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Biodegradation Of Nitroaromatic Compounds And Explosives

Author: Jim C. Spain
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420032674
Size: 62.90 MB
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Filled with practical applications and research, Biodegradation of Nitroaromatic Compounds and Explosives presents an international perspective on environmental contamination from explosives. It covers biodegradation strategies for DNT and a wide variety of other nitroaromatic compounds of environmental significance and makes the information accessible to practicing environmental and chemical engineers. Biodegradation of Nitroaromatic Compounds and Explosives gives you a synthesis of ongoing research and an appreciation of the remarkable range of biochemical strategies available for the transformation of nitroaromatic compounds. It provides a realistic assessment of the current and potential field applications of the various strategies.

Biodegradation Of Nitroaromatic Compounds

Author: Jim C. Spain
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475794479
Size: 27.96 MB
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During the past five years increased awareness of environmental contamination by nitroaromatic compounds has led to a dramatic increase in research on their biodegradation. The resulting discoveries have markedly extended our understanding of degradation mecha nisms and pathways in bacteria and fungi. Futhermore, this new basic knowledge promises the development of field applications of biodegradation systems for nitroaromatic com pounds. In May of 1994, an International Symposium on the Biodegradation of Nitro aromatic Compounds was held in Las Vegas, Nevada. This symposium brought together the scientists at the frontiers of research into the biodegradation of nitro aromatic compounds. The invited speakers were asked to review their area of expertise and write a critical, comprehensive synthesis of their work and related work by others. This book is the result of their efforts. The emphasis of the reviews is on basic research in biodegradation and biotransfor mation. Therefore, the reactions of nitroaromatic compounds in plants, animals, bacteria, fungi, soil, and even nonbiological systems are considered. The goal of the work is to provide the reader with an appreciation of the tremendous range of possibilities for metabolism of aromatic nitro compounds and the experimental approaches used to understand them. This volume should be of interest to biochemists, microbiologists, engineers, toxicologists, and anyone interested in the behavior of synthetic chemicals in the environment or in living systems. Furthermore, a variety of commercial applications can be envisioned for some of the reactions described here.

Ecotoxicology Of Explosives

Author: Geoffrey I. Sunahara
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420004342
Size: 53.87 MB
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Managing sites contaminated with munitions constituents is an international challenge. Although the choice of approach and the use of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) tools may vary from country to country, the assurance of quality and the direction of ecotoxicological research are universally recognized as shared concerns. Drawing on a multidisciplinary team of contributors, Ecotoxicology of Explosives provides comprehenisve and critical reviews available to date on fate, transport, and effects of explosives. The book delineates the state of the science of the ecotoxicology of explosives, past, present, and recently developed. It reviews the accessible fate and ecotoxicological data for energetic materials (EMs) and the methods for their development. The chapters characterize the fate of explosives in the environment, then provide information on their ecological effects in key environmental media, including aquatic, sedimentary, and terrestrial habitats. The book also discusses approaches for assembling these lines of evidence for risk assessment purposes. The chapter authors have critically examined the peer-reviewed literature to identify and prioritize the knowledge gaps and to recommend future areas of research. The editors include a review of the genotoxic effects of the EMs and the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of these chemicals. They also discuss the transport, transformation, and degradation pathways of these chemicals in the environment that underlie the potential hazardous impact and bioaccumulation of EMs in different terrestrial and aquatic ecologiocal receptors. This information translates into practical applications for the environmental risk assessment of EM-contaminated sites and into recommendations for the sustainable use of defense installations.

Fungal Biotechnology In Agricultural Food And Environmental Applications

Author: Dilip K. Arora
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824747701
Size: 25.91 MB
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Contributions from 80 world-renowned authorities representing a broad international background lend Fungal Biotechnology in Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Applicationsfirst-class information on the biotechnological potential of entomopathogenic fungi and ergot alkaloids, applications of Trichoderma in disease control, and the development of mycoherbicides. Additional topics include fungal control of nematodes, control of plant disease by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, strategies for controlling vegetable and fruit crops, molecular biology tactics with mycotoxigenic fungi and the development of biofungicides, production of edible fungi, fermented foods, and high-value products like mycoprotein.

Applied Bioremediation And Phytoremediation

Author: Ajay Singh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540210207
Size: 46.27 MB
Format: PDF
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The huge expansion of the chemical and petroleum industries in the twentieth century has resulted in the production of a vast array of chem ical compounds and materials that have transformed our lives. The associated large-scale manufacturing, processing and handling activi ties have caused a serious deterioration in environmental quality and created threats to human health. These negative impacts have led to responses and regulations requiring remedial action in support of envi ronmental sustainability. of biotechnological methods through bioremediation, Application has gained prominence as an option for soil remediation methods. Bioremediation is a multidisciplinary approach where biologists, chem ists, soil scientists and engineers work as team to develop and imple ment remediation processes. Bioremediation has now been used successfully to remediate many petroleum-contaminated sites. However, there are as yet no commercial technologies commonly used to reme diate the most recalcitrant contaminants. Nevertheless, bioremediation is a rapidly advancing field and new bio-based remedial technologies are continuing to emerge.

Microbial Degradation Of Xenobiotics

Author: Shree Nath Singh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642237898
Size: 56.81 MB
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Our interest in the microbial biodegradation of xenobiotics has increased many folds in recent years to find out sustainable ways for environmental cleanup. Bioremediation and biotransformation processes harness the naturally occurring ability of microbes to degrade, transform or accumulate a wide range of organic pollutants. Major methodological breakthroughs in recent years through detailed genomic, metagenomic, proteomic, bioinformatic and other high-throughput analyses of environmentally relevant microorganisms have provided us unprecedented insights into key biodegradative pathways and the ability of organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The degradation of a wide spectrum of organic pollutants and wastes discharged into the environment by anthropogenic activities is an emerging need today to promote sustainable development of our society with low environmental impact. Microbial processes play a major role in the removal of recalcitrant compounds taking advantage of the astonishing catabolic versatility of microorganisms to degrade or transform such compounds. New breakthroughs in sequencing, genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics and imaging are generating vital information which opens a new era providing new insights of metabolic and regulatory networks, as well as clues to the evolution of degradation pathways and to the molecular adaptation strategies to changing environmental conditions. Functional genomic and metagenomic approaches are increasing our understanding of the relative importance of different pathways and regulatory networks to carbon flux in particular environments and for particular compounds. New approaches will certainly accelerate the development of bioremediation technologies and biotransformation processes in coming years for natural attenuation of contaminated environments

Biotreatment Of Industrial Effluents

Author: Mukesh Doble
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080456219
Size: 54.70 MB
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With increasing government regulation of pollution, as well as willingness to levy punitive fines for transgressions, treatment of industrial waste is a important subject. This book is a single source of information on treatment procedures using biochemical means for all types of solid, liquid and gaseous contaminants generated by various chemical and allied industries. This book is intended for practicing environmental engineers and technologists from any industry as well as researchers and professors. The topics covered include the treatment of gaseous, liquid and solid waste from a large number of chemical and allied industries that include dye stuff, chemical, alcohol, food processing, pesticide, pharmaceuticals, paint etc. Information on aerobic and anaerobic reactors and modeling and simulation of waste treatment systems are also discussed. * Compares chemical and biochemical means of industrial waste treatment * Provides details of technology (i.e. reactors, operating conditions etc) with regard to the biochemistry aspects. * Can be used as a teaching aid for graduate courses and a reference material by practicing environmental scientists and engineers. * Researchers can extract synergy between treatment procedures and various effluents.

Biological Remediation Of Explosive Residues

Author: Shree Nath Singh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319010832
Size: 59.25 MB
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Microbial degradation, Phytoremediation, Remediation, Explosive residues, Biotransformation, Mineralization, Degradative Enzymes, Degradation Pathways, Energetics, Soil contamination, Water contamination.

Aspects Of Explosives Detection

Author: Maurice Marshall
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080923147
Size: 79.63 MB
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Detection and quantification of trace chemicals is a major thrust of analytical chemistry. In recent years much effort has been spent developing detection systems for priority pollutants. Less mature are the detections of substances of interest to law enforcement and security personnel:in particular explosives. This volume will discuss the detection of these, not only setting out the theoretical fundamentals, but also emphasizing the remarkable developments in the last decade. Terrorist events—airplanes blown out of the sky (PanAm 103 over Lockerbie) and attacks on U.S. and European cities (Trade Center in New York and the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, railways in London and Madrid)--emphasize the danger of concealed explosives. However, since most explosives release little vapor, it was not possible to detect them by technology used on most organic substances. After PanAm 103 was downed over Scotland, the U.S. Congress requested automatic explosive detection equipment be placed in airports. This volume outlines the history of explosive detection research, the developments along the way, present day technologies, and what we think the future holds. - Written by experts in the field who set out both the scientific issues and the practical context with authority - Discusses and describes the threat - Describes the theoretical background and practical applications of both trace and bulk explosives detection

Manual Of Environmental Microbiology

Author: Christon J. Hurst
Publisher: Amer Society for Microbiology
ISBN:
Size: 53.76 MB
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The new second edition of this essential manual summarizes the information and knowledge of environmental microbiology in a single source. It details the natural fate of microorganisms in the environment as well as the intentional attempts to eliminate from the environment microorganisms that are pathogenic to humans or to plants and animals. The basic principles of environmental microbiology and general analytical methodologies, common across the range of the environments covered, are presented first. The core sections are structured with regard to the type of environmental medium being discussed. This landmark effort defines the study of environmental microbiology as we know it today and serve as an essential contribution to the literature.