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Assessment Reform In Science

Author: Benny H. W. Yung
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402033742
Size: 57.55 MB
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The conclusions and recommendations made in the book are derived from a study of ten teachers in Hong Kong as they tried to change their practice following a reform of the Hong Kong assessment system. Hong Kong is simply a context that provided the opportunity to gather very rich and informative data on issues pertaining to assessment reforms which also have very wide implications in many countries’ contexts. The book is written for practising teachers, teachers-in-training, teacher educators, policy makers and researchers who are interested in teachers’ classroom practices, teacher beliefs, teacher professionalism, implementation of educational reforms in general and high stakes assessment reforms in particular. The structure of the book is organized in a manner that rapidly presents the case stories of the teachers to the readers. These stories can be helpful to all teachers, whether in training or experienced, in a number of ways: (1) as a set of ideas to be debated upon and to act as a springboard for reflection on the purposes of assessment in education and on the role of teachers in these purposes; (2) as examples of practice that can be compared to the readers' own existing practices; and (3) as a source of models of practice to apply and test in readers' own classrooms. These case stories are followed by a discussion of a number of issues that arise from this group of teachers’ beliefs and practices. To cater for research-oriented readers, the relevant literature, theoretical underpinnings, and the intriguing research methodology that led to the case stories will appear as appendices.

Models Of Science Teacher Preparation

Author: D.R. Lavoie
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306472309
Size: 48.17 MB
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This unique, edited book is a must for science educators who desire to improve upon traditional methods for science teaching and learning. It provides background, theoretical research-based frameworks, guidelines, and concrete examples for the implementation and assessment of innovative models of science learning, teaching, and professional preparation.

Science Teacher Education

Author: Sandra K. Abell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306472228
Size: 24.14 MB
Format: PDF
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Analysis of past developments in teacher education in Pakistan has shown that substantial progress has been made in this field. It has, however, been pointed out that education of science teachers still needs much improvement. At the present, there is an emergent need to meet the shortage of qualified science teachers and at the same time to bring qualitative improvements in the courses offered in teacher education institutions. First, we recommend that the 1-year duration of teacher preparation is grossly inadequate for all teaching courses, and should be lengthened, and the qualifications for entrance be increased. We believe that teaching must be made a graduate profession. For example, the basic qualification of primary school teachers for admission to teacher education institution should be increased. We recommend that PTC should be made a 12 + 2 year program. Similarly, CT, 12 + 3; B. Ed. , 14 + 2; B. S. Ed. , 12 + 4; M. A. Ed. , 14 + 3; and M. Ed. one year after B. Ed. or B. S. Ed. Secondly, we think the quality of instruction in teacher preparation programs should be improved. Most teachers in the teacher preparation institutions use the lecture method most of the time. Prospective teachers behave like passive listeners to their teachers. They do not participate in the teaching/ learning process. Some instructors even dictate their notes to the preservice teachers. When the teachers join schools, they behave the same way.

Reforming Teaching And Teacher Education

Author: Eija Kimonen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9463009175
Size: 64.78 MB
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What are the prerequisites for reforming education, and how can these reforms be seen in school development and culture? How should teacher education support this reform process? What are the principles and practices underlying the functioning of the schools of tomorrow? These questions are examined in this unique volume. The authors in this book argue that the central function of teacher education and education in general is to respond to the challenges brought on by the twenty-first century. According to this approach, the competencies and skills needed in the future are not merely a new addition to school activities, but rather something requiring a comprehensive reform of school culture encompassing teacher education, curricula, and teaching methods. Such a fundamental process of change in the action and thinking models used by schools would be an effort to achieve a complete transformation, the result of which would be schools developing into organizations that are both creative and imbued with a strong sense of community. A central attribute is that the creation of new knowledge is not just restricted to the classroom but also takes place in out-of-school environments. This would link learning to its natural context, eventually leading to an ideal instruction that is actively problem oriented, holistic, and life centered. This reform-minded volume is divided into three parts. The first part focuses on the reform processes in teacher education, the second on the reforms of pedagogics at schools and teacher education institutions, and the third on the processes of reculturing schools. New prospects for active schools in the United States and Europe, as well as in Japan and China, are discussed.

Topics And Trends In Current Science Education

Author: Catherine Bruguière
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400772815
Size: 56.88 MB
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This book features 35 of best papers from the 9th European Science Education Research Association Conference, ESERA 2011, held in Lyon, France, September 5th-9th 2011. The ESERA international conference featured some 1,200 participants from Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe as well as North and South America offering insight into the field at the end of the first decade of the 21st century. This book presents studies that represent the current orientations of research in science education and includes studies in different educational traditions from around the world. It is organized into six parts around the three poles (content, students, teachers) and their interrelations of science education: after a general presentation of the volume (first part), the second part concerns SSI (Socio-Scientific Issues) dealing with new types of content, the third the teachers, the fourth the students, the fifth the relationships between teaching and learning, and the sixth the teaching resources and the curricula.

A Vision For Science Education

Author: Roger Cross
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415288712
Size: 19.56 MB
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One of the most important and consistent voices in the reform of science education over the last thirty years has been that of Peter Fensham. His vision of a democratic and socially responsible science education for all has inspired change in schools and colleges throughout the world. Often moving against the tide, Fensham travelled the world to promote his radical ideology. He was appointed Australia's first Professor of Science Education, and was later made a Member of the Order of Australia in recognition of his work in this new and emerging field of study. In this unique book, leading science educators from around the world examine and discuss Fensham's key ideas. Each describes how his arguments, proposals and recommendations have affected their own practice, and extend and modify his message in light of current issues and trends in science education. The result is a vision for the future of science teaching internationally. Academics, researchers and practitioners in science education around the world will find this book a fascinating insight into the life and work of one of the foremost pioneers in science education. The book will also make inspiring reading for postgraduate students of science education.

Metacognition Fundaments Applications And Trends

Author: Alejandro Peña-Ayala
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319110624
Size: 66.26 MB
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This book is devoted to the Metacognition arena. It highlights works that show relevant analysis, reviews, theoretical, and methodological proposals, as well as studies, approaches, applications, and tools that shape current state, define trends and inspire future research. As a result of the revision process fourteen manuscripts were accepted and organized into five parts as follows: · Conceptual: contains conceptual works oriented to: (1) review models of strategy instruction and tailor a hybrid strategy; (2) unveil second-order judgments and define a method to assess metacognitive judgments; (3) introduces a conceptual model to describe the metacognitive activity as an autopoietic system. · Framework: offers three works concerned with: (4) stimulate metacognitive skills and self-regulatory functions; (5) evaluate metacognitive skills and self-regulated learning at problem solving; (6) deal with executive management metacognition and strategic knowledge metacognition. · Studies: reports research related to: (7) uncover how metacognitive awareness of listening strategies bias listening proficiency; (8) unveil how metacognitive skills and motivation are achieved in science informal learning; (9) tackle stress at learning by means of coping strategies. · Approaches: focus on the following targets: (10) social metacognition to support collaborative problem solving; (11) metacognitive skills to be stimulated in computer supported collaborative learning; (12) metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experiences are essential for teaching practices. · Tools: promotes the use of intelligent tutoring systems such as: (13) BioWorld allows learners to practice medical diagnostic by providing virtual patient cases; (14) MetaHistoReasoning provides examples to learners and inquiries about the causes of historical events. This volume will be a source of interest for researchers, practitioners, professors, and postgraduate students aimed at updating their knowledge and finding targets for future work in the metacognition arena.

Knowing What Students Know

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309293227
Size: 48.72 MB
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Education is a hot topic. From the stage of presidential debates to tonight's dinner table, it is an issue that most Americans are deeply concerned about. While there are many strategies for improving the educational process, we need a way to find out what works and what doesn't work as well. Educational assessment seeks to determine just how well students are learning and is an integral part of our quest for improved education. The nation is pinning greater expectations on educational assessment than ever before. We look to these assessment tools when documenting whether students and institutions are truly meeting education goals. But we must stop and ask a crucial question: What kind of assessment is most effective? At a time when traditional testing is subject to increasing criticism, research suggests that new, exciting approaches to assessment may be on the horizon. Advances in the sciences of how people learn and how to measure such learning offer the hope of developing new kinds of assessments-assessments that help students succeed in school by making as clear as possible the nature of their accomplishments and the progress of their learning. Knowing What Students Know essentially explains how expanding knowledge in the scientific fields of human learning and educational measurement can form the foundations of an improved approach to assessment. These advances suggest ways that the targets of assessment-what students know and how well they know it-as well as the methods used to make inferences about student learning can be made more valid and instructionally useful. Principles for designing and using these new kinds of assessments are presented, and examples are used to illustrate the principles. Implications for policy, practice, and research are also explored. With the promise of a productive research-based approach to assessment of student learning, Knowing What Students Know will be important to education administrators, assessment designers, teachers and teacher educators, and education advocates.

Higher Order Thinking In Science Classrooms Students Learning And Teachers Professional Development

Author: Anat Zohar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402018541
Size: 67.15 MB
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How can educators bridge the gap between "big" ideas about teaching students to think and educational practice? This book addresses this question by a unique combination of theory, field experience and elaborate educational research. Its basic idea is to look at science instruction with regard to two sets of explicit goals: one set refers to teaching science concepts and the second set refers to teaching higher order thinking. This book tells about how thinking can be taught not only in the rare and unique conditions that are so typical of affluent experimental educational projects but also in the less privileged but much more common conditions of educational practice that most schools have to endure. It provides empirical evidence showing that students from all academic levels actually improve their thinking and their scientific knowledge following the thinking curricula, and discusses specific means for teaching higher order thinking to students with low academic achievements. The second part of the book addresses issues that pertain to teachers' professional development and to their knowledge and beliefs regarding the teaching of higher order thinking. This book is intended for a very large audience: researchers (including graduate students), curricular designers, practicing and pre-service teachers, college students, teacher educators and those interested in educational reform. Although the book is primarily about the development of thinking in science classrooms, most of it chapters may be of interest to educators from all disciplines.