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Cadmium From Toxicity To Essentiality

Author: Astrid Sigel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400751796
Size: 73.10 MB
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Volume 11 provides in an authoritative and timely manner in 16 stimulating chapters, written by 40 internationally recognized experts from 11 nations, and supported by more than 2600 references, 35 tables, and over 100 illustrations, many in color, a most up-to-date view on the role of cadmium for life, presently a vibrant research area. MILS-11 covers the bioinorganic chemistry of Cd(II), its biogeochemistry, anthropogenic release into the environment, and speciation in the atmosphere, waters, soils, and sediments. The analytical tools for Cd determination, its imaging in cells, and the use of 113Cd NMR to probe Zn(II) and Ca(II) proteins are summarized, as are Cd(II) interactions with nucleotides, nucleic acids, amino acids, and proteins including metallothioneins. The phytoremediation by Cd(II)-accumulating plants, etc., the toxicology of Cd(II), its damage to mammalian organs, and its role as a carcinogen for humans, are highlighted.

Interrelations Between Essential Metal Ions And Human Diseases

Author: Astrid Sigel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400775008
Size: 19.87 MB
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MILS-13 provides an up-to-date review on the relationships between essential metals and human diseases, covering 13 metals and 3 metalloids: The bulk metals sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, plus the trace elements manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, molybdenum, and selenium, all of which are essential for life. Also covered are chromium, vanadium, nickel, silicon, and arsenic, which have been proposed as being essential for humans in the 2nd half of the last century. However, if at all, they are needed only in ultra-trace amounts, and because of their prevalence in the environment, it has been difficult to prove whether or not they are required. In any case, all these elements are toxic in higher concentrations and therefore, transport and cellular concentrations of at least the essential ones, are tightly controlled; hence, their homeostasis and role for life, including deficiency or overload, and their links to illnesses, including cancer and neurological disorders, are thoroughly discussed. Indeed, it is an old wisdom that metals are indispensable for life. Therefore, Volume 13 provides in an authoritative and timely manner in 16 stimulating chapters, written by 29 internationally recognized experts from 7 nations, and supported by more than 2750 references, and over 20 tables and 80 illustrations, many in color, a most up-to-date view on the vibrant research area of the Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases.

The Alkali Metal Ions Their Role For Life

Author: Astrid Sigel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319217569
Size: 51.45 MB
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MILS-16 provides an up-to-date review of the impact of alkali metal ions on life. Their bioinorganic chemistry and analytical determination, the solid state structures of bio-ligand complexes and the properties of alkali metal ions in solution in the context of all kinds of biologically relevant ligands are covered, this includes proteins (enzymes) and nucleic acids (G-quadruplexes). Minerals containing sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) are abundant in the Earth's crust, making Na+ and K+ easily available. In contrast, the alkali elements lithium (Li+), rubidium, and cesium are rare and the radioactive francium occurs only in traces. Since the intra- and extracellular, as well as the compartmental concentrations of Na+ and K+ differ significantly, homeostasis and active transport of these ions are important; this involves transporters/carriers and pore-forming ion channel proteins. Systems like Na+/K+-ATPases, H+/K+-ATPases or Na+/H+ antiporters are thoroughly discussed. The role of K+ in photosynthesis and the role of Na+ in charging the "battery of life" are pointed out. Also, the relationships between alkali metal ions and diseases (e.g., Parkinson or traumatic brain injury) are covered and the relevance of Li+ salts in medicine (pharmacology and mechanism) is reviewed. This and more is treated in an authoritative and timely manner in the 16 stimulating chapters of Volume 16, The Alkali Metal Ions: Their Role for Life, which are written by 44 internationally recognized experts from 12 nations. The impact of this vibrant research area is manifested in nearly 3000 references, over 30 tables and more than 150 illustrations (two thirds in color). MILS-16 also provides excellent information for teaching. Astrid Sigel, Helmut Sigel, and Roland K. O. Sigel have long-standing interests in Biological Inorganic Chemistry. Their research focuses on metal ion interactions with nucleotides and nucleic acids and on related topics. They edited previously 44 volumes in the series Metal Ions in Biological Systems.

Metal Ions In Biological Systems

Author: Helmut Sigel
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824775407
Size: 25.49 MB
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Metal Ions in Biological Systems is devoted to increasing our understanding of the relationship between the chemistry of metals and life processes. The volumes reflect the interdisciplinary nature of bioinorganic chemistry and coordinate the efforts of researchers in the fields of biochemistry, inorganic chemistry, coordination chemistry, environmental chemistry, biophysics, pharmacy, and medicine. Volumes deal with such topics as the formation, stability, structure, and reactivity of biological compounds of low and high molecular weight containing metal ions; the metabolism and transport of metal ions and their complexes; and new models of complicated natural structures and processes. Volume 21 describes the underlying theories of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), promoting a wider use of NMR in studies of paramagnetic species. In six concise chapters by leading international authorities, Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to Paramagnetic Species outlines the most recent developments regarding the use of nuclear relaxation as a source for structural information ... examines studies of magnetically coupled metalloproteins and metal-porphyrin induced dipolar shifts for conformational analysis ... and evaluates the potential of paramagnetic ions as agents for enhancing NMR image contrast. With over 500 references that facilitate further research, Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to Paramagnetic Species is an essential resource for scientists and students in such disciplines as biophysics; bioinorganic, inorganic, and coordination chemistry; biochemistry; molecular biology; and enzymology. Book jacket.

Interplay Between Metal Ions And Nucleic Acids

Author: Astrid Sigel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400721722
Size: 57.26 MB
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Interplay between Metal Ions and Nucleic Acids provides in an authoritative and timely manner in 12 stimulating chapters, written by 24 internationally recognized experts from 8 nations, and supported by nearly 1500 references, about 20 tables, and 125 illustrations, many in color, a most up-to-date view on metal ion-nucleic acid interactions; the characterization of which is covered in solution and in the solid state. The volume concentrates on modern developments encompassing topics in the wide range from G-quadruplexes via DNAzymes, catalysis at the DNA scaffold, and metal-mediated base pairs to peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) being thus of relevance, e.g., for chemistry and nanotechnology but also for molecular biology and (genetic) diagnostics.

Metallothioneins And Related Chelators

Author: Astrid Sigel
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1847558992
Size: 51.95 MB
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Chapters 3 to 5 give an account of bacterial MTs, MTs in yeast and fungi, and MTs in plants. Most astonishingly, the MTs of bacteria and plants contain next to cysteine also histidine residues and thus, metal ions are not only sulfur- but also imidazole-coordinated which gives rise to zinc finger-like structures. Remarkably, yeast and fungal MTs are Cu(I) rather than Zn(II) or Cd(II) binding proteins. Next, Chapters 6 through 9 discuss the MTs of dipteran insects, including the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, earthworms and nematodes, as well as echinoderms, crustaceans, molluscs, and fish. Actually, aquatic animals, both vertebrates and invertebrates, have the potential to be used for monitoring metal contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Interestingly, in Chapter 9 the remarkable speculation is presented that under chronic natural exposure conditions the animals establish a trade-off between the "cost" of detoxifying non-essential metals and the "cost" of allowing some of these metals to spill over onto metal-sensitive sites. This contrasts with laboratory experiments involving aquatic animals, where the toxicity of non-essential metals normally exhibits a threshold response: at low exposure concentrations the organisms can detoxify the incoming metal and thus, tolerate the exposure, whereas at concentrations above the threshold, the detoxification mechanism is no longer able to protect the organism completely.

Metal Ions And Bacteria

Author: Terrance J. Beveridge
Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
Size: 39.91 MB
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A comprehensive treatment of the interactions of metals with bacteria, a subject of interest in medicine, toxicology, extraction of metals, mineral cycling and microbiology, is provided in this book. It outlines the diversity of these interactions, their importance to bacteria and humans, and the global scale of the reaction products. Topics include the use of microbes to immobilize toxic heavy metals, natural biological metal chelators, metalloenzymes, heavy metal resistance mechanisms, biomineralization, the influence of metals on bacterial virulence, and the impact of the biosphere of mineral production and cycling. The text will be of benefit to academic and industrial microbiologists, researchers in mining and metal industries, environmentalists, geologists, toxicologists and biogeochemists.

The Toxicology Of Essential And Nonessential Metals

Author: Nichole Coleman, PhD
ISBN: 1483469085
Size: 57.37 MB
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No matter how careful we are at using metals in industrial processes, some level of human exposure is unavoidable. Countless metals are obtained through mining and smelting activities that amplify their distribution throughout the environment. Applications of metals in industry, medicine, and agriculture have increased our exposure. These metals are not merely an occupational hazard for those working with them-they affect consumers and anyone exposed through environmental contamination. Even worse, they cannot be destroyed and are thus non-biodegradable. The blades we use, the pots and pans we cook with, children's face paint, and facial makeup contain toxic metals. Toxic heavy metals are also found in cigarettes, gourmet foods such as seasonings, fish, and chocolates. When you sprinkle a dish with Himalayan sea salt, you may end up ingesting toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium and lead.

Biogeochemistry Of Ancient And Modern Environments

Author: P. A. Trudinger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662265826
Size: 65.85 MB
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This volume contains a selection of papers presented to the Fourth Internation~l Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry (ISEB), and a conference on Biogeochemistry in Relation to Mining Industry and Environmental Pollution (Leaching Conference), held in Canberra, Aust ralia on August 26-31 and September 3-4, 1979, respectively. The ISEB were established to provide "a forum for uninhibited exchange of information and ideas among the biological, chemical, atmospheric and geolorical scientists working in the common area of biogeochemistry, encompassing soil and other earth sciences as well as the hydrosphere and atmosphere", By linking the fourth ISEB with the Leachin~ Conference the scope of discussions was extended to encompass the application of biogeochemical processes to the mining industry. This wide-ranging philosophy is reflected in the breadth and diversity of the subjects covered in this book. The published papers are expanded versions of those presented at the meetings. They have all been scrutinized by at least one referee in addition to the editors. About 20% of the contributions to the meetings are not included, either because authors did not wish to publish or because the papers were not accepted by the editors.

Instrumental Methods In Metal Ion Speciation

Author: Imran Ali
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420019406
Size: 21.24 MB
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The knowledge of metal ion speciation is essential for predicting the exact toxicities of metal ion species in the environment. Metal ions can exist in various oxidation states, each of which possesses different physical and chemical properties as well as exhibit varying toxicities. Often, toxicity data is unreliable because it is based on metal ion concentration measurements that fail to identify a dominant species either more or less harmful than the average. Instrumental Methods in Metal Ion Speciation provides analytical techniques and experimental methodologies for determining the concentration of the different physicochemical forms of metal ions in environmental and biological samples, leading to more accurate measurements of actual toxicity. The authors introduce the principles of metal ion speciation and discuss important analytical techniques such as gas and liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and both electrochemical and radiochemical methods used to determine concentration and composition. They present a range of liquid chromatographic approaches, including capillary electrochromatography and high-performance, ion, ion pair, micellar electrokinetic, size exclusion, chiral, and supercritical fluid chromatographies for all metal ion species. Comprehensive in scope, the text covers the sources, distribution, toxicity, biotransformation, and biodegradation of each metal ions species as well as extraction methods, sample preparation, and experimental optimization techniques that can be useful in designing future experiments. Instrumental Methods in Metal Ion Speciation is a unique and valuable source of reference for scientists, academics, and researchers involved in analytical, biological, pharmaceutical, and environmental chemistries, as well as material industries, geochemistry, agriculture, biotechnology, and occupational safety and regulations.