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Capital Cities And Urban Form In Pre Modern China

Author: Victor Cunrui Xiong
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131723555X
Size: 68.17 MB
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Luoyang, situated in present-day Henan province, was one of the great urban centres of pre-Qin and early imperial China, the favoured site for dynastic capitals for almost two millennia. This book, the first in any Western language on the subject, traces the rise and fall of the six different capital cities in the region which served eleven different dynasties from the Western Zhou dynasty, when the first capital city made its appearance in Luoyang, to the great Tang dynasty, when Luoyang experienced a golden age. It examines the political histories of these cities, explores continuity and change in urban form with a particular focus on city layouts and landmark buildings, and discusses the roles of religions, especially Buddhism, and illustrious city residents. Overall the book provides an accessible survey of a broad sweep of premodern Chinese urban history.

Rethinking Prehistoric Central Asia

Author: Claudia Chang
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351701584
Size: 16.31 MB
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The peoples of Inner Asia in the second half of the first millennium BC have long been considered to be nomads, engaging in warfare and conflict. This book, which presents the findings of new archaeological research in southeastern Kazakhstan, analyzes these findings to present important conclusions about the nature of Inner Asian society in this period. Pots, animal bones, ancient plant remains, and mudbricks are details from the material record proving that the ancient folk cultivated wheat, barley, and the two millets, and also husbanded sheep, goats, cattle, and horses. The picture presented is of societies which were more complex than heretofore understood: with an economic foundation based on both herding and farming, producing surplus agricultural goods which were exported, and with a hierarchical social structure, including elites and commoners, made cohesive by gift-giving, feasting, and tribute, rather than conflict and warfare. The book includes material on the impact of the first opening of the Silk Route by the Han emperors of China.

Historical Dictionary Of Medieval China

Author: Victor Cunrui Xiong
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1442276169
Size: 19.71 MB
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The crucial period of Chinese history, 168-979, falls naturally into contrasting phases. The first phase, also known as that of 'early medieval China,' is an age of political decentralization. Following the breakup of the Han empire, China was plunged into civil war and fragmentation and stayed divided for nearly four centuries. The second phase started in 589, during the Sui dynasty, when China was once again brought under a single government. Under the Sui, the bureaucracy was revitalized, the military strengthened, and the taxation system reformed. The fall of the Sui in 618 gave way to the even stronger Tang dynasty, which represents an apogee of traditional Chinese civilization. Inheriting all the great institutions developed under the Sui, the Tang made great achievements in poetry, painting, music, and architecture. The An Lushan rebellion, which also took place during Tang rule, brought about far-reaching changes in the socioeconomic, political, and military arenas. What transpired in the second half of the Tang and the ensuing Five Dynasties provided the foundation for the next age of late imperial China. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Medieval China contains a chronology, an introduction, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 1000 cross-referenced entries on historical figure. It expands on existing thematic entries, and adds a number of new ones with substantial content, including those on nobility, art, architecture, archaeology, economy, agriculture, money, population, cities, literature, historiography, military, religion, Persia, India, Japan, Korea, Arabs, and Byzantium, among others. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about medieval China.

Routledge Handbook Of Imperial Chinese History

Author: Victor Cunrui Xiong
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317538226
Size: 17.34 MB
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The resurgence of modern China has generated much interest, not only in the country’s present day activities, but also in its long history. As the only uninterrupted ancient civilization still alive today, the study of China’s past promises to offer invaluable insights into understanding contemporary China. Providing coverage of the entire Imperial Era (221 BCE–1912 CE), this handbook takes a chronological approach. It includes comprehensive analysis of all major periods, from the powerful Han empire which rivalled Rome, and the crucial transformative period of the Five Dynasties, to the prosperous Ming era and the later dominance of the non-Han peoples. With contributions from a team of international authors, key themes include: Political events and leadership Religion and philosophy Cultural and literary achievements Legal, economic, and military institutions This book transcends the traditional boundaries of historiography, giving special attention to the role of archaeology. As such, the Routledge Handbook of Imperial Chinese History is an indispensable reference work for students and scholars of Chinese, Asian, and World History.

Fire Over Luoyang

Author: Rafe de Crespigny
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004325204
Size: 28.21 MB
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Rafe de Crespigny provides the first account in a Western language of one of the great dynasties of China, which dominated east Asia but collapsed in dramatic fashion at the end of the second century AD.

Donors Of Longmen

Author: Amy McNair
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
ISBN: 0824829948
Size: 18.80 MB
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Donors of Longmen is the first work in a Western language to re-create the history of the Longmen Grottoes, one of China's great stone sculpture treasure houses. Longmen, a UNESCO World Heritage site located near the old capital of Luoyang in modern Henan Province, consists of thousands of ancient cave chapels and shrines containing Buddhist icons of all sizes that were carved into the towering limestone cliffs from the fifth to the eighth centuries. Beyond its superb sculpture, Longmen also preserves thousands of engraved dedicatory inscriptions by its donors, who included emperors and empresses, aristocrats, court eunuchs, artisans, monks, nuns, lay societies, female palace officials, male civil and military officials, and ordinary lay believers. Based on wide reading of both Asian and Western-language scholarship and careful analysis of the architecture, epigraphy, and iconography of the site, Amy McNair provides a rich and detailed examination of the dynamics of faith, politics, and money at Longmen, beginning with the inception of the site at Guyang Grotto in 493 and concluding with the last major dated project, the forty-eight Amitabhas added to the Great Vairocana Image Shrine in 730. Through her sensitive and well-informed exploration of Longmen's huge repository of remarkable early sculpture, McNair gives voice to a wide array of medieval believers, many of them traditionally excluded from history. Hers will be the definitive work on Longmen for years to come.

Buddhism Diplomacy And Trade

Author: Tansen Sen
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1442254734
Size: 60.21 MB
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Relations between China and India underwent a dramatic transformation from Buddhist-dominated to commerce-centered exchanges in the seventh to fifteenth centuries. The unfolding of this transformation, its causes, and wider ramifications are examined in this masterful analysis of the changing patterns of the interaction between the two most important cultural spheres in Asia. Tansen Sen offers a new perspective on Sino-Indian relations during the Tang dynasty (618–907), arguing that the period is notable not only for religious and diplomatic exchanges but also for the process through which China emerged as a center of Buddhist learning, practice, and pilgrimage. Before the seventh century, the Chinese clergy—given the spatial gap between the sacred Buddhist world of India and the peripheral China—suffered from a “borderland complex.” A close look at the evolving practice of relic veneration in China (at Famen Monastery in particular), the exposition of Mount Wutai as an abode of the bodhisattva Mañjuśrī, and the propagation of the idea of Maitreya’s descent in China, however, reveals that by the eighth century China had overcome its complex and successfully established a Buddhist realm within its borders. The emergence of China as a center of Buddhism had profound implications on religious interactions between the two countries and is cited by Sen as one of the main causes for the weakening of China’s spiritual attraction toward India. At the same time, the growth of indigenous Chinese Buddhist schools and teachings retrenched the need for doctrinal input from India. A detailed examination of the failure of Buddhist translations produced during the Song dynasty (960–1279), demonstrates that these developments were responsible for the unraveling of religious bonds between the two countries and the termination of the Buddhist phase of Sino-Indian relations. Sen proposes that changes in religious interactions were paralleled by changes in commercial exchanges. For most of the first millennium, trading activities between India and China were closely connected with and sustained through the transmission of Buddhist doctrines. The eleventh and twelfth centuries, however, witnessed dramatic changes in the patterns and structure of mercantile activity between the two countries. Secular bulk and luxury goods replaced Buddhist ritual items, maritime channels replaced the overland Silk Road as the most profitable conduits of commercial exchange, and many of the merchants involved were followers of Islam rather than Buddhism. Moreover, policies to encourage foreign trade instituted by the Chinese government and the Indian kingdoms contributed to the intensification of commercial activity between the two countries and transformed the China-India trading circuit into a key segment of cross-continental commerce.

History Of Humanity From The Third Millennium To The Seventh Century B C

Author: Sigfried J. de Laet
Publisher: UNESCO
ISBN: 9789231028113
Size: 36.78 MB
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The second volume covers the first two and a half thousand years of recorded history, from the start of the Bronze Age 5,000 years ago to the beginnings of the Iron Age. Written by a team of over sixty specialists, this volume includes a comprehensive bibliography and a detailed index.

The Atlas Of Military History

Author: Amanda Lomazoff
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1607109859
Size: 74.75 MB
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A comprehensive look at the armed conflicts that have shaped our civilizations and our lives Aggression. Disruption. Violence. Mortality. The components of war are familiar to us all, but it’s often hard to understand how these battles throughout history continue to affect us today. The story of our world, from its earliest beginnings thousands of years BCE to today, is the often the story of our conflicts. The Atlas of Military History offers a fascinating look at the many wars that have been fought over land, independence, and other factors all over the globe. Organized into sections based on location and then in chronological order, this compendium covers everything from the Punic Wars in Carthage that began in 247 BCE, to the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, to World War II, to the recent Arab Spring. Full-color photos and maps, as well as highlighted sections on legendary leaders, battles, and weapons, are included. Perfect for students or anyone wanting to know more about this important aspect of our world, the Atlas of Military History is a complete portrait of our conflicts and resolutions.