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River City And Valley Life

Author: Christopher J. Castaneda
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
ISBN: 0822979187
Size: 49.90 MB
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Often referred to as “the Big Tomato,” Sacramento is a city whose makeup is significantly more complex than its agriculture-based sobriquet implies. In River City and Valley Life, seventeen contributors reveal the major transformations to the natural and built environment that have shaped Sacramento and its suburbs, residents, politics, and economics throughout its history. The site that would become Sacramento was settled in 1839, when Johann Augustus Sutter attempted to convert his Mexican land grant into New Helvetia (or “New Switzerland”). It was at Sutter’s sawmill fifty miles to the east that gold was first discovered, leading to the California Gold Rush of 1849. Nearly overnight, Sacramento became a boomtown, and cityhood followed in 1850. Ideally situated at the confluence of the American and Sacramento Rivers, the city was connected by waterway to San Francisco and the surrounding region. Combined with the area’s warm and sunny climate, the rivers provided the necessary water supply for agriculture to flourish. The devastation wrought by floods and cholera, however, took a huge toll on early populations and led to the construction of an extensive levee system that raised the downtown street level to combat flooding. Great fortune came when local entrepreneurs built the Central Pacific Railroad, and in 1869 it connected with the Union Pacific Railroad to form the first transcontinental passage. Sacramento soon became an industrial hub and major food-processing center. By 1879, it was named the state capital and seat of government. In the twentieth century, the Sacramento area benefitted from the federal government’s major investment in the construction and operation of three military bases and other regional public works projects. Rapid suburbanization followed along with the building of highways, bridges, schools, parks, hydroelectric dams, and the Rancho Seco nuclear power plant, which activists would later shut down. Today, several tribal gaming resorts attract patrons to the area, while “Old Sacramento” revitalizes the original downtown as it celebrates Sacramento’s pioneering past. This environmental history of Sacramento provides a compelling case study of urban and suburban development in California and the American West. As the contributors show, Sacramento has seen its landscape both ravaged and reborn. As blighted areas, rail yards, and riverfronts have been reclaimed, and parks and green spaces created and expanded, Sacramento’s identity continues to evolve. As it moves beyond its Gold Rush, Transcontinental Railroad, and government-town heritage, Sacramento remains a city and region deeply rooted in its natural environment.

Military Innovation In The Interwar Period

Author: Williamson R. Murray
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107268621
Size: 76.29 MB
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In 1914, the armies and navies that faced each other were alike right down to the strengths of their companies and battalions and the designs of their battleships and cruisers. Differences were of degree rather than essence. During the interwar period, however, the armed forces grew increasingly asymmetrical, developing different approaches to the same problems. This study of major military innovations in the 1920s and 1930s explores differences in exploitation by the seven major military powers. The comparative essays investigate how and why innovation occurred or did not occur, and explain much of the strategic and operative performance of the Axis and Allies in World War II. The essays focus on several instances of how military services developed new technology and weapons and incorporated them into their doctrine, organisation and styles of operations.

Der Bombenkrieg

Author: Richard Overy
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 3644117519
Size: 74.47 MB
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Nichts hat die Zerstörungskraft des Zweiten Weltkriegs so sehr ins kollektive Gedächtnis eingebrannt wie der Bombenkrieg: Mit nie da gewesener Gewalt vernichtete er Dutzende Städte in ganz Europa, 600000 Menschen starben, Millionen verloren alles; die Ruinen von Coventry oder Dresden wurden zu Symbolen einer technischen, menschengemachten Apokalypse. In der ersten umfassenden Darstellung erzählt Richard Overy die Geschichte dieses Krieges. Er schildert die Anfänge der neuen Strategie des «Moral Bombing», ihre Entwicklung wie schließlich ihr Scheitern, und er deckt zahlreiche Mythen und Irrtümer auf, die bis heute kursieren. Erstmals entsteht ein internationales Gesamtbild, von der Offensive gegen das Ruhrgebiet bis zu den «Baedeker-Angriffen», die unschätzbares historisches Erbe auslöschten, von den deutschen Bomben auf Stalingrad bis zu wenig bekannten Schauplätzen wie Rom oder Bulgarien. Overy zeigt, warum der Luftkrieg trotz Ineffektivität und mörderischer Kosten ausgeweitet wurde, welche Rolle Hermann Göring oder General Harris dabei spielten. Aber auch die kulturellen und menschlichen Verheerungen treten vor Augen, die Not und Hoffnung in den Luftschutzkellern wie bei den Piloten. Richard Overy zeichnet ein monumentales Panorama Europas in dunkler Zeit – das Standardwerk über den Bombenkrieg.

One Hundred Years Of Air Power And Aviation

Author: Robin D. S. Higham
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9781585442416
Size: 20.53 MB
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In this precise, interpretive and informative volume, Higham looks at everything from the roots of strategic bombing and tactical air power to the lessons learned and unlearned during the invasion of Ethiopia, the war in China and the Spanish Civil War. He also considers the problems posed by jet aircraft in Korea and the use of Patriot missiles in the Persian Gulf. He covers anti-guerrilla operations, doctrine, industrial activities and equipment, as well as the development of commercial airlines.

American Military Aviation

Author: Charles Joseph Gross
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9781585442553
Size: 24.53 MB
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Discusses major developments in aircraft, doctrine, training, and operations. The author also provides discussions of airlife, in-flight refueling, military budgets, industry, and inter-service squabbling. He deftly sketches the evolution of the air arms of each of the different services and provides clear analyisis of military budgets.

Alexander P De Seversky And The Quest For Air Power

Author: James K. Libbey
Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.
ISBN: 1612341802
Size: 34.66 MB
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Today, air power is a vital component of the U.S. armed forces. James Libbey, in Alexander P. de Seversky and the Quest for Air Power, highlights the contributions of an aviation pioneer who made much of it possible. Graduating from the Imperial Russian Naval Academy at the start of World War I, de Seversky lost a leg in his first combat mission. He still shot down thirteen German planes and became the empire's most decorated combat naval pilot. While serving as a naval attache in the United States in 1918, de Seversky elected to escape the Bolshevik Revolution and offered his services as a pilot and consulting engineer to the U.S. War Department. He proved inventive both in the technology of advanced military aircraft and in the strategy of exercising air power. He worked for famed aviation advocate Gen. William "Billy" Mitchell, who encouraged the naturalized citizen to patent his inventions, such as an in-flight refueling system and a gyroscopically synchronized bombsight. His creative spirit then spurred him to design and manufacture advanced military aircraft. When World War II broke out in Europe, de Seversky became America's best-known philosopher, prophet, and advocate for air power, even serving as an adviser to the chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force. The highlight of his life occurred in 1970 when the Aviation Hall of Fame enshrined de Seversky for "his achievements as a pilot, aeronautical engineer, inventor, industrialist, author, strategist, consultant, and scientific advances in aircraft design and aerospace technology." This book will appeal to readers with a special interest in military history and to anyone who wants to learn more about American air power's most important figures.