Methods and standards for evaluating the function of engineered tissues are discussed, and current cartilage products are presented with an analysis on the United States Food and Drug Administration regulatory pathways that products must follow to market. This book was written to serve as a reference for researchers seeking to learn about articular cartilage, for undergraduate and graduate level courses, and as a compendium of articular cartilage tissue engineering design criteria. Table of Contents: Hyaline Articular Cartilage / Cartilage Aging and Pathology / In Vitro / Bioreactors / Future Directions

Developmental Biology And Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering

Author: Martin J. Stoddart
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128115386
Size: 65.52 MB
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Developmental Biology and Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering: Principles and Applications focuses on the regeneration of orthopedic tissue, drawing upon expertise from developmental biologists specializing in orthopedic tissues and tissue engineers who have used and applied developmental biology approaches. Musculoskeletal tissues have an inherently poor repair capacity, and thus biologically-based treatments that can recapitulate the native tissue properties are desirable. Cell- and tissue-based therapies are gaining ground, but basic principles still need to be addressed to ensure successful development of clinical treatments. Written as a source of information for practitioners and those with a nascent interest, it provides background information and state-of-the-art solutions and technologies. Recent developments in orthopedic tissue engineering have sought to recapitulate developmental processes for tissue repair and regeneration, and such developmental-biology based approaches are also likely to be extremely amenable for use with more primitive stem cells. Brings the fields of tissue engineering and developmental biology together to explore the potential for regenerative medicine-based research to contribute to enhanced clinical outcomes Initial chapters provide an outline of the development of the musculoskeletal system in general, and later chapters focus on specific tissues Addresses the effect of mechanical forces on the musculoskeletal system during development and the relevance of these processes to tissue engineering Discusses the role of genes in the development of musculoskeletal tissues and their potential use in tissue engineering Describes how developmental biology is being used to influence and guide tissue engineering approaches for cartilage, bone, disc, and tendon repair

Cell And Tissue Engineering Of Articular Cartilage Via Regulation And Alignment Of Primary Chondrocyte Using Manipulated Transforming Growth Factors And Ecm Proteins

Author: Seyed Ali Khaghani
Size: 26.85 MB
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Articular cartilage is an avascular and flexible connective tissue found in joints. It produces a cushioning effect at the joints and provides low friction to protect the ends of the bones from wear and tear/damage. It has poor repair capacity and any injury can result in pain and loss of mobility. One of the common forms of articular cartilage disease which has a huge impact on patient's life is arthritis. Research on cartilage cell/tissue engineering will help patients to improve their physical activity by replacing or treating the diseased/damaged cartilage tissue. Cartilage cell, called chondrocyte is embedded in the matrix (Lacunae) and has round shape in vivo. The in vitro monolayer culture of primary chondrocyte causes morphological change characterized as dedifferentiation. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-[beta]), a cytokine superfamily, regulates cell function, including differentiation and proliferation. The effect of TGF-[beta]1, 2, 3, and their manipulated forms in biological regulation of primary chondrocyte was investigated in this work. A novel method was developed to isolate and purify the primary chondrocytes from knee joint of neonate Sprague-Dawley rat, and the effect of some supplementations such as hyaluronic acid and antibiotics were also investigated to provide the most appropriate condition for in vitro culture of chondrocyte cells. Addition of 0.1mg/ml hyaluronic acid in chondrocyte culture media resulted an increase in primary chondrocyte proliferation and helped the cells to maintain chondrocytic morphology. TGF-[beta]1, 2 and 3 caused chondrocytes to obtain fibroblastic phenotype, alongside an increase in apoptosis. The healing process of the wound closure assay of chondrocyte monolayers were slowed down by all three isoforms of TGF-[beta]. All three types of TGF-[beta] negatively affected the strength of chondrocyte adhesion. TGF-[beta]1, 2 and 3 up regulated the expression of collagen type-II, but decreased synthesis of collagen type-I, Chondroitin sulfate glycoprotein, and laminin. They did not show any significant change in production of S-100 protein and fibronectin. TGF-[beta]2, and 3 did not change expression of integrin-[beta]1 (CD29), but TGF-[beta]1 decreased the secretion of this adhesion protein. Manipulated TGF-[beta] showed huge impact on formation of fibroblast like morphology of chondrocytes with chondrocytic phenotype. These isoforms also decreased the expression of laminin, chondroitin sulfate glycoprotein, and collagen type-I, but they increased production of collagen type-II and did not induce synthesis of fibronectin and S-100 protein. In addition, the strength of cell adhesion on solid surface was reduced by manipulated TGF-[beta]. Only manipulated form of TGF-[beta]1 and 2 could increase the proliferation rate. Manipulation of TGF-[beta] did not up regulate the expression of integrin-[beta]1 in planar culture system. The implications of this R & D work are that the manipulation of TGF-[beta] by combination of TGF-[beta]1, 2, and 3 can be utilized in production of superficial zone of cartilage and perichondrium. The collagen, fibronectin and hyaluronic acid could be recruited for the fabrication of a biodegradable scaffold that promotes chondrocyte growth for autologous chondrocyte implantation or for formation of cartilage.

Cartilage And Bone Development And Its Disorders

Author: Cecilia Camacho-Hübner
Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
ISBN: 3805597924
Size: 65.48 MB
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Covering recent advances in basic and clinical research In systemic childhood diseases, including cancer, gastrointestinal, pulmonary and cardiac disorders, childhood growth is severely impaired. In addition, almost 400 known genetic diseases inhibit the ability of the growth plate to form new bone, leaving affected children with growth failure and bony deformities which can severely impact their quality of life and may lead to morbidity and early mortality. This book provides a comprehensive review of bone and cartilage development, growth and disease. Focusing on novel treatment strategies, regulatory signals and molecular mechanisms are discussed in relation to the diseases affecting them. Furthermore, novel methodologies in bone and cartilage research based on recent advances in skeletal stem cell biology, cartilage tissue engineering and allele-specific gene silencing is covered. Providing insight into the basic mechanisms of bone growth, structure and metabolism, research methodology, as well as discussing the clinical management of related diseases, this book is of particular value to physicians with a special interest in bone and cartilage biology; in particular endocrinologists and pediatric endocrinologists that see patients with growth disorders, osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and skeletal dysplasias.

Articular Cartilage

Author: Kyriacos A. Athanasiou
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351722328
Size: 28.76 MB
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Well-known for their inability to heal, articular cartilage injuries often degenerate inexorably to disastrous impairment. Multitudes of treatments have been devised for this problem, but no satisfactory long-term solutions have been established. Written by world-class experts, Articular Cartilage covers the latest research and advancements related to biology, development, pathology, clinical applications, and tissue engineering. This book is useful for rheumatologists, orthopaedic surgeons, cartilage biologists, and cartilage engineers as well as for professionals working in the orthopaedic and other musculoskeletal industries. This book also belongs in the library of primary care physicians, gerontologists, physical therapists, kinesiologists, and chiropractors. Written at a level that allows accessibility to a wide audience, it provides an interdisciplinary approach that encompasses the breadth and depth of basic science, bioengineering, translational science, and detailed methodologic approaches. The authors examine the major events and signaling molecules that lead to development of articular cartilage from precursor cells, and the changes in cartilage as it matures and ages. They focus on the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, and therapeutic approaches for cartilage injury and the major arthritides that affect cartilage and the synovial joints such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gout. They supply an up-to-date overview of the field of tissue engineering as applied to articular cartilage repair. They examine a number of methods used to assess structure, composition, biology, and biomechanical function. Each chapter contains extensive references to enhance additional study. The book’s comprehensive focus on multiple aspects of articular cartilage sets it apart from other tissue engineering or developmental biology-based books available. It includes important discussions and perspectives on many of the remaining challenges and opportunities in the development and translation of new approaches for treating diseases of articular cartilage. It also provides detailed working protocols for many of the methods used to study articular cartilage, coverage of current treatment options, and business and regulatory aspects of the development of cartilage products. It provides a deeper understanding that will help with the development of new products and clinical applications.

Tissue Engineering Of Cartilage And Bone

Author: Novartis Foundation
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470864230
Size: 63.80 MB
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Tissue engineering takes advantages of the combined use of cultured living cells and three-dimensional scaffolds to reconstruct adult tissues that are absent or malfunctioning. This book brings together scientists and clinicians working on a variety of approaches for regenerating of damaged or lost cartilage and bone to assess the progress of this dynamic field. In its early days, tissue engineering was driven by material scientists who designed novel bio-resorbable scaffolds on which to seed cells and grow tissues. This ground-breaking work generated high expectations, but there have been significant stumbling blocks holding back the widespread use of these techniques in the clinic. These challenges, and potential ways of overcoming them, are given thorough coverage in the discussions that follow each chapter. The key questions addressed in this book include the following. How good must cartilage repair be for it to be worthwhile? What is the best source of cells for tissue engineering of both bone and cartilage? Which are the most effective cell scaffolds? What are the best preclinical models for these technologies? And when it comes to clinical trials, what sort of outcome measures should be used? With contributions from some of the leading experts in this field, this timely publication will prove essential reading for anyone with an interest in the field of tissue engineering.

Regenerative Strategies For The Treatment Of Knee Joint Disabilities

Author: Joaquim Miguel Oliveira
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319447858
Size: 72.34 MB
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This book presents regenerative strategies for the treatment of knee joint disabilities. The book is composed of four main sections totaling 19 chapters which review the current knowledge on the clinical management and preclinical regenerative strategies. It examines the role of different natural-based biomaterials as scaffolds and implants for addressing different tissue lesions in the knee joint. Section one provides an updated and comprehensive discussion on articular cartilage tissue regeneration. Section two focuses on the important contributions for bone and osteochondral tissue engineering. Section three overview the recent advances on meniscus repair/regeneration strategies. Finally, section four further discusses the current strategies for treatment of ligament lesions. Each chapter is prepared by world know expert on their fields, so we do firmly believe that the proposed book will be a reference in the area of biomaterials for regenerative medicine.

Design Of An Electrospun Type Ii Collagen Scaffold For Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering

Author: Catherine Pemble Barnes
Size: 42.93 MB
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Traumatic defects in articular cartilage can lead to joint disease and disability including osteoarthritis. Because cartilage is unable to regenerate when injured, the field of tissue engineering holds promise in restoring functional tissue. In this research, type II collagen was electrospun, cross-linked, and tested as scaffolds for supporting chondrocyte growth. The mechanical, biochemical, and histological characteristics of the engineered tissue were assessed as a function of the electrospinning solution concentration (i.e. scaffold fiber diameter and pore properties) and as a function of the time in culture (evaluated at 2, 4, and 6 weeks). Fiber diameter had a linear relationship with concentration: mean diameter increased from 107 to 446 nm and from 289 to 618 nm, measured with SEM and permeability meter, respectively, with increasing concentration, from 60 mg/mL to 120 mg/mL. Pore size revealed no relationship with concentration but mean values ranged in size from 1.76 to 3.17 [square micrometer] or from 0.00055 to 0.0028 [square micrometer] depending on the measurement technique. Average porosity ranged from 84.1 to 89.1%, and average permeability was between 6.82x10 [superscript minus 4] and 35.0 x10 [superscript minus 4] D. Histological analysis revealed a relatively high number of spherical cells, possibly indicating the expression of the chondrocyte phenotype. However, there were very little glycosaminoglycans and type II collagen synthesized by the cells despite an increase in the cell density over time for the 60, 80, and 100 mg/mL concentrations. The mean values for peak stress (between 0.17 and 0.35 MPa) and tangential modulus (between 0.32 and 0.64 MPa) for the mats are at least an order of magnitude less than that for native cartilage, while the mean values for strain at break (between 93 and 150%) for the mats are at least an order of magnitude greater than that for native cartilage. The equilibrium stiffness for all concentrations decreased from week 2 to week 6 of tissue culture (which may correlate with increasing cell density); the 100 mg/mL concentration had the highest mean value (0.084 MPa at week 2) and the lowest mean value (0.010 MPa at week 6). This research did not indicate any significant findings regarding the influence of concentration or culture time on chondrogenesis. Because the cells appeared to grow on the surface of the scaffold but there was a lack of cell migration into the scaffold, the scaffold material may be sufficient to support chondrocyte growth but the scaffold physical design must be reconsidered.