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Deep Brain Stimulation

Author: Damiaan Denys
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642309917
Size: 48.53 MB
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Deep Brain Stimulation: A New Frontier in Psychiatry provides an overview of current developments and the future possibilities of deep brain stimulation for patients with therapy-refractory psychiatric disorders. The side-by-side presentation of clinical applications and animal research provides a truly translational approach. Also included is a special chapter on the ethical issues involved in deep brain stimulation in psychiatry. Deep brain stimulation of selected brain areas has been shown to result in a substantial improvement of symptoms and quality of life in patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder and drug addiction. Although it is still an experimental therapy and the number of psychiatric patients that are treated is low, its effectiveness and safety makes deep brain stimulation the most promising therapy for treating other serious and life-threatening psychiatric conditions.

Brain Stimulation In Psychiatric Treatment

Author: Sarah H. Lisanby
Publisher: American Psychiatric Pub
ISBN: 9781585626984
Size: 29.40 MB
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The past two decades have seen rapid progress in new and less invasive ways to stimulate the brain to study and treat psychiatric disorders. This authoritative reference provides an introduction to this emerging field of brain stimulation in psychiatry. Eight recognized experts present the latest research and results -- and future challenges -- for new techniques to electrically stimulate the central nervous system, including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetic seizure therapy (MST), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). This is the first book to both review these new techniques and place them in the context of existing somatic therapies in psychiatry. Unlike electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, the standard choice for patients with treatment-resistant depression), these breakthrough methods enable us to affect selectively higher cognitive processes and mood systems by electrically stimulating -- directly or indirectly -- focal regions of the cortex and subcortical structures in the brain. The effectiveness of TMS and MST (MST is a higher-dosage, convulsive form of magnetic stimulation) is being studied worldwide. Results are encouraging: TMS has been reported to reduce the frequency of auditory hallucinations when administered to brain regions that show abnormal hyperactivity during hallucinations, and both TMS and MST induce far less electricity and stimulate more focal cortical regions than ECT, thus incurring fewer cognitive side effects. Although DBS -- in which an electrode is implanted in a location relevant to the illness in question -- is more invasive than other modalities, it is able to reach deeper structures in a highly focal way, which may be important for illnesses like obsessive-compulsive disorder, whose circuitry relies heavily on subcortical structures. VNS is less invasive than DBS but more invasive than TMS or MST. Efficacy of VNS is uncertain. Improvement appears to build over time, and the hope is that months or years after implantation patients may show dramatic improvements. Claims of enhanced efficacy with time have never been tested directly, and controlled, randomized trials are needed to determine whether VNS has a role in the treatment of major depression. Its effects are limited to the neuroanatomical connectivity of the vagus nerve. Enriching our knowledge base in this exciting new field means more choices and therapeutic strategies for patients with conditions that resist conventional treatments. This fascinating work is a key reference for the promising future of brain stimulation in psychiatric treatment and is a "must read" for clinicians and residents alike.

Deep Brain Stimulation In Neurological And Psychiatric Disorders

Author: Daniel Tarsy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781597453608
Size: 46.71 MB
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This important book discusses today’s most current and cutting-edge applications of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). The book begins with reviews of the functional anatomy and physiology of motor and nonmotor aspects of the basal ganglia and their connections which underlie the application of DBS to neurological and psychiatric disorders. This is followed by proposed mechanisms of action of DBS based on functional neuroimaging and neurophysiologic studies in animals and man.

Brain Stimulation In Psychiatry

Author: Charles H. Kellner
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521172551
Size: 22.82 MB
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An authoritative, concise, how-to guide to the various brain stimulation treatments used in psychiatry.

Non Invasive Brain Stimulation In Neurology And Psychiatry

Author: Ignacio Obeso
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889451348
Size: 44.17 MB
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The potential efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation procedures for the management of specific symptoms in diverse neurological and psychiatric conditions has been tested in the past decade or so. For example, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over prefrontal areas has been extensively investigated as a treatment for patients with medication-resistant depression and has been shown to be associated with improvement of mood. Similarly, non-invasive stimulation techniques have been applied to various symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as bradykinesia and dyskinesias, with variables degrees of success reported. However, attempts to expand previously observed clinical improvements to other neurological disorders (e.g. Tourette's syndrome, autism, epilepsy) has been controversial. In trying to bypass potential confounding elements, researchers aim to target neural populations altered in disease to either increase or decrease their corrupted baseline activity. In addition, a complementary approach is to extend stimulation protocols that results enhanced behavior in healthy participants. This Frontiers Research Topic on non-invasive brain stimulation and enhancement of function tries to combine a series of articles from researchers who used non-invasive brain stimulation to aim improvement of either a motoric, cognitive or behavioral nature investigated behaviorally, physiologically or using brain imaging techniques in clinical populations. Investigation of the relation between enhancement of function in healthy populations and clinical improvement in patients with neurological or psychiatric disorders needs further consideration.

Brain Stimulation In Neurology And Psychiatry

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Size: 75.59 MB
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"This volume brings together neuroscientists, psychiatrists, neurologists, and ethicists to discuss interrelated advances and challenges emerging in the exciting field of brain stimulation. Discussion focuses on new methodologies that are aimed at bringing direct measurement of brain activity to control electrical brain stimulation techniques. Such direct electrical stimulation techniques offer a novel approach to precisely alter circuit mechanisms in the brain and a promise of temporal precision that may improve clinically relevant effects. A range of electrical stimulation techniques are discussed, with presentation of both clinical research and animal models. Advancing brain stimulation as an investigative therapeutic technique and a science presents several conceptual challenges, ethical question and pragmatic difficulties inherent to the industrial academic collaborations necessary for research with medical devices"--Publisher's description.

Neuromodulation In Psychiatry

Author: Clement Hamani
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118801040
Size: 72.84 MB
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"Neuromodulation strategies, including both invasive and non-invasive approaches, are growing in popularity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been approved for the treatment of depression, and an increasing number of patients have access to this intervention. At the other end of the spectrum, deep brain stimulation is showing promise for patients with severe, treatment-resistant psychiatric illness. Other neuromodulation approaches are in various stages of clinical use and/or investigation. Importantly, many of these approaches are no longer limited to tertiary centers, but can be office-based for greater accessibility. This book provides a comprehensive and detailed guide to the use of neuromodulation strategies in psychiatry. It begins with a review of the history of this controversial field and the lessons learned, followed by a chapter on the ethics of modern usage of such techniques. Subsequent chapters are devoted to neuromodulation and surgical strategies used in psychiatry, including transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, direct cortical stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. For each technique, a chapter describes the basic principles of each technique, using figures and schematics to illustrate details for people who do not have personal experience of using these techniques. Another chapter then focuses on the results of clinical research, trials and applications for that strategy. The book is the first comprehensive reference work to cover all neuromodulation strategies now used or with potential use in psychiatry. It allows psychiatrists to evaluate results obtained using such strategies and to make decisions regarding the best course of treatment for their patients"--Provided by publisher.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation In Clinical Psychiatry

Author: Mark S. George
Publisher: American Psychiatric Pub
ISBN: 9781585626373
Size: 55.70 MB
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As understanding evolves about how different brain regions are involved in carrying out everyday tasks -- and in causing brain diseases when they go awry -- this book describes a new technology that allows physicians to focally stimulate the brain in awake adults through a non-invasive procedure. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Clinical Psychiatry is an accessible and authoritative review of TMS, a procedure that is showing promise as a treatment in several disorders. Its authors explain how the procedure works, then the latest findings in a wide range of situations -- notably in depression, but also in other conditions ranging from migraine to stroke recovery. This concise overview of TMS offers practical guidance for psychiatrists and other clinicians using it as a therapy, or referring their patients to have this done, as well as updating the field for neuroscientists and neurologists. It begins with background on the physics and safety of TMS, a guide for administering the procedure, and a review of basic neurophysiological studies with TMS, showing how it can be used to measure connectivity and excitability of the cerebral cortex. The heart of book is then devoted to its clinical applications, organized by disorder: Epilepsy, movement disorders, and pain -- describes the use of TMS in inducing and inhibiting seizures and investigating their pathophysiology; in treating Parkinson's disease; and in relieving pain through motor cortex stimulation Major depression -- provides a critical review of research in the most-studied clinical application of TMS in psychiatry, where it is used as a therapeutic intervention and a neurophysiological probe Mania -- explores the effectiveness of TMS in light of its ECT-like properties through a trial of right TMS vs. sham TMS Anxiety disorders -- reports on investigations on the uses of TMS in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder Schizophrenia -- reviews studies utilizing single- or paired-pulse TMS to assess cortical inhibition and those that explore effects of extended trains of repetitive TMS in altering symptoms A further chapter on TMS in brain imaging shows how integrating imaging and TMS allows one to better place the TMS coil, better understand TMS effects on the brain, and improve understanding of how the brain mediates behavior. With a concluding overview of prospects for the future of repetitive TMS, this volume offers a definitive look at this cutting-edge research and provides critical guidance on how and when clinicians might use TMS in their practice.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Author: Peter Bain
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199543712
Size: 65.42 MB
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This handbook provides an overview of the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of movement disorders as well as an introduction to the developing area of DBS for the management of psychiatric disease.

Neurosurgical Treatments For Psychiatric Disorders

Author: Bomin Sun
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401795762
Size: 49.16 MB
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This book describes contemporary clinical practice in the application of neurosurgical methods to the treatment of psychiatric disorders. It covers diverse topics such as neuroimaging, ethics and a historical review, Gamma Knife and High Frequency Ultrasound ablation, deep brain electrical stimulation and preoperative evaluation and postoperative follow-up. Its application in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Major Depression, Tourette syndrome, Addiction, Anorexia, Aggression and Schizophrenia are discussed in separated chapters. This book presents concise information provided by clinical and academic practitioners and will facilitate the application of neurosurgical treatment techniques to patients.