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Biosequestration And Ecological Diversity

Author: Wayne A. White
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439853630
Size: 53.37 MB
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Increased throughput of carbon-based fossil energy, the destruction of Earth’s forests, and other land use changes have resulted in ever higher levels of waste in the form of greenhouse gases—as well as a diminished capacity of the planet to absorb and store those wastes. This means that to avoid catastrophic global warming and maintain the habitability of Earth by protecting essential soil and water resources, we will need to not only reduce emissions, but also increase carbon storage in the land system. Biosequestration and Ecological Diversity: Mitigating and Adapting to Climate Change and Environmental Degradation discusses ways to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere and build soil by changing the way people use and manage land. Principles and Practices for Better Land Management Examining biosequestration in social, economic, and political context, the book reviews recent scientific evidence on climate change and global ecological degradation and explains how the carbon cycle has been transformed by destructive land use practices, such as deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels. It describes the principles of biosequestration and restorative land management practices and discusses the potential of carbon storage. The author offers specific examples of inexpensive, proven practices that build soil, protect scarce water resources, and enhance ecological diversity. He also identifies conservation policies that provide technical assistance and financial resources for ecological protection and restoration. How You Can Help Mitigate Climate Change with a Little Piece of Land Restorative land use and land management practices are critical components of any comprehensive strategy for mitigating and adapting to climate change and global environmental degradation. This book explains how anyone who owns or manages land—from an apartment to a city lot to a farm, forest, park, or even a golf course—can help protect and enhance the biological sequestration of carbon.

Insects And Sustainability Of Ecosystem Services

Author: Timothy D. Schowalter
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 146655391X
Size: 72.28 MB
Format: PDF
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With few exceptions, insects are perceived in industrialized countries as undesirable pests. In reality, relatively few insects interfere with us or our resources. Most have benign or positive effects on ecosystem services, and many represent useful resources in non-industrialized countries. Challenging traditional perceptions of the value of insects, Insects and Sustainability of Ecosystem Services explores the ways insects affect the ecosystem services we depend upon. It also fosters an appreciation for the amazing diversity, adaptive ability, and natural roles of insects. The book discusses how the ways in which we manage insects will determine an ecosystem’s capacity to continue to supply services. It reviews aspects of insect physiology, behavior, and ecology that affect their interactions with other ecosystem components and ecosystem services, emphasizing critical effects of insects on the sustainability of ecosystem processes and services. The author examines the integration of insect ecology with self-regulatory aspects of ecosystems that control primary production, energy and nutrient fluxes, and global climate—functions that underlie the sustainability of ecosystem services. Clearly, we need environmental policies that meet needs for pest control where warranted, but do not undermine the important contributions of insects to sustaining ecosystem processes and services. With in-depth coverage of the multiple, often compensatory, effects of insects on various resources or ecosystem services and on the consequences of control tactics for those resources or services, Insects and Sustainability of Ecosystem Services recommends changes in perspectives and policies regarding insects that will contribute to sustainability of ecosystem services.

Land Use Planning For Sustainable Development Second Edition

Author: Jane Silberstein, M.A.
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466581182
Size: 25.35 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Thirteen years ago, the first edition of Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development examined the question: is the environmental doomsday scenario inevitable? It then presented the underlying concepts of sustainable land-use planning and an array of alternatives for modifying conventional planning for and regulation of the development of land. This second edition captures current success stories, showcasing creative, resilient strategies for fundamentally changing the way we alter our landscape. See What’s New in the Second Edition: Explains the relationship between innovative land-use planning and nature’s impartial, inviolate biophysical principles that govern the outcome of all planning Focuses on how decision making that flows from and aligns with nature’s biophysical principles benefits all generations by consciously protecting and maintaining social-environmental sustainability Proposes an alternative framework for municipal comprehensive plans framing the community as a living system Written by two experienced professionals in sustainable development planning, the second edition revisits the successes as well as barriers to progress associated with establishing new community development models, such as EcoMunicipalities. The authors emphasize the necessity and potency of citizen involvement and initiatives. They provide proposals for alternative approaches that rest on lessons from history as well as the research, wisdom, and vision of many individuals and communities whose work they have studied. The book supplies a sturdy platform on which to continually build and innovate progress in sustainable land use planning.

Review Of The Literature On The Links Between Biodiversity And Climate Change

Publisher: UNEP/Earthprint
ISBN: 9789292251352
Size: 71.80 MB
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The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 4th Assessment Report (AR4) concluded that climate change will have significant impacts on many aspects of biological diversity: On ecosytems, species, genetic diversity within species, and on ecological interactions. The implications of these impacts are significant For The long-term stability of the natural world and For The many benefits and services that humans derive from it. This report reviews the literature since the AR4. it draws on recent research to summarise advances in our understanding of the impacts of climate change on biodiversity. The evidence For The impacts on biodiversity comes from three principal sources. First, from direct observation of changes in components of biodiversity in nature that can be clearly related to changes in climatic variables. Second, experimental studies using manipulations to elucidate responses to climate change. Finally, and most widely, from modelling studies where our current understanding of the requirements and constraints on the distribution of species and ecosystems are combined with modelled changes in climatic variables to project the impacts of climate change and predict future distributions and changes in populations.

Ecosystem Services From Agriculture And Agroforestry

Author: Fabrice DeClerk
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136537600
Size: 73.42 MB
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Agricultural systems are no longer evaluated solely on the basis of the food they provide, but also on their capacity to limit impacts on the environment, such as soil conservation, water quality and biodiversity conservation, as well as their contribution to mitigating and adapting to climate change. In order to cope with these multiple service functions, they must internalize the costs and benefits of their environmental impact. Payments for ecosystem services are hoped to encourage and promote sustainable practices via financial incentives. The authors show that while the principle is straightforward, the practice is much more complicated. Whereas scenic beauty and protection of water sources provide benefits to the local population, carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation can be considered international public goods, rendering potential payment schemes more complex. Few examples exist where national or international bodies have been able to set up viable mechanisms that compensate agricultural systems for the environmental services they provide. However this book provides several examples of successful programs, and aims to transfer them to other regions of the world. The authors show that a product can be sold if it is clearly quantified, there exists a means to determine the service's values, and there is a willing buyer. The first two sections of the book present methodological issues related to the quantification and marketing of ecosystem services from agriculture, including agroforestry. The third and final section presents case studies of practical payments for ecosystem services and experiences in Central and South America, and draws some lessons learnt for effective and sustainable development of ecosystem services compensation mechanisms.

Convenient Solutions To An Inconvenient Truth

Author: World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821381274
Size: 51.47 MB
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Global warming and changes in climate will have severe and lasting impacts on national efforts to alleviate poverty and promote sustainable development. Some of the world s poorest countries and communities are the most vulnerable and are already suffering the consequences. Yet often these countries are rich in natural capital, ecosystems, and biodiversity that can contribute to solutions as they can to climate change. Biodiversity is the foundation and mainstay of agriculture, forests, and fisheries. Biological resources provide the raw materials for livelihoods, agriculture, medicines, trade, tourism, and industry. Forests, grasslands, freshwater, and marine and other natural ecosystems provide a range of services, often not recognized in national economic accounts but vital to human welfare: regulating water flows and water quality, flood control, pollination, decontamination, carbon sequestration, soil conservation, and nutrient and hydrological cycling. Current efforts to address climate change focus mainly on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly through cleaner energy strategies, and on attempting to reduce vulnerability of the communities at risk by improving infrastructure to meet new energy and water needs. This book book sets out a compelling argument for including ecosystem-based approaches to mitigation and adaptation as a third essential pillar in national strategies to address climate change. Such ecosystem-based strategies can offer cost-effective, proven and sustainable solutions contributing to, and complementing, other national and regional adaptation strategies.

Ecosystem Diversity And Carbon Sequestration

Author: P. L. Gautam
ISBN: 9788170355946
Size: 52.67 MB
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Carbon Sequestration in nature is of critical value for resolving vital issues of our times, namely the state of ecological paucity natural resource management global warming, climate change and sustainable development. It is free carbon in nature, particularly in the from of CO2 that is responsible for most of the ills of our environment and that makes future of life on earth bleak and unsustainable. Earth s gradually but steadily becoming warmer is one of the grimmest and the gravest issues humanity on earth has ever faced in the recorded history. We have a variety of ecosystems to remove free carbon from the environment and fix it into plant biomass and soil. The earth s ecosystems, however, present a somber picture and sequestration of increasing carbon sequestration issues together as both are interrelated and are responsible for the rapidly going on processes leading to global warming and climate change. We can meet climate change challenges and usher in a sustainable future blossoming with humanity by enhancing carbon sequestration in nature, which eventually would be done by maintaining the health of our ecosystems in the first place, and by controlling carbon emissions through a number of technological, institutional, and political measures. Divided in to eight sections, the book comprises 39 chapters contributed by many eminent scientists concerned with the state of the earth. The First section attempts to present an agenda for the ecologically shattered and economically globalised world which might help us understand the gravity of the word s common future and guide us to take up effective measures to mitigate the problems and revive our tormented earth. The subsequent section present and discuss scenarios, anthropogenic dimensions and management of ecosystem diversity; climate change, critical environmental problems, alarming trends, species extinction and all that; a search for viable options; Himalayan mountains; carbon sequestration as a life-building, life-enhancing and life-conserving phenomenon; potential technological and institutional mechanisms, carbon trading, policies; eco-ethics, eco-philosophy and psychology as vital elements pivoting conservation-oriented transcendental development. The book would prove to be of extraordinary value towards resolving the most crucial issues of our times. Contents Agenda For The Revival of Our Tormented Planet; Issues Facing the Ecologically shattered and Economically Globalised World; Chapter 1: Ecosystem Diversity and Carbon Sequestration: Some Issues Confronting Humanity by Vir Singh and PL Gautam; Chapter 2: Global Climate Change: A Challenge before Humanity by S P Singh; Chapter 3: Management of Ecosystems for Livelihoods and Carbon Sequestration in India: Harmony within Natural Elements a Mantra for Human Happiness by J S Bali; Chapter 4: Carbon Sequestration: A Vision by Vishal Mahajan and Kamal Kishor Sood; Chapter 5: Carbon-A Material for the Twenty First Century: Prospects and Promises by B S Tewari and Ajay; Ecosystem Diversity in India; Scenarios, Anthropogenic Dimensions and Management; Chapter 6: Forest Ecosystems and Carbon Sequestration in India: Keeping the Greenhouse Gas at Bay by J B Lal; Chapter 7: Operationalizing CDM Afforestation and Reforestation Projects in India: Analysis of Barriers at National and International Level by Sandeep Tripathi and V R S Rawat; Chapter 8: Microbial Diversity as an Indicator of Soil Organic Carbon Status: Redevelopment of Humid Subtropical Perturbed Ecosystem by Saurindra Nr Goswami and Soneswar Sarma; Chapter 9: Ecosystem Diversity and Sustainability: Towards Middle Path by B Mohan Kumar; Chapter 10: Sacred Groves in India: Celebrating Sanctity of Life through Biodiversity Conservation by Anubhav, Kundan Singh, Akanksha Rastogi and Vir Singh; Life on Edge; Climate Change, Critical Environmental Problems, Alarming Trends, Species Extinction and the Likes; Chapter 11: Climate Change and its Effects on Global Biodiversity: Evidences of Alarming Trends and Species Extinction in Different Eco-Regions of the World by Ragupathy Kannan; Chapter 12: Climate Change and its Effects on Global Biodiversity: Triggering Effects and Frightening Prospects by B S Mahapatra, A P Singh, A K Chaubey and D K Shukla; Chapter 13: Impact of Climate Change on Crop Productivity: Need of Adjustments in Agriculture by S K Saini, Yogendra Pal and Amit Bhatnagar; Chapter 14: Global Warming: Contribution of Livestock and its Control by D N Kamra and Someshwar S Zadbuke; Environmental Management A Search for Viable Options; Chapter 15: Role of Biofertilizer to Mitigate Environmental Problems: Soil Fertility Management in Hill Agro-ecosystems by Susheela Negi, G K Dwivedi and R V Singh; Chapter 16: Effect of Sugar Industry Effluents on Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Linum usitatissimum L.: The Green Revolution Bowl Reels Under Industrial Pollution by Neelam and Ila Prakash; Chapter 17: Soil Carbon Sequestration: A Study in Eucalyptus Hybrid Plantations by Asha Upadhyay and Uma Melkania; Chapter 18: Alternate Use of Biomass for Sustainable Development: Gasification Technology for Solving Energy Crisis in Rural Areas by Raj Narayan Pateriya and Sadachari Singh Tomar; Chapter 19: Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: A Unique Organism of Potential Implications for Carbon Sequestration by Rashmi Srivastava, Shruti Chaturvedi, Preeti Chaturvedi and A K Sharma; Chapter 20: Role of Plant Transcription Factor-DOF in Enhancing Nitrogen Use Efficiency: Molecular Means for Promoting Organic Farming by Dinesh Yadav, Nidhi Gupta, Anil Kumar, Pushpa Lohani, Munna Singh and U S Singh; Chapter 21: Fibre Yielding Plants and Carbon Sequestration: Banking on Ecological Attributes of Economic Plants by Sapna Gautam and Uma Melkania; Himalyan Mountains; Rejuvenated Fragile Ecosystems can Give Appropriate Response to Global Warming; Chapter 22: Sustainable Sloping Land Management Options: potential Effects on Carbon Sequestration in Upland Soils in the Himalayas by Isabelle Providoli, Sanjeev Bhuchar, Keshar Man Sthapit, Madhav Dhakal and Eklabya Sharma; Chapter 23: Rangelands Resources in the Mountains: Management Objective Should Focus on Carbon Sequestration enhancement by R D Gaur, Vir Singh and Babita Bohra; Chapter 24: Himalayan Conservation and Development: The Mighty Mountains can put the Earth s Climate Systems in Order by M L Dewan; Carbon Sequestration: A Life-Building, Life-Sustaining and Life-enhancing Phenomenon on Earth; Chapter 25: Carbon Sequestration; A Life-building, Life-Sutaing and Life-Enhancing Phenomenon on Earth; Chapter 25: Carbon Sequestration: Global Warming Mitigation through Improved Carbon Economy Linked with Photosynthesis by Munna Singh; Chapter 26: Carbon Sequestration on Agricultural Lands: Ameliorating Sustainability and Environmental Security by B Mishra and K P Raverkar; Chapter 27: Soil Carbon Sequestration: A Potential Approach to Climate Change Mitigation by J S Chauhan, Bineet Singh and J P N Rai; Chapter 28: Enhancing Carbon Sequestration: Pondering over Some Strategies by Shiwani Bhatnagar and AK Karnatak; Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Nature; Potential Technological and Institutional Mechanisms, Carbon Trading and Policies: Chapter 29 Coastal Wetland Ecosystem in Sequestering Carbon Directly by Geological Repositories and Phytoplankton Fertilization: Workable Strategies for Maintaining Ecological Integrity by Alok Mukherjee; Chapter 30: Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Environmental and Socio-economic Impacts of Global Warming and Climate Change by Vikram S Rathe; Chapter 31: Forest Management: Carbon Mitigation and Social Issues by Govind Singh Kushwaha; Chapter 32: Enhancing Carbon Sequetration in India: Economic Issues and Mechanisms by A K Singh and Virendra Singh; Chapter 33: Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol: Global and Indian Concerns by Tirthankar Banerjee, Jyotsana Pathak and R K Srivastava; Chapter 34: Carbon Sequestration, Global Climate and Laws: What Has Been Done and What Remains? by Rinku Verma; Ushering in a Sustainable Future; Eco-ethics, Eco-philosophy and Psychology as Core Elements Pivoting Conservation-oriented Transcendental Development; Chapter 35: Conservation of Biodiversity for Sustainable Development: Eco-ethics as an Indispendable Element by Vanmathy and Abha Ahuja; Chapter 36: Conservation of Biodiversity for Sustainable Development: Eco-ethics as an Indispensable Element by A Vanmathy and Abha Ahuja; Chapter 36: Environmental Services Emanating from the Himalayan Mountains: Valuation Against the Backdrop of eco-philosophy and Chasing the Goal of Global Happiness by Vir Singh; Chapter 37: Ecosystem Conservation for Carbon Sequestration: Let it be in the Popular Psyche of India by Subaran Singh; Chapter 38: Socio-Cultural Values Promoting Conservation on Natur s Biodiversity: Heal the Earth for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration by A Vanmathy and Abha Ahuja; Chapter 39: Environmental Psychology in Landscaping: A Dimension of Sustainability Operations by Govind Singh Kushwaha and Vir Singh

Environmental Services Of Agroforestry Systems

Author: Yale University
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781560221319
Size: 23.24 MB
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Get cutting-edge agroforestry research and data Deforestation and the rampant use of fossil fuels are major contributors to increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide and are enormous influences on global warming. Agroforestry systems and tree plantations can help mitigate the resulting climate change and degradation of biodiversity and accelerating climate change. Environmental Services of Agroforestry Systems addresses these global concerns with an essential collection of presentations on biodiversity and climate change from the First World Congress in Agroforestry (Orlando, Florida, 2004). Respected experts discuss the latest research and data on how agroforestry systems can help solve environmental problems through carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. Years ago, agroforestry’s environmental benefits were mainly seen as being soil amelioration, erosion control, microclimate control, and the alleviation of the effects of drought in semiarid areas. Environmental Services of Agroforestry Systems goes beyond the regional considerations of years past to focus on the challenges of today’s most pressing global environmental concerns. The contributors describe the latest research and concepts in agroforestry systems, reforestation efforts, soils, vegetation, and agriculture while reviewing their economic aspects. Incentives for reforestation and agroforestry are explored in detail. Each chapter is carefully referenced and includes tables to clarify ideas and data. Environmental Services of Agroforestry Systems addresses: advantages of mixed-species plantations tropical pasture and silvo-pastoral systems tropical forest ecosystem management research on the economic feasibility of various land-use systems socio-economic considerations of coffee-growing ecosystems agroforestry systems in Costa Rica Environmental Services of Agroforestry Systems is essential reading for researchers and scientists, as well as professionals in agroforestry, forestry, soils, global change, climate change, and environmental studies, educators, and graduate and undergraduate students.

Climate Change Challenge 3c And Social Economic Ecological Interface Building

Author: Sunil Nautiyal
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319310143
Size: 42.71 MB
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This book is the outcome of two International Conferences held at the ISEC in Bangalore, India: the international conference on “Climate Change and Social-Ecological-Economical Interface-Building: Modelling Approach to Exploring Potential Adaptation Strategies for Bio-resource Conservation and Livelihood Development” held during 20–21 May 2015 and jointly organized by the Centre for Ecological Economics and Natural Resources (CEENR), Institute for Social and Economic Change (ISEC) and the Centre for Environmental Systems Research (CESR), University of Kassel, Germany; and the international conference “Climate Change and Food Security – the Global and Indian Contexts,” jointly hosted by the CEENR, ISEC and the School of Geosciences, University of Sydney, on 18–19 February 2015. The selected papers presented in this book portray a broad range of international research efforts aimed at developing a deeper understanding of human-environment systems but also at translating scientific knowledge into political and societal solutions and responses to the challenge of climate change.

Smoke On Water

Author: John Crump
Publisher: UNEP, GRIDA, GPI
ISBN: 8277011687
Size: 71.41 MB
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Peatlands have so far been identified in 180 countries and they occur extensively in both the northern and tropical zones of our planet. They usually form in depressions where water permanently accumulates, either sustained by rainwater or underground sources. A lack of oxygen in the waterlogged environment slows decomposition of organic matter, leading to the accumulation of peat layers. However, across the globe peatlands are under threat from drainage and burning for agricultural, forestry and development uses. Fifteen percent of reserves are currently understood to be either destroyed or degraded. To help achieve these outcomes, this report assesses the extent of peatlands in the tropics, the threats they face and the action being taken to preserve them. 1. Peatlands are important to human societies around the world. They contribute significantly to climate change mitigation and adaptation through carbon sequestration and storage, biodiversity conservation, water regime and quality regulation, and the provision of other ecosystem services that support livelihoods. 2. Immediate action is required to prevent further peatland degradation and the serious environmental, economic and social repercussions it entails. Existing options to tackle the issue vary, and for that reason implementation should be regionally adapted to local environmental, economic and social needs and characteristics. 3. A landscape approach is vital and good practices in peatland management and restoration must be shared and implemented across all peatland landscapes to save these threatened ecosystems and their services to people. 4. Local communities should receive support to sustainably manage their peatlands by preserving traditional non-destructive uses and introducing innovative management alternatives. 5. A comprehensive mapping of peatlands worldwide is essential to better understanding their extent and status, and to enable us to safeguard them. Research and monitoring should be improved to provide better maps and tools for rapid assessment and transparent use of them to underpin action and multi-stakeholder engagement.