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Borates

Author: Donald E. Garrett
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080500218
Size: 50.53 MB
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This comprehensive reference is the first to cover industrially important borates, from deposits, through chemistry, mining, processing, and applications. The reference work begins with a listing of the 238 currently known borate minerals, their formulas, and properties. It features modern theories on the origin of borate deposits, their molecular structure and detailed descriptions of the world's borate deposits. Garrett describes the fascinating history of the discovery and development of borate deposits with anecdotes of how resourceful operators overcame obstacles in obtaining their minerals. Chapters on mining technology and processing detail the mineral's development from the earliest recorded times up to the sophisticated operations of the present day. The book also contains a comprehensive literature on boron isotope chemistry, their diverse applications, and productions and resource statistics for the world's largest industrial producers. Functions as a complete reference for geologists, engineers, and consumers of borate products Includes crystallographic descriptions, solution chemistry, isotopic distributions, and other properties of 170 borate minerals Provides detailed descriptions of mining and processing methods and economic uses Includes statistical data on borate production, consumption, prices, and ore reserves for every country of the world Provides an extensive bibliography Author is an authority on industrial minerals through many years of consulting and process development work

Sodium Sulfate

Author: Donald E. Garrett
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780122761515
Size: 58.22 MB
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Sodium Sulfate: Handbook of Deposits, Processing, Properties, and Use will be the authoritative and up-to-date distillation of all that is known about naturally occurring sodium sulfate, detailed information on formation, worldwide deposits, processing technologies, and usage over time. Garrett provides a comprehensive overview of sodium sulfate from deposit formation, through processing technologies and usage. Garrett's reference addresses the need for a comprehensive handbook on this industrial mineral. Dr. Garrett's unique chemical engineering background and flair for history have allowed him to integrate information about the major borate deposits in the world with a discussion of their sociopolitical impact throughout the ages. The scope and detail of the book are unequaled in the literature. First comprehensive reference on naturally occuring sodium sulfates, their chemistry, deposits, and applications Author is a recognised authority and author on the chemical engineering aspects of saline minerals, borates, soda ash, and potash

Handbook Of Lithium And Natural Calcium Chloride

Author: Donald E. Garrett
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080472904
Size: 64.49 MB
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Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium Chloride is concerned with two major industrial minerals: Lithium and Calcium Chloride. The geology of their deposits is first reviewed, along with discussions of most of the major deposits and theories of their origin. The commercial mining and processing plants are next described, followed by a review of the rather extensive literature on other proposed processing methods. The more important uses for lithium and calcium chloride are next covered, along with their environmental considerations. This is followed by a brief review of the production statistics for each industry, and some of their compounds' phase data and physical properties. Describes the chemistry, chemical engineering, geology and mineral processing aspects of lithium and calcium chloride Collects in one source the most important information concerning these two industrial minerals Presents new concepts and more comprehensive theories on their origin

Economic Geology

Author: Walter L. Pohl
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 144439486X
Size: 25.46 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Humanity’s ever-increasing hunger for mineral raw materials, caused by a growing global population and ever increasing standards of living, has resulted in economic geology becoming a subject of urgent importance. This book provides a broad panorama of mineral deposits, covering their origin and geological characteristics, the principles of the search for ores and minerals, and the investigation of newly found deposits. Practical and environmental issues that arise during the life cycle of a mine and after its closure are addressed, with an emphasis on sustainable and "green" mining. The central scientific theme of the book is to place the extraordinary variability of mineral deposits in the frame of fundamental geological processes. The book is written for earth science students and practicing geologists worldwide. Professionals in administration, resource development, mining, mine reclamation, metallurgy, and mineral economics will also find the text valuable. Economic Geology is a fully revised translation of the the fifth edition of the German language text Mineralische und Energie-Rohstoffe. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/pohl/geology. The author's website can be found at: http://www.walter-pohl.com.

Potash

Author: D.E. Garrett
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400915454
Size: 13.39 MB
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Potash is the term generally given to potassium chloride, but it is also loosely applied to the various potassium compounds used in agriculture: po tassium sulfate, potassium nitrate or double salts of potassium and magne sium sulfate (generally langbeinite, K S0 • 2MgS0 ). Sometimes the var 2 4 4 ious compounds are differentiated by the terms muriate of potash, sulfate of potash, etc. When referring to ores, or in geology, all of the naturally found potassium salts are called "potash ores". However, originally potash referred only to crude potassium carbonate, since its sole source was the leaching of wood ashes in large pots. This "pot ash" product was generally recovered from near-seacoast plants, such as the saltwort bush, whose ashes were richer in potassium than sodium carbonate. Inland plant's ashes were generally higher in sodium carbonate, giving rise to the word alkali from the Arabic word for soda ash, al kali. The term was then carried over after potassium was discovered to form the latin word for it, kalium. The recovery of potash from ashes became a thriving small cottage industry throughout the world's coastal areas, and developing economies, such as the early set tlers in the United States were able to generate some much-needed income from its recovery and sale. This industry rapidly phased out with the advent of the LeBanc process for producing soda ash in 1792, and the discovery about the same time of the massive sodium-potassium nitrate deposits in the Atacama Desert of Chile.

Chemical Engineering Economics

Author: D.E. Garrett
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401165440
Size: 79.93 MB
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least, the author wishes to thank his constantly helpful wife Maggie and his secretary Pat Weimer; the former for her patience, encouragement, and for acting as a sounding-board, and the latter who toiled endlessly, cheerfully, and most competently on the book's preparation. CONTENTS Preface / iii 1. INTRODUCTION / 1 Frequently Used Economic Studies / 2 Basic Economic Subjects / 3 Priorities / 3 Problems / 6 Appendixes / 6 References / 6 2. EQUIPMENT COST ESTIMATING / 8 Manufacturers' Quotations / 8 Estimating Charts / 10 Size Factoring Exponents / 11 Inflation Cost Indexes / 13 Installation Factor / 16 Module Factor / 18 Estimating Accuracy / 19 Estimating Example / 19 References / 21 3. PLANT COST ESTIMATES / 22 Accuracy and Costs of Estimates / 22 Cost Overruns / 25 Plant Cost Estimating Factors / 26 Equipment Installation / 28 Instrumentation / 30 v vi CONTENTS Piping / 30 Insulation / 30 Electrical / 30 Buildings / 32 Environmental Control / 32 Painting, Fire Protection, Safety Miscellaneous / 32 Yard Improvements / 32 Utilities / 32 Land / 33 Construction and Engineering Expense, Contractor's Fee, Contingency / 33 Total Multiplier / 34 Complete Plant Estimating Charts / 34 Cost per Ton of Product / 35 Capital Ratio (Turnover Ratio) / 35 Factoring Exponents / 37 Plant Modifications / 38 Other Components of Total Capital Investment / 38 Off-Site Facilities / 38 Distribution Facilities / 39 Research and Development, Engineering, Licensing / 40 Working Capital / 40

Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia Of Chemical Technology

Author: Kirk-Othmer
Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
ISBN: 9780471485193
Size: 37.86 MB
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The fifth edition of the Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology builds upon the solid foundation of the previous editions, which have proven to be a mainstay for chemists, biochemists, and engineers at academic, industrial, and government institutions since publication of the first edition in 1949. The new edition includes necessary adjustments and modernization of the content to reflect changes and developments in chemical technology. Volume 4 is due for publication in April 2004, and will present a wide scope of articles on: * Chemical substances, properties, manufacturing, and uses. * Industrial processes, unit operations in chemical engineering. * Fundamentals and scientific subjects related to the field.

Bioelectrical Signal Processing In Cardiac And Neurological Applications

Author: Leif Sörnmo
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124375529
Size: 14.23 MB
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The analysis of bioelectrical signals continues to receive wide attention in research as well as commercially because novel signal processing techniques have helped to uncover valuable information for improved diagnosis and therapy. This book takes a unique problem-driven approach to biomedical signal processing by considering a wide range of problems in cardiac and neurological applications-the two "heavyweight" areas of biomedical signal processing. The interdisciplinary nature of the topic is reflected in how the text interweaves physiological issues with related methodological considerations. Bioelectrical Signal Processing is suitable for a final year undergraduate or graduate course as well as for use as an authoritative reference for practicing engineers, physicians, and researchers. Solutions Manual available online at http://www.textbooks.elsevier.com · A problem-driven, interdisciplinary presentation of biomedical signal processing · Focus on methods for processing of bioelectrical signals (ECG, EEG, evoked potentials, EMG) · Covers both classical and recent signal processing techniques · Emphasis on model-based statistical signal processing · Comprehensive exercises and illustrations · Extensive bibliography · For companion web site with project descriptions and signals for download see www.biosignal.lth.se