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Beam

Author: Jeff Hecht
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198032498
Size: 39.56 MB
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In 1954, Charles Townes invented the laser's microwave cousin, the maser. The next logical step was to extend the same physical principles to the shorter wavelengths of light, but the idea did not catch fire until October 1957, when Townes asked Gordon Gould about Gould's research on using light to excite thallium atoms. Each took the idea and ran with it. The independent-minded Gould sought the fortune of an independent inventor; the professorial Townes sought the fame of scientific recognition. Townes enlisted the help of his brother-in-law, Arthur Schawlow, and got Bell Labs into the race. Gould turned his ideas into a patent application and a million-dollar defense contract. They soon had company. Ali Javan, one of Townes's former students, began pulling 90-hour weeks at Bell Labs with colleague Bill Bennett. And far away in California a bright young physicist named Ted Maiman became a very dark horse in the race. While Schawlow proclaimed that ruby could never make a laser, Maiman slowly convinced himself it would. As others struggled with recalcitrant equipment and military secrecy, Maiman built a tiny and elegant device that fit in the palm of his hand. His ruby laser worked the first time he tried it, on May 16, 1960, but afterwards he had to battle for acceptance as the man who made the first laser. Beam is a fascinating tale of a remarkable and powerful invention that has become a symbol of modern technology.

How The Ray Gun Got Its Zap

Author: Stephen R. Wilk
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199948011
Size: 38.66 MB
Format: PDF
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A collection of engaging essays that discusses odd and unusual topics in optics

Beam Weapons

Author: Jeff Hecht
Publisher: Jeff Hecht
ISBN: 0306415461
Size: 55.26 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Beam Weapons examines the directed-energy weapons that became a central part of the Reagan Administration's Strategic Defense Initiative, better known as "Star Wars." First published in 1984, it describes the science and technology behind directed energy weapons, the state of the art at the time Reagan launched the program, and the military issues involved. The first full-length book published on the topic, it exhaustively documents the technical and military realities and uncertainties.

Understanding Light Microscopy

Author: Jeremy Sanderson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118696743
Size: 60.48 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Introduces readers to the enlightening world of the modern light microscope There have been rapid advances in science and technology over the last decade, and the light microscope, together with the information that it gives about the image, has changed too. Yet the fundamental principles of setting up and using a microscope rests upon unchanging physical principles that have been understood for years. This informative, practical, full-colour guide fills the gap between specialised edited texts on detailed research topics, and introductory books, which concentrate on an optical approach to the light microscope. It also provides comprehensive coverage of confocal microscopy, which has revolutionised light microscopy over the last few decades. Written to help the reader understand, set up, and use the often very expensive and complex modern research light microscope properly, Understanding Light Microscopy keeps mathematical formulae to a minimum—containing and explaining them within boxes in the text. Chapters provide in-depth coverage of basic microscope optics and design; ergonomics; illumination; diffraction and image formation; reflected-light, polarised-light, and fluorescence microscopy; deconvolution; TIRF microscopy; FRAP & FRET; super-resolution techniques; biological and materials specimen preparation; and more. Gives a didactic introduction to the light microscope Encourages readers to use advanced fluorescence and confocal microscopes within a research institute or core microscopy facility Features full-colour illustrations and workable practical protocols Understanding Light Microscopy is intended for any scientist who wishes to understand and use a modern light microscope. It is also ideal as supporting material for a formal taught course, or for individual students to learn the key aspects of light microscopy through their own study.

Principles And Practice Of Laser Dentistry E Book

Author: Robert A. Convissar
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 032307989X
Size: 11.37 MB
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Expand your skills in the rapidly growing field of laser dentistry! Principles and Practice of Laser Dentistry uses a concise, evidence-based approach in describing protocols and procedures. Dr. Robert A. Convissar, a renowned lecturer on this subject, has assembled a diverse panel of international contributors; he’s also one of the first general dentists to use lasers in his practice. The book covers the history of lasers in dentistry and laser research, plus the use of lasers in periodontics, periodontal surgery, oral pathology, implantology, fixed and removable prosthetics, cosmetic procedures, endodontics, operative dentistry, pediatrics, orthodontics, and oral and maxillofacial surgery. Full-color images show the latest laser technology, surgical techniques, and key steps in patient treatment. Full-color photos and illustrations demonstrate surgical techniques and key teaching points. A Laser Fundamentals chapter describes the physics of lasers and the wavelengths that can produce better outcomes. Introducing Lasers into the Dental Practice chapter provides guidelines on investing in laser technology and in marketing this new procedure. Clinical Tip and Caution boxes include advice and alerts that can only be offered by a seasoned practitioner of 27 years.

How We Got To Now

Author: Steven Johnson
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 0698154509
Size: 35.74 MB
Format: PDF
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From the New York Times–bestselling author of Where Good Ideas Come From and Farsighted, a new look at the power and legacy of great ideas. In this illustrated history, Steven Johnson explores the history of innovation over centuries, tracing facets of modern life (refrigeration, clocks, and eyeglass lenses, to name a few) from their creation by hobbyists, amateurs, and entrepreneurs to their unintended historical consequences. Filled with surprising stories of accidental genius and brilliant mistakes—from the French publisher who invented the phonograph before Edison but forgot to include playback, to the Hollywood movie star who helped invent the technology behind Wi-Fi and Bluetooth—How We Got to Now investigates the secret history behind the everyday objects of contemporary life. In his trademark style, Johnson examines unexpected connections between seemingly unrelated fields: how the invention of air-conditioning enabled the largest migration of human beings in the history of the species—to cities such as Dubai or Phoenix, which would otherwise be virtually uninhabitable; how pendulum clocks helped trigger the industrial revolution; and how clean water made it possible to manufacture computer chips. Accompanied by a major six-part television series on PBS, How We Got to Now is the story of collaborative networks building the modern world, written in the provocative, informative, and engaging style that has earned Johnson fans around the globe.

Lasers Death Rays And The Long Strange Quest For The Ultimate Weapon

Author: Jeff Hecht
Publisher: Prometheus Books
ISBN: 1633884619
Size: 40.23 MB
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The whole story of laser weapons with a focus on its many interesting characters and sometimes bizarre schemes The laser--a milestone invention of the mid-twentieth century--quickly captured the imagination of the Pentagon as the key to the ultimate weapon. Veteran science writer Jeff Hecht tells the inside story of the adventures and misadventures of scientists and military strategists as they exerted Herculean though often futile efforts to adapt the laser for military uses. From the 1950s' sci-fi vision of the "death ray," through the Reagan administration's "Star Wars" missile defense system, to more promising developments today, Hecht provides an entertaining history. As the author illustrates, there has always been a great deal of enthusiasm and false starts surrounding lasers. He describes a giant laser that filled a Boeing 747, lasers powered like rocket engines, plans for an orbiting fleet of robotic laser battle stations to destroy nuclear missiles, claims that nuclear bombs could produce intense X-ray laser beams, and a scheme to bounce laser beams off giant orbiting relay mirrors. Those far-out ideas remain science fiction. Meanwhile, in civilian sectors, the laser is already being successfully used in fiber optic cables, scanners, medical devices, and industrial cutting tools. Now those laser cutting tools are leading to a new generation of laser weapons that just might stop insurgent rockets. Replete with interesting characters, bizarre schemes, and wonderful inventions, this is a well-told tale about the evolution of technology and the reaches of human ambition.

Laser

Author: Nick Taylor
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 0743213211
Size: 51.92 MB
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In 1957 Gordon Gould, then an obscure physicist and perennial graduate student, conceived one of the revolutionary inventions of the twentieth century -- the laser. But before he could submit a patent application, a prominent professor of physics whose office was next door to Gould's filed his own laser patent claims. Gould fought to reclaim the rights to his work, beginning a battle that would last nearly thirty years. Many millions of dollars, as well as the integrity of scientific claims, were at stake in the litigation that ensued.Laseris Gould's story -- and an eye-opening look at the patent process in America, the nexus of the worlds of business and science. Gould was struggling to finish his Ph.D. thesis when he struck upon the concept for the laser, or Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Light waves, Gould realized, would form a single concentrated beam when reflected between two mirrors inside a gas-filled chamber. Even as he was sketching his invention, Gould foresaw the tremendous potential of the laser in industry, communications, and the military. For three days he feverishly documented his ideas in a notebook, which he had notarized in a candy store near his Bronx apartment. A small technology firm took a great interest in Gould's laser and soon won a Defense Department contract to develop lasers for the military. Ironically, Gould was denied a security clearance because of his past communist associations, and so was unable to work on his own invention. He could only watch from the sidelines as colleagues tried to build a working laser in a desperate race with larger, better-funded research labs. Meanwhile, Gould's rival, Charles Townes, had everything that Gould lacked, most notably important academic and government appointments and esteem in the scientific community. In the dispute between the two men, few doubted Townes's word, while nearly everyone scoffed at Gould's claims. But Gould's determination was unyielding, and he fought everyone who stood in his way, including the U.S. Patent Office, major corporations, and the entire laser industry, until he finally won. Gordon Gould, the courts ruled, had invented the laser. Laseris a grand story of technology and law. Nick Taylor has extensively interviewed Gould as well as other key participants in the battle over the laser's invention and patents. In this riveting account of genius, rivalry, and greed, he shows just how difficult it is for the legendary lone inventor to prevail when the license to a valuable invention is at stake.

Princ Pios E Pr Ticas Do Laser Na Odontologia

Author: Robert A. Convissar
Publisher: Elsevier Brasil
ISBN: 8535252878
Size: 59.80 MB
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Princípios e Práticas do Laser na Odontologia apresenta uma abordagem concisa e baseada em evidências científicas para descrever protocolos e procedimentos. Dr. Robert A. Convissar, um renomado professor da área e um dos primeiros dentistas a utilizar lasers na prática da clínica odontológica geral, conseguiu agrupar um painel diverso de colaboradores internacionais. O livro mostra desde a história dos lasers na odontologia até as pesquisas mais recentes com laser, e ainda o uso dos lasers não cirúrgicos, cirúrgicos, e periodontia regenerativa, patologia oral, implantodontia, prótese fixa e removível, procedimentos estéticos, endodônticos, dentística operatória, odontologia pediátrica, ortodôntica e cirurgia oral e maxilofacial.

High Energy Laser Hel

Author: Bahman Zohuri
Publisher: Trafford Publishing
ISBN: 1490751378
Size: 66.98 MB
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Directed Energy Weapons is nothing new to mankind, historically the origination of such weapons falls in centuries ago when first time the famous Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer Archimedes of Syracuse used different mirrors to collect sunbeams and focusing them on Romans fleet in order to destroy enemy ships with fire. This is known as the Archimedes Heat Ray. Archimedes may have used mirrors acting collectively as a parabolic reflector to burn ships attacking Syracuse. The device was used to focus sunlight onto approaching ships, causing them to catch fire. Of course the myth or reality of Archimedes Heat Ray still is a questionable story, but certain experiments with the help of a group of students from Massachusetts Institute of Technology was carried out with 127 one-foot (30 cm) square mirror tiles in October of 2005 that was focused on a mock-up wooden ship at a range of around 100 feet (30 m). The flames broke out on a patch of the ship, but only after the sky had been cloudless and the ship had remained stationary for around ten minutes. It was concluded the device was a feasible weapon under these conditions.