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Cadmium From Toxicity To Essentiality

Author: Astrid Sigel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400751796
Size: 33.55 MB
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Volume 11 provides in an authoritative and timely manner in 16 stimulating chapters, written by 40 internationally recognized experts from 11 nations, and supported by more than 2600 references, 35 tables, and over 100 illustrations, many in color, a most up-to-date view on the role of cadmium for life, presently a vibrant research area. MILS-11 covers the bioinorganic chemistry of Cd(II), its biogeochemistry, anthropogenic release into the environment, and speciation in the atmosphere, waters, soils, and sediments. The analytical tools for Cd determination, its imaging in cells, and the use of 113Cd NMR to probe Zn(II) and Ca(II) proteins are summarized, as are Cd(II) interactions with nucleotides, nucleic acids, amino acids, and proteins including metallothioneins. The phytoremediation by Cd(II)-accumulating plants, etc., the toxicology of Cd(II), its damage to mammalian organs, and its role as a carcinogen for humans, are highlighted.

Metal Ions In Biological Systems

Author: Helmut Sigel
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824775407
Size: 25.40 MB
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Metal Ions in Biological Systems is devoted to increasing our understanding of the relationship between the chemistry of metals and life processes. The volumes reflect the interdisciplinary nature of bioinorganic chemistry and coordinate the efforts of researchers in the fields of biochemistry, inorganic chemistry, coordination chemistry, environmental chemistry, biophysics, pharmacy, and medicine. Volumes deal with such topics as the formation, stability, structure, and reactivity of biological compounds of low and high molecular weight containing metal ions; the metabolism and transport of metal ions and their complexes; and new models of complicated natural structures and processes. Volume 21 describes the underlying theories of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), promoting a wider use of NMR in studies of paramagnetic species. In six concise chapters by leading international authorities, Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to Paramagnetic Species outlines the most recent developments regarding the use of nuclear relaxation as a source for structural information ... examines studies of magnetically coupled metalloproteins and metal-porphyrin induced dipolar shifts for conformational analysis ... and evaluates the potential of paramagnetic ions as agents for enhancing NMR image contrast. With over 500 references that facilitate further research, Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to Paramagnetic Species is an essential resource for scientists and students in such disciplines as biophysics; bioinorganic, inorganic, and coordination chemistry; biochemistry; molecular biology; and enzymology. Book jacket.

Interrelations Between Essential Metal Ions And Human Diseases

Author: Astrid Sigel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400775008
Size: 80.37 MB
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MILS-13 provides an up-to-date review on the relationships between essential metals and human diseases, covering 13 metals and 3 metalloids: The bulk metals sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, plus the trace elements manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, molybdenum, and selenium, all of which are essential for life. Also covered are chromium, vanadium, nickel, silicon, and arsenic, which have been proposed as being essential for humans in the 2nd half of the last century. However, if at all, they are needed only in ultra-trace amounts, and because of their prevalence in the environment, it has been difficult to prove whether or not they are required. In any case, all these elements are toxic in higher concentrations and therefore, transport and cellular concentrations of at least the essential ones, are tightly controlled; hence, their homeostasis and role for life, including deficiency or overload, and their links to illnesses, including cancer and neurological disorders, are thoroughly discussed. Indeed, it is an old wisdom that metals are indispensable for life. Therefore, Volume 13 provides in an authoritative and timely manner in 16 stimulating chapters, written by 29 internationally recognized experts from 7 nations, and supported by more than 2750 references, and over 20 tables and 80 illustrations, many in color, a most up-to-date view on the vibrant research area of the Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases.

The Alkali Metal Ions Their Role For Life

Author: Astrid Sigel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319217569
Size: 47.28 MB
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MILS-16 provides an up-to-date review of the impact of alkali metal ions on life. Their bioinorganic chemistry and analytical determination, the solid state structures of bio-ligand complexes and the properties of alkali metal ions in solution in the context of all kinds of biologically relevant ligands are covered, this includes proteins (enzymes) and nucleic acids (G-quadruplexes). Minerals containing sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) are abundant in the Earth's crust, making Na+ and K+ easily available. In contrast, the alkali elements lithium (Li+), rubidium, and cesium are rare and the radioactive francium occurs only in traces. Since the intra- and extracellular, as well as the compartmental concentrations of Na+ and K+ differ significantly, homeostasis and active transport of these ions are important; this involves transporters/carriers and pore-forming ion channel proteins. Systems like Na+/K+-ATPases, H+/K+-ATPases or Na+/H+ antiporters are thoroughly discussed. The role of K+ in photosynthesis and the role of Na+ in charging the "battery of life" are pointed out. Also, the relationships between alkali metal ions and diseases (e.g., Parkinson or traumatic brain injury) are covered and the relevance of Li+ salts in medicine (pharmacology and mechanism) is reviewed. This and more is treated in an authoritative and timely manner in the 16 stimulating chapters of Volume 16, The Alkali Metal Ions: Their Role for Life, which are written by 44 internationally recognized experts from 12 nations. The impact of this vibrant research area is manifested in nearly 3000 references, over 30 tables and more than 150 illustrations (two thirds in color). MILS-16 also provides excellent information for teaching. Astrid Sigel, Helmut Sigel, and Roland K. O. Sigel have long-standing interests in Biological Inorganic Chemistry. Their research focuses on metal ion interactions with nucleotides and nucleic acids and on related topics. They edited previously 44 volumes in the series Metal Ions in Biological Systems.

Metallomics

Author: Marco Aurélio Zezzi Arruda
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319901435
Size: 32.16 MB
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This book covers the new Omics area, Metallomics. As Metallomics is intrinsically a transdisciplinary area, this book is authored by experts in the field on such diverse topics as Environmental, Nuclear, and Human Metallomics. Within these topics metals play important role, as being part of biomolecules, controlling different biochemical process, being signaling agents, being catalyst of biochemical reactions, among others. This volume demonstrates the importance of more investigation about metals and their interactions with biomolecules. As the knowledge in this field is growing and growing daily, then new challenges concerning studies involving Metallomics is appearing, such as comparative metallomics, speciation metallomics, real-time metallomics, new predictions of metals in biomolecules, metalloprotein databank expansion, interactions between metalloprotein-metalloprotein, among others.

Sustaining Life On Planet Earth Metalloenzymes Mastering Dioxygen And Other Chewy Gases

Author: Peter M.H. Kroneck
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319124153
Size: 23.86 MB
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MILS-15 provides an up-to-date review of the metalloenzymes involved in the activation, production, and conversion of molecular oxygen as well as the functionalization of the chemically inert gases methane and ammonia. Found either in aerobes (humans, animals, plants, microorganisms) or in anaerobes (so-called “impossible bacteria”) these enzymes employ preferentially iron and copper at their active sites, in order to conserve energy by redox-driven proton pumps, to convert methane to methanol, or ammonia to hydroxylamine or other compounds. When it comes to the light-driven production of molecular oxygen, the tetranuclear manganese cluster of photosystem II must be regarded as the key player. However, dioxygen can also be produced in the dark, by heme iron-dependent dismutation of oxyanions. Metalloenzymes Mastering Dioxygen and Other Chewy Gases is a vibrant research area based mainly on structural and microbial biology, inorganic biological chemistry, and environmental biochemistry. All this is covered in an authoritative manner in 7 stimulating chapters, written by 21 internationally recognized experts, and supported by nearly 1100 references, informative tables, and over 140 illustrations (many in color). MILS-15 provides excellent information for teaching; it is also closely related to MILS-14, The Metal-Driven Biogeochemistry of Gaseous Compounds in the Environment. Peter M. H. Kroneck is a bioinorganic chemist who is exploring the role of transition metals in biology, with a focus on functional and structural aspects of microbial iron, copper, and molybdenum enzymes and their impact on the biogeochemical cyles of nitrogen and sulfur. Martha E. Sosa Torres is an inorganic chemist, with special interests in magnetic properties of newly synthesized transition metal complexes and their reactivity towards molecular oxygen, applying kinetic, electrochemical, and spectroscopic techniques.

Metallothioneins And Related Chelators

Author: Astrid Sigel
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1847558992
Size: 30.79 MB
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Chapters 3 to 5 give an account of bacterial MTs, MTs in yeast and fungi, and MTs in plants. Most astonishingly, the MTs of bacteria and plants contain next to cysteine also histidine residues and thus, metal ions are not only sulfur- but also imidazole-coordinated which gives rise to zinc finger-like structures. Remarkably, yeast and fungal MTs are Cu(I) rather than Zn(II) or Cd(II) binding proteins. Next, Chapters 6 through 9 discuss the MTs of dipteran insects, including the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, earthworms and nematodes, as well as echinoderms, crustaceans, molluscs, and fish. Actually, aquatic animals, both vertebrates and invertebrates, have the potential to be used for monitoring metal contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Interestingly, in Chapter 9 the remarkable speculation is presented that under chronic natural exposure conditions the animals establish a trade-off between the "cost" of detoxifying non-essential metals and the "cost" of allowing some of these metals to spill over onto metal-sensitive sites. This contrasts with laboratory experiments involving aquatic animals, where the toxicity of non-essential metals normally exhibits a threshold response: at low exposure concentrations the organisms can detoxify the incoming metal and thus, tolerate the exposure, whereas at concentrations above the threshold, the detoxification mechanism is no longer able to protect the organism completely.

Metal Ions And Bacteria

Author: Terrance J. Beveridge
Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
ISBN:
Size: 31.58 MB
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A comprehensive treatment of the interactions of metals with bacteria, a subject of interest in medicine, toxicology, extraction of metals, mineral cycling and microbiology, is provided in this book. It outlines the diversity of these interactions, their importance to bacteria and humans, and the global scale of the reaction products. Topics include the use of microbes to immobilize toxic heavy metals, natural biological metal chelators, metalloenzymes, heavy metal resistance mechanisms, biomineralization, the influence of metals on bacterial virulence, and the impact of the biosphere of mineral production and cycling. The text will be of benefit to academic and industrial microbiologists, researchers in mining and metal industries, environmentalists, geologists, toxicologists and biogeochemists.

The Toxicology Of Essential And Nonessential Metals

Author: Nichole Coleman, PhD
Publisher: Lulu.com
ISBN: 1483469085
Size: 56.28 MB
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No matter how careful we are at using metals in industrial processes, some level of human exposure is unavoidable. Countless metals are obtained through mining and smelting activities that amplify their distribution throughout the environment. Applications of metals in industry, medicine, and agriculture have increased our exposure. These metals are not merely an occupational hazard for those working with them-they affect consumers and anyone exposed through environmental contamination. Even worse, they cannot be destroyed and are thus non-biodegradable. The blades we use, the pots and pans we cook with, children's face paint, and facial makeup contain toxic metals. Toxic heavy metals are also found in cigarettes, gourmet foods such as seasonings, fish, and chocolates. When you sprinkle a dish with Himalayan sea salt, you may end up ingesting toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium and lead.

Biogeochemistry Of Ancient And Modern Environments

Author: P. A. Trudinger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662265826
Size: 13.68 MB
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This volume contains a selection of papers presented to the Fourth Internation~l Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry (ISEB), and a conference on Biogeochemistry in Relation to Mining Industry and Environmental Pollution (Leaching Conference), held in Canberra, Aust ralia on August 26-31 and September 3-4, 1979, respectively. The ISEB were established to provide "a forum for uninhibited exchange of information and ideas among the biological, chemical, atmospheric and geolorical scientists working in the common area of biogeochemistry, encompassing soil and other earth sciences as well as the hydrosphere and atmosphere", By linking the fourth ISEB with the Leachin~ Conference the scope of discussions was extended to encompass the application of biogeochemical processes to the mining industry. This wide-ranging philosophy is reflected in the breadth and diversity of the subjects covered in this book. The published papers are expanded versions of those presented at the meetings. They have all been scrutinized by at least one referee in addition to the editors. About 20% of the contributions to the meetings are not included, either because authors did not wish to publish or because the papers were not accepted by the editors.