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Biocatalysis In Oil Refining

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080545127
Size: 53.99 MB
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Biocatalysis in Oil Refining focuses on petroleum refining bioprocesses, establishing a connection between science and technology. The micro organisms and biomolecules examined for biocatalytic purposes for oil refining processes are thoroughly detailed. Terminology used by biologists, chemists and engineers is brought into a common language, aiding the understanding of complex biological-chemical-engineering issues. Problems to be addressed by the future R&D activities and by new technologies are described and summarized in the last chapter. * Updated references * Studying bioprocessing problems, looking at opportunities for improvements and technology developments

Biodesulfurization In Petroleum Refining

Author: Nour Shafik El-Gendy
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111922408X
Size: 28.58 MB
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Petroleum refining and process engineering is constantly changing. No new refineries are being built, but companies all over the world are still expanding or re-purposing huge percentages of their refineries every year, year after year. Rather than building entirely new plants, companies are spending billions of dollars in the research and development of new processes that can save time and money by being more efficient and environmentally safer. Biodesulfurization is one of those processes, and nowhere else it is covered more thoroughly or with more up-to-date research of the new advances than in this new volume from Wiley-Scrivener. Crude oil consists of hydrocarbons, along with other minerals and trace elements. Sulfur is the most abundant element after carbon and hydrogen, then comes after it nitrogen, and they usually concentrated in the higher boiling fractions of the crude oil. The presence of sulfur compounds causes the corrosion of refining facilities and catalysts poisoning. Moreover, the presence of nitrogen-compounds directly impacts the refining processes via; poisoning the cracking catalysts and inhibiting the hydrodesulfurization catalysts. In addition, both have bad impacts on the environment, throughout the sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions. Removing this sulfur and nitrogen from the refining process protects equipment and the environment and creates a more efficient and cost-effective process. Besides the obvious benefits to biodesulfurization, there are new regulations in place within the industry with which companies will, over the next decade or longer, spend literally tens, if not hundreds, of billions of dollars to comply. Whether for the veteran engineer needing to update his or her library, the beginning engineer just learning about biodesulfurization, or even the student in a chemical engineering class, this outstanding new volume is a must-have. Especially it covers also the bioupgrading of crude oil and its fractions, biodenitrogenation technology and application of nanotechnology on both bio-desulfurization and denitrogenation technologies.

Science And Technology In Catalysis 2006

Author: Koichi Eguchi
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444532022
Size: 60.91 MB
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Unsteady-state operations of catalytic reactors provide plentiful opportunities for research and commercial realization of efficient heterogeneous catalytic processes. Forced unsteady state conditions generate unique distributions of process parameters and catalyst states often unattainable with traditional, steady-state operation. The unsteady-states can be created by periodic changes in input flow parameters, such as changes in inlet temperature and composition, catalyst circulation through reaction and regeneration zones, or periodic flow reversals through fixed catalyst bed. This can result in increased productivity, selectivity, capital savings and operating cost reduction (higher energy efficiency). Efficient environmental technologies for treatment of toxic emissions, acid rain and greenhouse gas emissions can also be developed using the unsteady-state concept. The Proceedings communicate recent progress in these areas of research and promote future development. The aims are to establish relations between academia, industry, engineers and scientists from all over the world, to stimulate new catalytic technologies as well as fundamental research, and to create new concepts for the development of effective catalytic systems. It presents the most up-to-date research in catalysis. - contains the most recent developments in catalytic research - includes research finding as well as their application to industry - a thorough source of information on the latest developments of industrial catalysis in Japan

The Chemistry And Technology Of Petroleum Fifth Edition

Author: James G. Speight
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439873909
Size: 53.89 MB
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With demand for petroleum products increasing worldwide, there is a tendency for existing refineries to seek new approaches to optimize efficiency and throughput. In addition, changes in product specifications due to environmental regulations greatly influence the development of petroleum refining technologies. These factors underlie the need for this fifth edition of The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum, which continues in the tradition of the bestselling fourth edition, proving readers with a detailed overview of the chemistry and technology of petroleum as it evolves into the twenty-first century. The new edition has been updated with the latest developments in the refining industry, including new processes as well as updates on evolving processes and various environmental regulations. The book covers issues related to economics and future refineries, examines the changing character of refinery feedstock, and offers new discussions on environmental aspects of refining. It contains more than 300 figures and tables, including chemical structures and process flow sheets. A useful reference for scientists and engineers in the petroleum industry as well as in the catalyst manufacturing industry, this book introduces readers to the science and technology of petroleum, beginning with its formation in the ground and culminating in the production of a wide variety of products and petrochemical intermediates.

Petroleum Biotechnology

Author: Rafael Vazquez-Duhalt
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080473710
Size: 60.24 MB
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This book is one of a kind in the field of petroleum biorefining and biological upgrade of petroleum; it presents a critical review as well as an integrated overview of the potential biochemical processes, bridging the gap between academia and industry. It addresses today’s demanding production challenges, taking into account energy efficient and environmentally friendly processes, and also looks at the future possibility of implementing new refinery systems. Suitable for those practitioners the petroleum industry, students and researchers interested in petroleum biotechnology. * Covers a new application field for biotechnology * Looks at innovative processes for the petroleum industry * Presents examples of modern environmental processes

Catalysts For Upgrading Heavy Petroleum Feeds

Author: Edward Furimsky
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080549314
Size: 26.15 MB
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The book provides the most up-to-date information on testing and development of hydroprocessing catalysts with the aim to improve performance of the conventional and modified catalysts as well as to develop novel catalytic formulations. Besides diverse chemical composition, special attention is devoted to pore size and pore volume distribution of the catalysts. Properties of the catalysts are discussed in terms of their suitability for upgrading heavy feeds. For this purpose atmospheric residue was chosen as the base for defining other heavy feeds which comprise vacuum gas oil, deasphalted oil and vacuum residues in addition to topped heavy crude and bitumen. Attention is paid to deactivation with the aim to extent catalyst life during the operation. Into consideration is taken the loss of activity due to fouling, metal deposition, coke formed as the result of chemical reaction and poisoning by nitrogen bases. Mathematical models were reviewed focussing on those which can simulate performance of the commercial operations. Configurations of hydroprocessing reactors were compared in terms of their capability to upgrade various heavy feeds providing that a suitable catalyst was selected. Strategies for regeneration, utilization and disposal of spent hydroprocesing catalysts were evaluated. Potential of the non-conventional hydroprocessing involving soluble/dispersed catalysts and biocatalysts in comparison with conventional methods were assessed to identify issues which prevent commercial utilization of the former. A separate chapter is devoted to catalytic dewaxing because the structure of dewaxing catalysts is rather different than that of hydroprocessing catalysts, i.e., the objective of catalytic dewaxing is different than that of the conventional hydroprocessing, The relevant information in the scientific literature is complemented with the Patent literature covering the development of catalysts and novel reactor configurations. Separate chapter was added to distinguish upgrading capabilities of the residues catalytic cracking processes from those employing hydroprocessing. Upper limits on the content of carbon residue and metals in the feeds which can still be upgraded by the former processes differ markedly from those in the feeds which can be upgraded by hydroprocessing. It is necessary that the costs of modifications of catalytic cracking processes to accommodate heavier feeds are compared with that of hydroprocessing methods. Objective of the short chapter on upgrading by carbon rejecting processes was to identify limits of contaminants in heavy feeds beyond which catalytic upgrading via hydroprocessing becomes uneconomical because of the costs of catalyst inventory and that of reactors and equipment. - Comprehensive and most recent information on hydroprocessing catalysts for upgrading heavy petroleum feeds. - Compares conventional, modified and novel catalysts for upgrading a wide range of heavy petroleum feeds. - Comparison of conventional with non-conventional hydroprocessing, the latter involving soluble/dispersed catalysts and biocatalysts. - Development and comparison of mathematical models to simulate performance of catalytic reactors including most problematic feeds. - Residues upgrading by catalytic cracking in comparison to hydroprocessing.

Natural Gas Conversion Viii

Author: Fábio Bellot Noronha
Publisher: Elsevier Science
ISBN:
Size: 30.23 MB
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This volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts describing the scientific and technological advances presented at the 8th Natural gas Conversion Symposium held in Natal-Brazil, May 27-31, 2007. This symposium continues the tradition of excellence and the status as the premier technical meeting in this area established by previous meetings. The manuscripts have been divided into eight different topics, Industrial Processes, Economics, Technology Demonstration and Commercial Activities;, Production of Hydrogen from Methane, Methanol, and Other Sources; Production of Synthesis; Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of Hydrocarbons; From Synthesis Gas to; Catalytic Combustion; From Natural Gas to Chemicals; Light Hydrocarbons; and Production and Conversion. These are the most interesting subjects in the utilization of natural gas with recent scientific innovation and technological advances. The book is of interest to all students and researchers active in utilization of natural gas. * Research comes from the most important industries and research centres in the field * Features new studies from all around the world * Important for consulting and updating research and development data

Catalysis

Author: B. Viswanathan
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849324246
Size: 45.17 MB
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Students contemplating careers in chemistry, whether in research, practice, or academia, obviously need a solid grounding in proper research methodology, reasoning, and analysis. However, there are few resources available that efficiently and effectively introduce these concepts and techniques and inspire students to undertake advanced research, particularly in the area of catalysis. Catalysis: Principles and Applications evolved out of a special, resoundingly successful short course for graduate students interested in catalysis. It covers nearly the entire gamut of the subject, from its fundamentals to its modern, applied aspects. The chapters were contributed by catalysis specialists from leading academic institutions, national laboratories and industrial R&D labs. Because they are based on the authors' lecture notes, each chapter is highly accessible and for the most part self-contained. Topics include various spectroscopic methods, biocatalysis, x-ray and thermal analysis, photocatalysis, and recent developments, such as solid acid catalysts, fine chemical synthesis, and computer-aided catalyst design. The book also contains discussions on a variety of modern applications, including environmental pollution control, petroleum refining, fuel cells, and monomolecular films. Logically presented, well-illustrated, and thoroughly referenced, Catalysis: Principles and Applications offers an outstanding basis for courses in catalysis. It not only imparts the fundamentals, synthesis, characterization, and applications of catalysis, but does so in a way that will motivate students to pursue more advanced studies and ultimately careers in the field.