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Behavioural Adaptation And Road Safety

Author: Christina Rudin-Brown
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439856672
Size: 38.28 MB
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Despite being an accepted construct in traffic and transport psychology, the precise nature of behavioural adaptation, including its causes and consequences, has not yet been established within the road safety community. A comprehensive collection of recent literature, Behavioural Adaptation and Road Safety: Theory, Evidence, and Action explores behavioural adaptation in road users. It examines behavioural adaptation within the context of historical and theoretical perspectives, and puts forth tangible—and practical—solutions that can effectively address adverse behavioural adaptation to road safety interventions before it occurs. Edited by Christina Rudin-Brown and Samantha Jamson, with chapters authored by leading road safety experts in driver psychology and behaviour, the book introduces the concept of behavioural adaptation and details its more relevant issues. It reviews the definition of behavioural adaptation that was put forward by the OECD in 1990 and then puts this definition through its paces, identifying where it may be lacking and how it might be improved. This sets the context for the remaining chapters which take the OECD definition as their starting points. The book discusses the various theories and models of behavioural adaptation and more general theories of driver behaviour developed during the last half century. It provides examples of the "evidence" for behavioural adaptation—instances in which behavioural adaptation arose as a consequence of the introduction of safety countermeasures. The book then focuses on the internal, "human" element and considers countermeasures that might be used to limit the development of behavioural adaptation in various road user groups. The book concludes with practical tools and methodologies to address behavioural adaptation in research and design, and to limit the potential negative effects before they happen. Supplying easy-to-understand, accessible solutions that can be implemented early on in a road safety intervention’s design or conception phase, the chapters represent the most extensive compilation of literature relating to behavioural adaptation and its consequences since the 1990 OECD report. The book brings together earlier theories of behavioural adaptation with more recent theories in the area and combines them with practical advice, methods, and tangible solutions that can minimise the potential negative impact of behavioural adaptation on road user safety and address it before it occurs. It is an essential component of any road safety library, and should be of particular relevance to researchers, practitioners, designers, and policymakers who are interested in maximizing safety while at the same time encouraging innovation and excellence in road transport-related design.

Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Fatigue Long Term Health And Highway Safety

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309392527
Size: 57.42 MB
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There are approximately 4,000 fatalities in crashes involving trucks and buses in the United States each year. Though estimates are wide-ranging, possibly 10 to 20 percent of these crashes might have involved fatigued drivers. The stresses associated with their particular jobs (irregular schedules, etc.) and the lifestyle that many truck and bus drivers lead, puts them at substantial risk for insufficient sleep and for developing short- and long-term health problems. Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Fatigue, Long-Term Health and Highway Safety assesses the state of knowledge about the relationship of such factors as hours of driving, hours on duty, and periods of rest to the fatigue experienced by truck and bus drivers while driving and the implications for the safe operation of their vehicles. This report evaluates the relationship of these factors to drivers’ health over the longer term, and identifies improvements in data and research methods that can lead to better understanding in both areas.

Automobile Automation

Author: Victoria A. Banks
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315295636
Size: 57.51 MB
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Increasing levels of driving automation has changed the role of the driver from active operator to passive monitor. However, Systems Design has been plagued by criticism for failing to acknowledge the new role of the driver within the system network. To understand the driver's new role within an automated driving system, the theory of Distributed Cognition is adopted. This approach provides a useful framework for the investigation of allocation of function between multiple agents in the driving system. A Systems Design Framework has been developed that outlines how the Distributed Cognition paradigm can be applied to driving using both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies.

Das Unbeschriebene Blatt

Author: Steven Pinker
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
ISBN: 3104903905
Size: 60.68 MB
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Mit einem aktuellen Vorwort zur Neuausgabe! Auf John Locke geht die Vorstellung zurück, der Mensch sei ein leeres Blatt, auf dem im Verlauf des Lebens die persönlichen Erfahrungen eingetragen werden. In seinem mittlerweile klassischen Buch »Das unbeschriebene Blatt. Die moderne Leugnung der menschlichen Natur« bezieht Bestseller-Autor Steven Pinker ganz die Gegenposition: Mit Witz, Brillanz und Gelehrsamkeit analysiert er die Geschichte dieser Idee und zeigt, wie falsch sie ist – mit allen kruden Auswirkungen auf Vorstellungen von Sexualität, Rasse, Kindererziehung, Intelligenz usw. Die Rolle der Gene wird systematisch unterschätzt; aber das bedeutet nicht, dass wir ihnen völlig ausgeliefert sind. Pinker zeigt nämlich auch, wie befreiend diese Sichtweise sein kann. Ein unterhaltsames und anschauliches Buch zur Natur des Menschen, ein echter Lesegenuss.

Injury And Violence Prevention

Author: Andrea Carlson Gielen
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
ISBN: 9780787977641
Size: 31.77 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Injury and Violence Prevention: Behavioral Science Theories, Methods, and Applications is a cutting-edge volume that provides a comprehensive understanding of injury and violence prevention. This detailed resource draws on the breadth and depth of many scientific disciplines and public health practice experiences. Written by internationally renowned experts in the field, Injury and Violence Prevention emphasizes the specific theories, methods, and applications that make behavioral science approaches relevant and central to reducing injury-related harm. The book covers a wide range of topics, including the most frequently used behavior change theories and models and shows how they have been¾or could be¾applied to injury problems, the most commonly used research methods for understanding and influencing behavior change, behavior change issues for specific injury topic areas, and a variety of cross-cutting issues important to the field.