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Brain Stimulation In Psychiatry

Author: Charles H. Kellner
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107375525
Size: 40.47 MB
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The field of brain stimulation is advancing at rapid pace with a growing number of techniques now approved for the treatment of psychiatric illness. This text acts both as a concise, quick reference for experienced practitioners and a guidebook for residents learning about clinical brain stimulation techniques. The techniques covered include: • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) • Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) • Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) • Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) • Transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) All aspects of these treatments are covered, from patient selection, through the implementation of the technique, to patient aftercare. Potential future applications are discussed and select, up-to-date reference lists guide practitioners to the most important further reading around each technique. Portable, concise and easy to navigate, covering all the need-to-know information, Brain Stimulation in Psychiatry is essential reading for practitioners, residents and medical students in psychiatry and neurology.

Brain Stimulation In Psychiatric Treatment

Author: Sarah H. Lisanby
Publisher: American Psychiatric Pub
ISBN: 9781585626984
Size: 48.21 MB
Format: PDF
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The past two decades have seen rapid progress in new and less invasive ways to stimulate the brain to study and treat psychiatric disorders. This authoritative reference provides an introduction to this emerging field of brain stimulation in psychiatry. Eight recognized experts present the latest research and results -- and future challenges -- for new techniques to electrically stimulate the central nervous system, including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetic seizure therapy (MST), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). This is the first book to both review these new techniques and place them in the context of existing somatic therapies in psychiatry. Unlike electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, the standard choice for patients with treatment-resistant depression), these breakthrough methods enable us to affect selectively higher cognitive processes and mood systems by electrically stimulating -- directly or indirectly -- focal regions of the cortex and subcortical structures in the brain. The effectiveness of TMS and MST (MST is a higher-dosage, convulsive form of magnetic stimulation) is being studied worldwide. Results are encouraging: TMS has been reported to reduce the frequency of auditory hallucinations when administered to brain regions that show abnormal hyperactivity during hallucinations, and both TMS and MST induce far less electricity and stimulate more focal cortical regions than ECT, thus incurring fewer cognitive side effects. Although DBS -- in which an electrode is implanted in a location relevant to the illness in question -- is more invasive than other modalities, it is able to reach deeper structures in a highly focal way, which may be important for illnesses like obsessive-compulsive disorder, whose circuitry relies heavily on subcortical structures. VNS is less invasive than DBS but more invasive than TMS or MST. Efficacy of VNS is uncertain. Improvement appears to build over time, and the hope is that months or years after implantation patients may show dramatic improvements. Claims of enhanced efficacy with time have never been tested directly, and controlled, randomized trials are needed to determine whether VNS has a role in the treatment of major depression. Its effects are limited to the neuroanatomical connectivity of the vagus nerve. Enriching our knowledge base in this exciting new field means more choices and therapeutic strategies for patients with conditions that resist conventional treatments. This fascinating work is a key reference for the promising future of brain stimulation in psychiatric treatment and is a "must read" for clinicians and residents alike.

Deep Brain Stimulation In Neurological And Psychiatric Disorders

Author: Daniel Tarsy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781597453608
Size: 75.10 MB
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This important book discusses today’s most current and cutting-edge applications of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). The book begins with reviews of the functional anatomy and physiology of motor and nonmotor aspects of the basal ganglia and their connections which underlie the application of DBS to neurological and psychiatric disorders. This is followed by proposed mechanisms of action of DBS based on functional neuroimaging and neurophysiologic studies in animals and man.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Author: Damiaan Denys
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642309909
Size: 79.45 MB
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This book examines present developments and the future possibilities of deep brain stimulation therapy for patients with therapy-refractory psychiatric disorders. Presents clinical applications and animal research, and offers a chapter on ethical issues.

Transcranial Brain Stimulation For Treatment Of Psychiatric Disorders

Author: Marco Antonio Marcolin
Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
ISBN: 3805581866
Size: 54.95 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was introduced in the mid 1980s in clinical neurophysiology to study the central motor pathways. Research has been exponentially increased since, and many different methods for brain stimulation have been considered during the last decade. This publication focuses on transcranially applied, non- or low-invasive interventions not requiring an implantable device, i.e. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), repetitive TMS (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). It provides an excellent overview on this spectrum of fascinating techniques. Many leading experts in this field have contributed to this book. A single chapter summarizes the state of the art in ECT. A series of chapters provides an overview on preclinical research in animals and neuroimaging findings with rTMS and reviews the evidence of efficacy and safety in various psychiatric disorders (affective disorders, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders) also including an article on the application of rTMS in nonpsychiatric diseases, i.e. Parkinson's disease, stroke, pain and tinnitus. Finally, separate reviews discuss very recent innovative approaches in the field of rTMS, i.e. magnetic seizure therapy, theta burst stimulation and deep rTMS. This publication will doubtlessly prove to be essential reading not only to researchers in this field, but also to psychiatrists, neurologists and other clinicians who consider applying these new methods in clinical settings

Neuromodulation In Psychiatry

Author: Clement Hamani
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118801040
Size: 37.85 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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"Neuromodulation strategies, including both invasive and non-invasive approaches, are growing in popularity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been approved for the treatment of depression, and an increasing number of patients have access to this intervention. At the other end of the spectrum, deep brain stimulation is showing promise for patients with severe, treatment-resistant psychiatric illness. Other neuromodulation approaches are in various stages of clinical use and/or investigation. Importantly, many of these approaches are no longer limited to tertiary centers, but can be office-based for greater accessibility. This book provides a comprehensive and detailed guide to the use of neuromodulation strategies in psychiatry. It begins with a review of the history of this controversial field and the lessons learned, followed by a chapter on the ethics of modern usage of such techniques. Subsequent chapters are devoted to neuromodulation and surgical strategies used in psychiatry, including transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, direct cortical stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. For each technique, a chapter describes the basic principles of each technique, using figures and schematics to illustrate details for people who do not have personal experience of using these techniques. Another chapter then focuses on the results of clinical research, trials and applications for that strategy. The book is the first comprehensive reference work to cover all neuromodulation strategies now used or with potential use in psychiatry. It allows psychiatrists to evaluate results obtained using such strategies and to make decisions regarding the best course of treatment for their patients"--Provided by publisher.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation In Clinical Psychiatry

Author: Mark S. George
Publisher: American Psychiatric Pub
ISBN: 9781585626373
Size: 28.14 MB
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As understanding evolves about how different brain regions are involved in carrying out everyday tasks -- and in causing brain diseases when they go awry -- this book describes a new technology that allows physicians to focally stimulate the brain in awake adults through a non-invasive procedure. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Clinical Psychiatry is an accessible and authoritative review of TMS, a procedure that is showing promise as a treatment in several disorders. Its authors explain how the procedure works, then the latest findings in a wide range of situations -- notably in depression, but also in other conditions ranging from migraine to stroke recovery. This concise overview of TMS offers practical guidance for psychiatrists and other clinicians using it as a therapy, or referring their patients to have this done, as well as updating the field for neuroscientists and neurologists. It begins with background on the physics and safety of TMS, a guide for administering the procedure, and a review of basic neurophysiological studies with TMS, showing how it can be used to measure connectivity and excitability of the cerebral cortex. The heart of book is then devoted to its clinical applications, organized by disorder: Epilepsy, movement disorders, and pain -- describes the use of TMS in inducing and inhibiting seizures and investigating their pathophysiology; in treating Parkinson's disease; and in relieving pain through motor cortex stimulation Major depression -- provides a critical review of research in the most-studied clinical application of TMS in psychiatry, where it is used as a therapeutic intervention and a neurophysiological probe Mania -- explores the effectiveness of TMS in light of its ECT-like properties through a trial of right TMS vs. sham TMS Anxiety disorders -- reports on investigations on the uses of TMS in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder Schizophrenia -- reviews studies utilizing single- or paired-pulse TMS to assess cortical inhibition and those that explore effects of extended trains of repetitive TMS in altering symptoms A further chapter on TMS in brain imaging shows how integrating imaging and TMS allows one to better place the TMS coil, better understand TMS effects on the brain, and improve understanding of how the brain mediates behavior. With a concluding overview of prospects for the future of repetitive TMS, this volume offers a definitive look at this cutting-edge research and provides critical guidance on how and when clinicians might use TMS in their practice.

Neurotechnology And Brain Stimulation In Pediatric Psychiatric And Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Author: Lindsay M. Oberman
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780128127773
Size: 72.47 MB
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Neurotechnology and Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders provides a comprehensive overview of neurotechnological devices and their potential as treatments for psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in children. A multitude of neuropsychiatric disorders are covered, including Autism Spectrum Disorder, ADHD, Depression, Tourette's Syndrome, and OCD. In addition, different device-based treatments are also presented, including Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Deep Brain Stimulation, Electroconvulsive Therapy, Vagus Nerve Stimulation, and Direct Neurotechnological devices. As the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of these techniques in children and adolescents are just beginning to be characterized, this book is a timely and updated resource on the covered topics.

Brain Stimulation Therapies For Clinicians

Author: Edmund S. Higgins
Publisher: American Psychiatric Pub
ISBN: 1585628905
Size: 43.23 MB
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Brain stimulation -- focally applying electricity to the brain -- is a field with a rapidly expanding and promising array of techniques, which already have proven efficacy in treating conditions ranging from Parkinson's disease to chronic and acute pain to depression. Comprehensively surveying the landscape of current practice, Brain Stimulation Therapies for Clinicians provides a clear and straightforward analysis of the many therapeutic applications, along with the technologies and techniques involved in each. The book begins with a thoughtful, and occasionally macabre, history of electrical stimulation of the brain. The authors then provide an accessible and concise overview of electricity and its effects on the brain. The essence of the book, though, is its thorough exploration of the clinical applications of electrical stimulation. Brain Stimulation Therapies for Clinicians covers the wide range of existing electrical stimulation therapies, including electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and a host of other clinical applications. Each chapter examines a particular therapy, including its history, an overview of the techniques involved, its clinical indications, side effects, and a critical review of the literature surrounding its efficacy. Designed as an approachable and thorough reference for the practicing clinician, the book includes many features to assist in evaluating the variety of stimulation therapies. The book as a whole is an excellent-quick start guide to help practitioners make informed choices about brain stimulation therapies. The background on the basics of electricity is useful for those not intimately familiar with these concepts. A thorough glossary helps the clinician navigate the jargon and decode the alphabet soup surrounding current practice. Clear and useful diagrams and schematics illustrate all essential points. Interesting sidebars highlight fascinating and occasionally amusing potential applications of brain stimulation techniques -- and offer a glimpse into the sometimes grim history of human brain experimentation. The authors' careful attention to evidence-based literature helps clinicians determine which techniques have proven efficacy and which claims are unsupported. Each chapter features a comprehensive bibliography of references for further reading. Brain Stimulation Therapies for Clinicians is an essential reference for any clinician, or even potential patient, interested in understanding electrical stimulation as therapy.

Deep Brain Stimulation Management

Author: William J. Marks, Jr
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316033627
Size: 43.96 MB
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This concise guide to deep brain stimulation (DBS) outlines a practical approach to the use of this paradigm-shifting therapy for neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Fully revised throughout, the new edition provides extensive information about the application of DBS to movement disorders, and includes new chapters on DBS to treat epilepsy and psychiatric conditions. With the evolution of surgical techniques for DBS lead implantation, a brand new section focused on interventional MRI approaches is also included. All key aspects of DBS practice are covered, including patient selection, device programming to achieve optimal symptom control, long-term management, and troubleshooting. It is a guide to be kept in the clinic and consulted in the course of managing patients being considered for, or treated with, DBS. With contributions from some of the most experienced clinical leaders in the field, this is a must-have reference guide for any clinician working with DBS patients.