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Bioreactors For Tissue Engineering

Author: Julian Chaudhuri
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402037414
Size: 70.13 MB
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For the first time in a single volume, the design, characterisation and operation of the bioreactor system in which the tissue is grown is detailed. Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering presents an overall picture of the current state of knowledge in the engineering of bioreactors for several tissue types (bone, cartilage, vascular), addresses the issue of mechanical conditioning of the tissue, and describes the use of techniques such as MRI for monitoring tissue growth. This unique volume is dedicated to the fundamentals and application of bioreactor technology to tissue engineering products. Not only will it appeal to graduate students and experienced researchers in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, but also to tissue engineers and culture technologists, academic and industrial chemical engineers, biochemical engineers and cell biologists who wish to understand the criteria used to design and develop novel systems for tissue growth in vitro.

Bioreactor Systems For Tissue Engineering

Author: Cornelia Kasper
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540693564
Size: 73.25 MB
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The editors of this special volume would first like to thank all authors for their excellent contributions. We would also like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Scheper, Dr. Marion Hertel and Ulrike Kreusel for providing the opportunity to compose this volume and Springer for organizational and technical support. Tissue engineering represents one of the major emerging fields in modern b- technology; it combines different subjects ranging from biological and material sciences to engineering and clinical disciplines. The aim of tissue engineering is the development of therapeutic approaches to substitute diseased organs or tissues or improve their function. Therefore, three dimensional biocompatible materials are seeded with cells and cultivated in suitable systems to generate functional tissues. Many different aspects play a role in the formation of 3D tissue structures. In the first place the source of the used cells is of the utmost importance. To prevent tissue rejection or immune response, preferentially autologous cells are now used. In particular, stem cells from different sources are gaining exceptional importance as they can be differentiated into different tissues by using special media and supplements. In the field of biomaterials, numerous scaffold materials already exist but new composites are also being developed based on polymeric, natural or xenogenic sources. Moreover, a very important issue in tissue en- neering is the formation of tissues under well defined, controlled and reprod- ible conditions. Therefore, a substantial number of new bioreactors have been developed.

Bioreactor Systems For Tissue Engineering Ii

Author: Cornelia Kasper
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642160506
Size: 54.70 MB
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Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane, by S. Wolbank, M. van Griensven, R. Grillari-Voglauer, and A. Peterbauer-Scherb; * Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Tissues: Primitive Cells with Potential for Clinical and Tissue Engineering Applications, by P. Moretti, T. Hatlapatka, D. Marten, A. Lavrentieva, I. Majore, R. Hass and C. Kasper; * Isolation, Characterization, Differentiation, and Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells, by J. W. Kuhbier, B. Weyand, C. Radtke, P. M. Vogt, C. Kasper and K. Reimers; * Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Characteristics and Perspectives, by T. Cantz and U. Martin; * Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Regenerative Medicine and Biology, by D. Pei, J. Xu, Q. Zhuang, H.-F. Tse and M. A. Esteban; * Production Process for Stem Cell Based Therapeutic Implants: Expansion of the Production Cell Line and Cultivation of Encapsulated Cells, by C. Weber, S. Pohl, R. Poertner, P. Pino-Grace, D. Freimark, C. Wallrapp, P. Geigle and P. Czermak; * Cartilage Engineering from Mesenchymal Stem Cells, by C. Goepfert, A. Slobodianski, A.F. Schilling, P. Adamietz and R. Poertner; * Outgrowth Endothelial Cells: Sources, Characteristics and Potential Applications in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, by S. Fuchs, E. Dohle, M. Kolbe, C. J. Kirkpatrick; * Basic Science and Clinical Application of Stem Cells in Veterinary Medicine, by I. Ribitsch, J. Burk, U. Delling, C. Geißler, C. Gittel, H. Jülke, W. Brehm; * Bone Marrow Stem Cells in Clinical Application: Harnessing Paracrine Roles and Niche Mechanisms, by R. M. El Backly, R. Cancedda; * Clinical Application of Stem Cells in the Cardiovascular System, C. Stamm, K. Klose, Y.-H. Choi

Bioreactor Based Bone Tissue Engineering Influence Of Wall Collision On Osteoblast Cultured On Polymeric Microcarrier Scaffolds In Rotating Bioreactors

Author: Xiaojun Yu
Size: 67.42 MB
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Rotating bioreactors have been used to overcome the limitations of passive nutrient diffusion in three-dimensional (3D) constructs for tissue engineering of bone. It is hypothesized that conventional scaffolds undergo repeated wall collisions in rotating bioreactors, which may disrupt bone tissue formation. In this study, we investigated the effects of wall collision on osteoblastic cells cultured on a microsphere based scaffold of varying densities in comparison to water. The conventional heavier than water (HTW; density> 1 g/cm3) scaffolds were fabricated by sintering HTW microspheres of 85:15 poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA), and mixed scaffolds were designed by mixing lighter than water (LTW;density

Computational Modeling In Tissue Engineering

Author: Liesbet Geris
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642325637
Size: 16.18 MB
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One of the major challenges in tissue engineering is the translation of biological knowledge on complex cell and tissue behavior into a predictive and robust engineering process. Mastering this complexity is an essential step towards clinical applications of tissue engineering. This volume discusses computational modeling tools that allow studying the biological complexity in a more quantitative way. More specifically, computational tools can help in: (i) quantifying and optimizing the tissue engineering product, e.g. by adapting scaffold design to optimize micro-environmental signals or by adapting selection criteria to improve homogeneity of the selected cell population; (ii) quantifying and optimizing the tissue engineering process, e.g. by adapting bioreactor design to improve quality and quantity of the final product; and (iii) assessing the influence of the in vivo environment on the behavior of the tissue engineering product, e.g. by investigating vascular ingrowth. The book presents examples of each of the above mentioned areas of computational modeling. The underlying tissue engineering applications will vary from blood vessels over trachea to cartilage and bone. For the chapters describing examples of the first two areas, the main focus is on (the optimization of) mechanical signals, mass transport and fluid flow encountered by the cells in scaffolds and bioreactors as well as on the optimization of the cell population itself. In the chapters describing modeling contributions in the third area, the focus will shift towards the biology, the complex interactions between biology and the micro-environmental signals and the ways in which modeling might be able to assist in investigating and mastering this complexity. The chapters cover issues related to (multiscale/multiphysics) model building, training and validation, but also discuss recent advances in scientific computing techniques that are needed to implement these models as well as new tools that can be used to experimentally validate the computational results.

Multiscale Mechanobiology In Tissue Engineering

Author: Damien Lacroix
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811080755
Size: 54.38 MB
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This book focuses on the mechanobiological principles in tissue engineering with a particular emphasis on the multiscale aspects of the translation of mechanical forces from bioreactors down to the cellular level. The book contributes to a better understanding of the design and use of bioreactors for tissue engineering and the use of mechanical loading to optimize in vitro cell culture conditions. It covers experimental and computational approaches and the combination of both to show the benefits that computational modelling can bring to experimentalists when studying in vitro cell culture within a scaffold. With topics from multidisciplinary fields of the life sciences, medicine, and engineering, this work provides a novel approach to the use of engineering tools for the optimization of biological processes and its application to regenerative medicine. The volume is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students studying mechanobiology and tissue engineering. For undergraduate students it also provides deep insight into tissue engineering and its use in the design of bioreactors. The book is supplemented with extensive references for all chapters to help the reader to progress through the study of each topic.

Tissue Engineering

Author: John P. Fisher
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 143987400X
Size: 32.54 MB
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Tissue engineering research continues to captivate the interest of researchers and the general public alike. Popular media outlets like The New York Times, Time, and Wired continue to engage a wide audience and foster excitement for the field as regenerative medicine inches toward becoming a clinical reality. Putting the numerous advances in the field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering: Principles and Practices explores current thoughts on the development of engineered tissues. With contributions from experts and pioneers, this book begins with coverage of the fundamentals, details the supporting technology, and then elucidates their applications in tissue engineering. It explores strategic directions, nanobiomaterials, biomimetics, gene therapy, cell engineering, and more. The chapters then explore the applications of these technologies in areas such as bone engineering, cartilage tissue, dental tissue, vascular engineering, and neural engineering. A comprehensive overview of major research topics in tissue engineering, the book: Examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue-engineered devices Focuses upon those strategies typically incorporated into tissue-engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene therapy techniques Presents synthetic tissues and organs that are currently under development for regenerative medicine applications The contributing authors are a diverse group with backgrounds in academia, clinical medicine, and industry. Furthermore, this book includes contributions from Europe, Asia, and North America, helping to broaden the views on the development and application of tissue-engineered devices. The book provides a useful reference for courses devoted to tissue engineering fundamentals and those laboratories developing tissue-engineered devices for regenerative medicine therapy.

Cardiac Tissue Engineering

Author: Emil Ruvinov
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1608452042
Size: 69.94 MB
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Cardiac tissue engineering aims at repairing damaged heart muscle and producing human cardiac tissues for application in drug toxicity studies. This book offers a comprehensive overview of the cardiac tissue engineering strategies, including presenting and discussing the various concepts in use, research directions and applications. Essential basic information on the major components in cardiac tissue engineering, namely cell sources and biomaterials, is firstly presented to the readers, followed by a detailed description of their implementation in different strategies, broadly divided to cellular and acellular ones. In cellular approaches, the biomaterials are used to increase cell retention after implantation or as scaffolds when bioengineering the cardiac patch, in vitro. In acellular approaches, the biomaterials are used as ECM replacement for damaged cardiac ECM after MI, or, in combination with growth factors, the biomaterials assume an additional function as a depot for prolonged factor activity for the effective recruitment of repairing cells. The book also presents technological innovations aimed to improve the quality of the cardiac patches, such as bioreactor applications, stimulation patterns and prevascularization. This book could be of interest not only from an educational perspective (i.e. for graduate students), but also for researchers and medical professionals, to offer them fresh views on novel and powerful treatment strategies. We hope that the reader will find a broad spectrum of ideas and possibilities described in this book both interesting and convincing. Table of Contents: Introduction / The Heart---Structure, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Regeneration / Cell Sources for Cardiac Tissue Engineering / Biomaterials -- Polymers, Scaffolds, and Basic Design Criteria / Biomaterials as Vehicles for Stem Cell Delivery and Retention in the Infarct / Bioengineering of Cardiac Patches, \textit {In Vitro / Perfusion Bioreactors and Stimulation Patterns in Cardiac Tissue Engineering / Vascularization of Cardiac Patches / Acellular Biomaterials for Cardiac Repair / Biomaterial-based Controlled Delivery of Bioactive Molecules for Myocardial Regeneration

Tissue Engineering For Artificial Organs

Author: Anwarul Hasan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527338632
Size: 28.47 MB
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A comprehensive overview of the latest achievements, trends, and the current state of the art of this important and rapidly expanding field. Clearly and logically structured, the first part of the book explores the fundamentals of tissue engineering, providing a separate chapter on each of the basic topics, including biomaterials stem cells, biosensors and bioreactors. The second part then follows a more applied approach, discussing various applications of tissue engineering, such as the replacement or repairing of skins, cartilages, livers and blood vessels, to trachea, lungs and cardiac tissues, to musculoskeletal tissue engineering used for bones and ligaments as well as pancreas, kidney and neural tissue engineering for the brain. The book concludes with a look at future technological advances. An invaluable reading for entrants to the field in biomedical engineering as well as expert researchers and developers in industry.

Mathematical Modeling Of Ultrasound In Tissue Engineering From Bioreactors To The Cellular Scale

Author: Tobias M. Louw
ISBN: 9781303288388
Size: 59.73 MB
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Tissue engineering seeks to provide a means to treat injuries that are beyond the body's natural ability to repair without the issues associated with allografts. Autologous cells are cultured in a bioreactor which controls the cellular environment (including mechanical stimulation) for optimal tissue growth. We investigate ultrasound as an effective means of mechanical stimulation by predicting the ultrasonic field in a bioreactor, as well as ultrasonic bioeffects at the cellular level. The Transfer Matrix Angular Spectrum Approach was found to be the most accurate and computationally efficient bioreactor model. Three critical factors influence experimental results: (1) the diameter of the tissue engineering scaffold greatly affects the ultrasonic field; (2) the position of the ultrasonic transducer and liquid level in the tissue culture well determines the maximum pressure amplitude in the bioreactor, but the pressure can be controlled by measuring the transducer input electrical impedance and manipulating the applied voltage; and (3) the position of pressure nodes are influenced by ultrasonic frequency and liquid level; this will affect the response of cells to applied ultrasound. On the cellular level, it was shown that chondrocytes respond to ultrasound with frequency dependence. A predicted resonance frequency near 5MHz matched experimental results showing maximum expression of load inducible genes at 5MHz. Mechanical stresses are concentrated near the nucleus at resonance, alluding to the possibility that the nucleus may directly sense ultrasonic stimulation. We postulate that ultrasound influences the transport of p-ERK to the nucleus or causes minor chromatin reorganization, leading to the observed frequency dependent gene expression. We linked in vitro ultrasonic stimulation to in vivo mechanical stimulation generated by natural movement. The chondrocyte's response to impact is under-damped, and the cell oscillates with a frequency close to the model predicted resonance. It appears that ultrasound applied close to the cell's resonant frequency effectively recreates the mechanical stimulation experienced by cells during natural movement. Ultrasonic bioreactors may therefore reproduce physiological conditions just as well as more complex bioreactors.