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Bioremediation And Natural Attenuation

Author: Pedro J. Alvarez
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0471738611
Size: 35.32 MB
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A groundbreaking text and professional resource on natural attenuation technology Natural attenuation is rapidly becoming a widely used approach to manage groundwater and soil contamination by hazardous substances in petroleum-product releases and leachate from hazardous waste sites and landfills. This book provides, under one cover, the current methodologies needed by groundwater scientists and engineers in their efforts to evaluate subsurface contamination problems, to estimate risk to human health and ecosystems through mathematical models, and to design and formulate appropriate remediation strategies. Incorporating the authors' extensive backgrounds as educators, researchers, and consultants in environmental biotechnology and hydrogeology, the text emphasizes new concepts and recent advances in the science, including: Quantification of the role of microbes in natural attenuation Biodegradation and chemical transformation principles Immobilization and phase change Biotransformation mechanisms Groundwater flow and contaminant transport Analytical models for contaminant transport and reaction processes Numerical modeling of contaminant transport, transformation, and degradation Detailed descriptions of fundamental processes, characterization approaches, and analytical and numerical methods tied to relevant real-world applications make Bioremediation and Natural Attenuation: Process Fundamentals and Mathematical Models both a timely course text in hydrogeology and environmental engineering and a valuable reference for anyone in the groundwater or risk assessment professions.

Urban Pollution

Author: Susanne M. Charlesworth
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN: 1119260485
Size: 76.67 MB
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Multidisciplinary treatment of the urgent issues surrounding urban pollution worldwide Written by some of the top experts on the subject in the world, this book presents the diverse, complex and current themes of the urban pollution debate across the built environment, urban development and management continuum. It uniquely combines the science of urban pollution with associated policy that seeks to control it, and includes a comprehensive collection of international case studies showing the status of the problem worldwide. Urban Pollution: Science and Management is a multifaceted collection of chapters that address the contemporary concomitant issues of increasing urban living and associated issues with contamination by offering solutions specifically for the built environment. It covers: the impacts of urban pollution; historical urban pollution; evolution of air quality policy and management in urban areas; ground gases in urban environments; bioaccessibility of trace elements in urban environments; urban wastewater collection, treatment, and disposal; living green roofs; light pollution; river ecology; greywater recycling and reuse; containment of pollution from urban waste disposal sites; bioremediation in urban pollution mitigation; air quality monitoring; urban pollution in China and India; urban planning in sub–Saharan Africa and more. Deals with both the science and the relevant policy and management issues Examines the main sources of urban pollution Covers both first-world and developing world urban pollution issues Integrates the latest scientific research with practical case studies Deals with both legacy and emerging pollutants and their effects The integration of physical and environmental sciences, combined with social, economic and political sciences and the use of case studies makes Urban Pollution: Science and Management an incredibly useful resource for policy experts, scientists, engineers and those interested in the subject.

Phytoremediation

Author: Abid Ali Ansari
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319401483
Size: 74.25 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book details the plant-assisted remediation method, “phytoremediation”, which involves the interaction of plant roots and associated rhizospheric microorganisms for the remediation of soil contaminated with high levels of metals, pesticides, solvents, radionuclides, explosives, crude oil, organic compounds and various other contaminants. Each chapter highlights and compares the beneficial and economical alternatives of phytoremediation to currently practiced soil removal and burial practices.

Bioremediation Applications For Environmental Protection And Management

Author: Sunita J. Varjani
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811074852
Size: 61.43 MB
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This book examines bioremediation technologies as a tool for environmental protection and management. It provides global perspectives on recent advances in the bioremediation of various environmental pollutants. Topics covered include comparative analysis of bio-gas electrification from anaerobic digesters, mathematical modeling in bioremediation, the evaluation of next-generation sequencing technologies for environmental monitoring in wastewater abatement; and the impact of diverse wastewater remediation techniques such as the use of nanofibers, microbes and genetically modified organisms; bioelectrochemical treatment; phytoremediation; and biosorption strategies. The book is targeted at scientists and researchers working in the field of bioremediation.

Biochar For Environmental Management

Author: Johannes Lehmann
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134489536
Size: 54.22 MB
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Biochar is the carbon-rich product which occurs when biomass (such as wood, manure or crop residues) is heated in a closed container with little or no available air. It can be used to improve agriculture and the environment in several ways, and its persistence in soil and nutrient-retention properties make it an ideal soil amendment to increase crop yields. In addition to this, biochar sequestration, in combination with sustainable biomass production, can be carbon-negative and therefore used to actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, with potentially major implications for mitigation of climate change. Biochar production can also be combined with bioenergy production through the use of the gases that are given off in the pyrolysis process. The first edition of this book, published in 2009, was the definitive work reviewing the expanding research literature on this topic. Since then, the rate of research activity has increased at least ten-fold, and biochar products are now commercially available as soil amendments. This second edition includes not only substantially updated chapters, but also additional chapters: on environmental risk assessment; on new uses of biochar in composting and potting mixes; a new and controversial field of studying the effects of biochar on soil carbon cycles; on traditional use with very recent discoveries that biochar was used not only in the Amazon but also in Africa and Asia; on changes in water availability and soil water dynamics; and on sustainability and certification. The book therefore continues to represent the most comprehensive compilation of current knowledge on all aspects of biochar.

Riverbank Filtration

Author: C. Ray
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306481545
Size: 25.51 MB
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Chittaranjan Ray, Ph. D. , P. E. University of Hawaii at Mãnoa Honolulu, Hawaii, United States Jürgen Schubert, M. Sc. Stadtwerke Düsseldorf AG Düsseldorf, Germany Ronald B. Linsky National Water Research Institute Fountain Valley, California, United States Gina Melin National Water Research Institute Fountain Valley, California, United States 1. What is Riverbank Filtration? The purpose ofthis book is to show that riverbank filtration (RBF) isa low-cost and efficient alternative water treatment for drinking-water applications. There are two immediate benefits to the increased use of RBF: Minimized need for adding chemicals like disinfectants and coagulants to surface water to control pathogens. Decreased costs to the community without increased risk to human health. Butwhat,exactly, isRBF? In humid regions, river water naturally percolates through the ground into aquifers (which are layers of sand and gravel that contain water underground) during high-flow conditions. In arid regions, most rivers lose flow, and the percolating water passes through soil and aquifer material until it reaches the water table. During these percolation processes, potential contaminants present in river water are filtered and attenuated. If there are no other contaminants present in the aquifer or ifthe respective contaminants are present at lower concentrations, the quality of water in the aquifer can be ofhigher quality than that found in theriver. In RBF, production wells — which are placed near the banks ofrivers —pump large quantities ofwater.

Chemistry Of Advanced Environmental Purification Processes Of Water

Author: Erik Sogaard
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0080932401
Size: 36.85 MB
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Chemistry of Advanced Environmental Purification Processes of Water covers the fundamentals behind a broad spectrum of advanced purification processes for various types of water, showing numerous applications through worked examples. Purification processes for groundwater, soil water, reusable water, and raw water are examined where they are in use full-scale, as a pilot approach, or in the laboratory. This book also describes the production of ceramic particles (nanochemistry) and materials for the creation of filtration systems and catalysts that are involved. Uses chemistry fundamentals to explain the mechanisms behind the various purification processes Explains in detail process equipment and technical applications Describes the production of ceramic particles and other new materials applicable to filtration systems Includes worked examples

The Environmental Challenges Of Nuclear Disarmament

Author: Thomas E. Baca
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401141045
Size: 14.69 MB
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The end of the Cold War marked the beginning of a new era of facing the legacy of the arms race. The enormous challenge confronting us now is to strengthen the fragile nature of the new political balance. The beginning of this new historical period is characterized by mistrust, and the best way to ease these tensions is through international collaborations. Moreover, the intimate nature of close, non-invasive, collaborative work on environmental problems can help establish a secure foundation of mutual understanding and trust. Environmental projects are non-threatening to national security issues and may involve collaborations throughout the international weapons complex. Personal and individual scientific relationships quite often spearhead agreements at the government-to-government level. Environmental and nonproliferation issues are of great importance to the citizens of Russia, to the states of the Former Soviet Union, and to neighboring countries. The activities associated with decontamination and decommissioning of old facilities, environmental restoration, security enhancements, monitoring and surveillance, and risk reduction should provide a significant employment potential for scientists and engineers of the weapons complex of the Former Soviet Union.

Uranium In The Environment

Author: Broder J. Merkel
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9783540283638
Size: 45.90 MB
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This book presents the results from the Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology Congress held in September 2005, in Freiberg, Germany. It addresses scientists and engineers involved in the areas of uranium mining and milling sites, clean-up measures, emissions of nuclear power plants and radioactive waste disposal, as well as political decision-makers. The topics covered are: impact on groundwater from radionuclide emission, analytical specification techniques, chemical toxicity, radioisotope plant uptake, microbiology, geochemical and reactive transport, case studies on active and abandoned uranium mines and milling sites, long-term storage of radioactive waste, passive in situ treatment techniques and risk assessment studies. The accompanying CD-ROM includes all papers in colour.

Radionuclide Contamination And Remediation Through Plants

Author: Dharmendra Kumar Gupta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319076655
Size: 31.45 MB
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This book focuses on the mechanistic (microscopic) understanding of radionuclide uptake by plants in contaminated soils and potential use of phytoremediation. The key features concern radionuclide toxicity in plants, how the radioactive materials are absorbed by plants, and how the plants cope with the toxic responses. The respective chapters examine soil classification, natural plant selection, speciation of actinides, kinetic modeling, and case studies on cesium uptake after radiation accidents. Radionuclide contaminants pose serious problems for biological systems, due to their chemical toxicity and radiological effects. The processes by which radionuclides can be incorporated into vegetation can either originate from activity interception by external plant surfaces (either directly from the atmosphere or from resuspended material), or through uptake of radionuclides via the root system. Subsequent transfer of toxic elements to the human food chain is a concrete danger. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms and genetic basis of transport into and within plants needs to be understood for two reasons: The effectiveness of radionuclide uptake into crop plants – so-called transfer coefficient – is a prerequisite for the calculation of dose due to the food path. On the other hand, efficient radionuclide transfer into plants can be made use of for decontamination of land – so-called phytoremediation, the direct use of living, green plants for in situ removal of pollutants from the environment or to reduce their concentrations to harmless levels.