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Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering

Author: Kyriacos A. Athanasiou
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1598298755
Size: 69.16 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Cartilage injuries in children and adolescents are increasingly observed, with roughly 20% of knee injuries in adolescents requiring surgery. In the US alone, costs of osteoarthritis (OA) are in excess of $65 billion per year (both medical costs and lost wages). Comorbidities are common with OA and are also costly to manage. Articular cartilage's low friction and high capacity to bear load makes it critical in the movement of one bone against another, and its lack of a sustained natural healing response has necessitated a plethora of therapies. Tissue engineering is an emerging technology at the threshold of translation to clinical use. Replacement cartilage can be constructed in the laboratory to recapitulate the functional requirements of native tissues. This book outlines the biomechanical and biochemical characteristics of articular cartilage in both normal and pathological states, through development and aging. It also provides a historical perspective of past and current cartilage treatments and previous tissue engineering efforts. Methods and standards for evaluating the function of engineered tissues are discussed, and current cartilage products are presented with an analysis on the United States Food and Drug Administration regulatory pathways that products must follow to market. This book was written to serve as a reference for researchers seeking to learn about articular cartilage, for undergraduate and graduate level courses, and as a compendium of articular cartilage tissue engineering design criteria. Table of Contents: Hyaline Articular Cartilage / Cartilage Aging and Pathology / In Vitro / Bioreactors / Future Directions

Cell And Tissue Engineering Of Articular Cartilage Via Regulation And Alignment Of Primary Chondrocyte Using Manipulated Transforming Growth Factors And Ecm Proteins

Author: Seyed Ali Khaghani
Size: 30.87 MB
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Articular cartilage is an avascular and flexible connective tissue found in joints. It produces a cushioning effect at the joints and provides low friction to protect the ends of the bones from wear and tear/damage. It has poor repair capacity and any injury can result in pain and loss of mobility. One of the common forms of articular cartilage disease which has a huge impact on patient's life is arthritis. Research on cartilage cell/tissue engineering will help patients to improve their physical activity by replacing or treating the diseased/damaged cartilage tissue. Cartilage cell, called chondrocyte is embedded in the matrix (Lacunae) and has round shape in vivo. The in vitro monolayer culture of primary chondrocyte causes morphological change characterized as dedifferentiation. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-[beta]), a cytokine superfamily, regulates cell function, including differentiation and proliferation. The effect of TGF-[beta]1, 2, 3, and their manipulated forms in biological regulation of primary chondrocyte was investigated in this work. A novel method was developed to isolate and purify the primary chondrocytes from knee joint of neonate Sprague-Dawley rat, and the effect of some supplementations such as hyaluronic acid and antibiotics were also investigated to provide the most appropriate condition for in vitro culture of chondrocyte cells. Addition of 0.1mg/ml hyaluronic acid in chondrocyte culture media resulted an increase in primary chondrocyte proliferation and helped the cells to maintain chondrocytic morphology. TGF-[beta]1, 2 and 3 caused chondrocytes to obtain fibroblastic phenotype, alongside an increase in apoptosis. The healing process of the wound closure assay of chondrocyte monolayers were slowed down by all three isoforms of TGF-[beta]. All three types of TGF-[beta] negatively affected the strength of chondrocyte adhesion. TGF-[beta]1, 2 and 3 up regulated the expression of collagen type-II, but decreased synthesis of collagen type-I, Chondroitin sulfate glycoprotein, and laminin. They did not show any significant change in production of S-100 protein and fibronectin. TGF-[beta]2, and 3 did not change expression of integrin-[beta]1 (CD29), but TGF-[beta]1 decreased the secretion of this adhesion protein. Manipulated TGF-[beta] showed huge impact on formation of fibroblast like morphology of chondrocytes with chondrocytic phenotype. These isoforms also decreased the expression of laminin, chondroitin sulfate glycoprotein, and collagen type-I, but they increased production of collagen type-II and did not induce synthesis of fibronectin and S-100 protein. In addition, the strength of cell adhesion on solid surface was reduced by manipulated TGF-[beta]. Only manipulated form of TGF-[beta]1 and 2 could increase the proliferation rate. Manipulation of TGF-[beta] did not up regulate the expression of integrin-[beta]1 in planar culture system. The implications of this R & D work are that the manipulation of TGF-[beta] by combination of TGF-[beta]1, 2, and 3 can be utilized in production of superficial zone of cartilage and perichondrium. The collagen, fibronectin and hyaluronic acid could be recruited for the fabrication of a biodegradable scaffold that promotes chondrocyte growth for autologous chondrocyte implantation or for formation of cartilage.

Articular Cartilage

Author: Kyriacos A. Athanasiou
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439853258
Size: 25.32 MB
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Well-known for their inability to heal, articular cartilage injuries often degenerate inexorably to disastrous impairment. Multitudes of treatments have been devised for this problem, but no satisfactory long-term solutions have been established. Written by world-class experts, Articular Cartilage covers the latest research and advancements related to biology, development, pathology, clinical applications, and tissue engineering. This book is useful for rheumatologists, orthopaedic surgeons, cartilage biologists, and cartilage engineers as well as for professionals working in the orthopaedic and other musculoskeletal industries. This book also belongs in the library of primary care physicians, gerontologists, physical therapists, kinesiologists, and chiropractors. Written at a level that allows accessibility to a wide audience, it provides an interdisciplinary approach that encompasses the breadth and depth of basic science, bioengineering, translational science, and detailed methodologic approaches. The authors examine the major events and signaling molecules that lead to development of articular cartilage from precursor cells, and the changes in cartilage as it matures and ages. They focus on the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, and therapeutic approaches for cartilage injury and the major arthritides that affect cartilage and the synovial joints such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gout. They supply an up-to-date overview of the field of tissue engineering as applied to articular cartilage repair. They examine a number of methods used to assess structure, composition, biology, and biomechanical function. Each chapter contains extensive references to enhance additional study. The book’s comprehensive focus on multiple aspects of articular cartilage sets it apart from other tissue engineering or developmental biology-based books available. It includes important discussions and perspectives on many of the remaining challenges and opportunities in the development and translation of new approaches for treating diseases of articular cartilage. It also provides detailed working protocols for many of the methods used to study articular cartilage, coverage of current treatment options, and business and regulatory aspects of the development of cartilage products. It provides a deeper understanding that will help with the development of new products and clinical applications.

Regenerative Strategies For The Treatment Of Knee Joint Disabilities

Author: Joaquim Miguel Oliveira
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319447858
Size: 74.12 MB
Format: PDF
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This book presents regenerative strategies for the treatment of knee joint disabilities. The book is composed of four main sections totaling 19 chapters which review the current knowledge on the clinical management and preclinical regenerative strategies. It examines the role of different natural-based biomaterials as scaffolds and implants for addressing different tissue lesions in the knee joint. Section one provides an updated and comprehensive discussion on articular cartilage tissue regeneration. Section two focuses on the important contributions for bone and osteochondral tissue engineering. Section three overview the recent advances on meniscus repair/regeneration strategies. Finally, section four further discusses the current strategies for treatment of ligament lesions. Each chapter is prepared by world know expert on their fields, so we do firmly believe that the proposed book will be a reference in the area of biomaterials for regenerative medicine.

Introduction To Bioengineering

Author: Yuan-cheng Fung
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789810243982
Size: 53.96 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Bioengineering is attracting many high quality students. This invaluable book has been written for beginning students of bioengineering, and is aimed at instilling a sense of engineering in them.Engineering is invention and designing things that do not exist in nature for the benefit of humanity. Invention can be taught by making inventive thinking a conscious part of our daily life. This is the approach taken by the authors of this book. Each author discusses an ongoing project, and gives a sample of a professional publication. Students are asked to work through a sequence of assignments and write a report. Almost everybody soon realizes that more scientific knowledge is needed, and a strong motivation for the study of science is generated. The teaching of inventive thinking is a new trend in engineering education. Bioengineering is a good field with which to begin this revolution in engineering education, because it is a youthful, developing interdisciplinary field.

Bone And Cartilage Regeneration

Author: Phuc Van Pham
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319401440
Size: 70.93 MB
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This invaluable resource discusses clinical applications with effects and side-effects of applications of stem cells in bone and cartilage regeneration. Each chapter is contributed by a pre-eminent scientist in the field and covers such topics as skeletal regeneration by mesenchymal stem cells, clinical improvement of mesenchymal stem cell injection in injured cartilage and osteoarthritis, Good manufacturing practice (GMP), minimal critera of stem cells for clinical applications, future directions of the discussed therapies and much more. Bone & Cartilage Regeneration and the other books in the Stem Cells in Clinical Applications series will be invaluable to scientists, researchers, advanced students and clinicians working in stem cells, regenerative medicine or tissue engineering.

Tissue Engineering Of Cartilage And Bone

Author: Novartis Foundation
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470864230
Size: 49.15 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Tissue engineering takes advantages of the combined use of cultured living cells and three-dimensional scaffolds to reconstruct adult tissues that are absent or malfunctioning. This book brings together scientists and clinicians working on a variety of approaches for regenerating of damaged or lost cartilage and bone to assess the progress of this dynamic field. In its early days, tissue engineering was driven by material scientists who designed novel bio-resorbable scaffolds on which to seed cells and grow tissues. This ground-breaking work generated high expectations, but there have been significant stumbling blocks holding back the widespread use of these techniques in the clinic. These challenges, and potential ways of overcoming them, are given thorough coverage in the discussions that follow each chapter. The key questions addressed in this book include the following. How good must cartilage repair be for it to be worthwhile? What is the best source of cells for tissue engineering of both bone and cartilage? Which are the most effective cell scaffolds? What are the best preclinical models for these technologies? And when it comes to clinical trials, what sort of outcome measures should be used? With contributions from some of the leading experts in this field, this timely publication will prove essential reading for anyone with an interest in the field of tissue engineering.