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Brokerage And Closure

Author: Ronald S. Burt
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191622850
Size: 38.88 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Social Capital, the advantage created by location in social structure, is a critical element in business strategy. Who has it, how it works, and how to develop it have become key questions as markets, organizations, and careers become more and more dependent on informal, discretionary relationships. The formal organization deals with accountability; Everything else flows through the informal: advice, coordination, cooperation friendship, gossip, knowledge, trust. Informal relations have always been with us, they have always mattered. What is new is the range of activities in which they now matter, and the emerging clarity we have about how they create advantage for certain people at the expense of others. This is done by brokerage and closure. Ronald S. Burt builds upon his celebrated work in this area to explore the nature of brokerage and closure. Brokerage is the activity of people who live at the intersection of social worlds, who have a vision advantage of seeing and developing good ideas, an advantage which can be seen in their compensation, recognition, and the responsibility they're entrusted with in comparison to their peers. Closure is the tightening of coordination in a closed network of people, and people who do this do well as a complement to brokers because of the trust and alignment they create. Brokerage and Closure explores how these elements work together to define social capital, showing how in the business world reputation has come to replace authority, pursued opportunity assignment, and reward has come to be associated with achieving competitive advantage in a social order of continuous disequilibrium.

The International Handbook On Social Innovation

Author: Frank Moulaert
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1849809992
Size: 28.59 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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ÔThe challenges of poverty and social exclusion cannot be fully resolved through conventional public sector policies and market-led innovation. The case studies in this Handbook capture some of the key success factors of socially innovative action in different socio-economic contexts. This Handbook will inspire readers as it highlights the creativity and commitment of diverse enterprises and movements working for social innovation.Õ Ð Anna Kajumulo Tibaijuka, Minister for Lands, Housing and Human Settlements, United Republic of Tanzania, and retired UN Under Secretary General, immediate former Executive Director of UN-HABITAT ÔSocial innovation may not be a new idea but it is clearly an idea whose time has come, not least because the traditional models of innovation Ð narrowly framed technical models Ð have run their course and no longer resonate in a world of societal challenges. This Handbook has two great merits Ð it brings conceptual rigour to the debate and it provides compelling narratives of social innovation in practice.Õ Ð Kevin Morgan, Cardiff University, UK ÔIn an era where social innovation is re-emerging as an important policy framework for bringing social transformation, this volume is a significant contribution to the theory and practice of social innovation. The incremental discussion from concepts to theory to practice and then to social innovation research is supported by cases literally from all over the globe. It moves the discourse from isolated models of neighbourhood engagements and social enterprises, to a comprehensive, multidimensional approach combining needs, social relations and empowerment. A must read for academicians, learners, practitioners and policy makers alike.Õ Ð S. Parasuraman, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India ÔSocial innovation is an important instrument for understanding how contemporary societies deal with social change and how social practices and policies intended to combat poverty and social exclusion are developed and implemented effectively. The Handbook offers a valuable contribution to the development of a clear, transdisciplinary and critical understanding of social innovation practices. The reader will find an in-depth discussion of the most important theoretical approaches to the concept and a thorough exposition of the epistemological and methodological framework for research in social innovation. The volume includes a number of interesting case studies in different areas of social change and issues of policy and governance.Õ Ð Enzo Mingione, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy This enriching Handbook covers many aspects of the scientific and socio-political debates on social innovation today. The contributors provide an overview of theoretical perspectives, methodologies and instructive experiences from all continents, as well as implications for collective action and policy. They argue strongly for social innovation as a key to human development. The Handbook defines social innovation as innovation in social relations within both micro and macro spheres, with the purpose of satisfying unmet or new human needs across different layers of society. It connects social innovation to empowerment dynamics, thus giving a political character to social movements and bottom-up governance initiatives. Together these should lay the foundations for a fairer, more democratic society for all. This interdisciplinary work, written by scholars collaborating to develop a joint methodological perspective toward social innovation agency and processes, will be invaluable for students and researchers in social science and humanities. It will also appeal to policy makers, policy analysts, lobbyists and activists seeking to give inspiration and leadership from a social innovation perspective.

Reassembling The Social

Author: Bruno Latour
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199256047
Size: 56.52 MB
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French sociologist Bruno Latour has previously written about the relationship between people, science and technology. In this book he sets out his own ideas about 'actor network theory' and its relevance to management and organisation theory.

Staying Power

Author: Michael A. Cusumano
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019921896X
Size: 80.47 MB
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Business news tends to focus on the travails of a handful of giants: Apple's iPad, the Toyota recall, the controversy over Google's book-digitization program. Whatever the day's headlines, though, most of these firms have been there before--up and down, written off and overpraised--yet they endured and triumphed. What is their secret? What is it that has lifted them to preeminence and allowed them to come out of each crisis stronger than before? In Staying Power, Michael A. Cusumano provides the answers. A bestselling business author and leading scholar, Cusumano has spent a quarter of a century studying the world's most successful companies--many of them from the inside, by serving as an advisor to more than one hundred firms. He identifies six critical principles that have driven the success of today's foremost companies, including Google, Intel, Apple, JVC, Toyota, and Microsoft. He argues that companies today must develop distinctive organizational capabilities, not just business strategies; focus on platforms and services, not just products; pull information from the market, responding to real-time changes in demand and competitive conditions, and not just push products out; achieve economies of scope, not just scale, by creating efficiencies across all a firm's activities; and acquire flexibility, in addition to efficiency, to quickly adapt to a volatile marketplace. Drawing on real-life examples, he illustrates how the best companies put these principles into practice, identifying precisely how these ideas have lead to concrete success time after time. Business books, the author notes, often promote short-lived fads in management thinking. But Staying Power is different. Written by a bestselling international expert, this book focuses on lasting success, analyzing the fundamental elements common to the leading competitors in the world today.

Die Internet Galaxie

Author: Manuel Castells
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783810035936
Size: 77.96 MB
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Manuel Castells gibt detailliert und faszinierend Aufschluss über das "Woher" und - soweit aus der aktuellen Situation erkennbar - "Wohin" des Internet und, damit verbunden, der neuen Netzwerkgesellschaft, deren zentrales Kommunikationsmedium das Internet ist. Das www gibt es seit weniger als zehn Jahren. Die allgemeine und kommerzielle Akzeptanz des Internet ist außergewöhnlich - ermöglicht und initiiert Veränderungen in allen individuellen und gesellschaftlichen Bereichen. Es gibt neue Kommunikationssysteme, neue Branchen, Neue Medien und Informationskanäle, neue politische und kulturelle Ausdrucksformen, neue Formen des Lehrens und Lernens und neue Gemeinschaften. Was aber wissen wir schon über das Internet, seine Geschichte, seine Technologie, seine Kultur und seine Applikationen? Welche Folgen ergeben sich für Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft? Die Verbreitung des Internet ging so schnell vonstatten, schneller als die Möglichkeiten sorgfältiger empirisch begründeter Analyse. Manuel Castells wird von vielen als der führende Analytiker des Informationszeitalters und der Netzwerkgesellschaft gesehen. Über seine akademische Arbeit hinaus arbeitet er als Berater auf höchstem internationalen Niveau. In diesem kleinen Buch bringt er seine Erfahrung und sein Wissen zur Internet-Galaxie zusammen: Wie hat alles angefangen? Aus welchen zusammen arbeitenden oder konkurrierenden Kulturen besteht das Internet? Wie werden neue Unternehmen dadurch organisiert, wie werden alte Unternehmen davon beeinflusst? Gibt es die "digitale Wasserscheide"? Welchen Einfluss hat das Internet auf soziale und kulturelle Organisationsformen? Wie werden politische Teilhabe, politische Kommunikation, das städtische Leben beeinflusst? Dies sind nur einige Fragen, die in diesem Buch aufgegriffen werden. Castells gibt aber weder Prognosen ab, noch liefert er Patentrezepte - er gibt eine erhellende, auf empirischen Daten beruhende Analyse der aktuellen Situation und hilft uns zu verstehen, wie das

Innovationen In Netzwerken

Author: Alexander Fliaster
Publisher: Rainer Hampp Verlag
ISBN: 386618168X
Size: 15.46 MB
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Innovative Ideen entstehen häufig durch eine neue Kombination von Technologien und Lösungsansätzen aus Wissensbereichen, die bislang als völlig fremd füreinander galten. Das vorliegende Buch befasst sich mit dieser Neukombination bzw. Fusion von Wissen, vor allem aber auch mit Menschen, die sie erfolgreich bewerkstelligen. Zwei entscheidende Erfolgsfaktoren der interdisziplinären Wissensfusionen werden dabei eingehend analysiert. Es ist einerseits das Humankapital der Wissensarbeiter, die das Neue generieren. Neben der Motivation und Kreativität steht die soziale Dialog- bzw. Netzwerkkompetenz im Fokus der Betrachtung. Damit wird der Tatsache Rechnung getragen, dass innovative Ideen selten von einzelnen Genies stammen, sondern meistens das Ergebnis von Kooperationen zwischen den Wissensarbeitern sind. Über diese Kooperationsvorteile in informellen sozialen Netzwerken definiert sich der zweite Erfolgsfaktor der Wissensfusionen: Es ist das Sozialkapital der Wissensarbeiter, vor allem ihre Beziehungen, Netzwerkstrukturen und Wissensressourcen. Diese Werttreiber des Sozialkapitals, deren Bedeutung für Innovationen noch deutlich unterschätzt wird, werden im Buch umfassend beleuchtet.

Nudge

Author: Richard H. Thaler
Publisher: Ullstein eBooks
ISBN: 3430920035
Size: 51.86 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Nudge – so heißt die Formel, mit der man andere dazu bewegt, die richtigen Entscheidungen zu treffen. Denn Menschen verhalten sich von Natur aus nicht rational. Nur mit einer Portion List können sie dazu gebracht werden, vernünftig zu handeln. Aber wie schafft man das, ohne sie zu bevormunden? Wie erreicht man zum Beispiel, dass sie sich um ihre Altervorsorge kümmern, umweltbewusst leben oder sich gesund ernähren? Darauf gibt Nudge die Antwort. Das Konzept hat bereits viele Entscheidungsträger überzeugt, darunter US-Präsident Barack Obama. Anschaulich und unterhaltsam präsentieren der Wirtschaftsnobelpreisträger Richard Thaler und Cass Sunstein einen neuen Ansatz der Verhaltensökonomie, der schon heute das Denken und Handeln in Politik und Wirtschaft prägt.