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Carbon Nanotube And Related Field Emitters

Author: Yahachi Saito
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527632107
Size: 73.77 MB
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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have novel properties that make them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other fields of materials science. These characteristics include extraordinary strength, unique electrical properties, and the fact that they are efficient heat conductors. Field emission is the emission of electrons from the surface of a condensed phase into another phase due to the presence of high electric fields. CNT field emitters are expected to make a breakthrough in the development of field emission display technology and enable miniature X-ray sources that will find a wide variety of applications in electronic devices, industry, and medical and security examinations. This first monograph on the topic covers all aspects in a concise yet comprehensive manner - from the fundamentals to applications. Divided into four sections, the first part discusses the preparation and characterization of carbon nanotubes, while part two is devoted to the field emission properties of carbon nanotubes, including the electron emission mechanism, characteristics of CNT electron sources, and dynamic behavior of CNTs during operation. Part three highlights field emission from other nanomaterials, such as carbon nanowalls, diamond, and silicon and zinc oxide nanowires, before concluding with frontier R&D applications of CNT emitters, from vacuum electronic devices such as field emission displays, to electron sources in electron microscopes, X-ray sources, and microwave amplifiers. Edited by a pioneer in the field, each chapter is written by recognized experts in the respective fields.

Carbon Nanotubes And Related Structures

Author: Peter J. F. Harris
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521005333
Size: 14.63 MB
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This is a 1999 book on carbon nanotubes, one of the most exciting areas in materials chemistry.

Industrial Applications Of Carbon Nanotubes

Author: Huisheng Peng
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 0323415318
Size: 26.23 MB
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Industrial Applications of Carbon Nanotubes covers the current applications of carbon nanotubes in various industry sectors, from the military to visual display products, and energy harvesting and storage. It also assesses the opportunities and challenges for increased commercialization and manufacturing of carbon nanotubes in the years ahead. Real-life case studies illustrate how carbon nanotubes are used in each industry sector covered, providing a valuable resource for scientists and engineers who are involved and/or interested in carbon nanotubes in both academia and industry. The book serves as a comprehensive guide to the varied uses of carbon nanotubes for specialists in many related fields, including chemistry, physics, biology, and textiles. Explains how carbon nanotubes can be used to improve the efficiency and performance of industrial products Includes real-life case studies to illustrate how carbon nanotubes have been successfully employed Explores how carbon nanotubes could be mass-manufactured in the future, and outlines the challenges that need to be overcome

Carbon Nanomaterials For Biomedical Applications

Author: Mei Zhang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319228617
Size: 67.73 MB
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This book covers a wide range of topics relating to carbon nanomaterials, from synthesis and functionalization to applications in advanced biomedical devices and systems. As they possess unique and attractive chemical, physical, optical, and even magnetic properties for various applications, considerable effort has been made to employ carbon nanomaterials (e.g., fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamond) as new materials for the development of novel biomedical tools, such as diagnostic sensors, imaging agents, and drug/gene delivery systems for both diagnostics and clinical treatment. Tremendous progress has been made and the scattered literature continues to grow rapidly. With chapters by world-renowned experts providing an overview of the state of the science as well as an understanding of the challenges that lie ahead, Carbon Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications is essential reading not only for experienced scientists and engineers in biomedical and nanomaterials areas, but also for graduate students and advanced undergraduates in materials science and engineering, chemistry, and biology.

Handbook Of X Ray Imaging

Author: Paolo Russo
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 149874155X
Size: 31.16 MB
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Containing chapter contributions from over 130 experts, this unique publication is the first handbook dedicated to the physics and technology of X-ray imaging, offering extensive coverage of the field. This highly comprehensive work is edited by one of the world’s leading experts in X-ray imaging?physics and technology and has been created with guidance from a Scientific Board containing respected and renowned scientists from around the world. The book's scope includes 2D and 3D X-ray imaging techniques from soft-X-ray to megavoltage energies, including computed tomography, fluoroscopy, dental imaging and small animal imaging, with several chapters dedicated to breast imaging techniques. 2D and 3D industrial imaging is incorporated, including imaging of artworks. Specific attention is dedicated to techniques of phase contrast X-ray imaging. The approach undertaken is one that illustrates the theory as well as the techniques and the devices routinely used in the various fields. Computational aspects are fully covered, including 3D reconstruction algorithms, hard/software phantoms, and computer-aided diagnosis. Theories of image quality are fully illustrated. Historical, radioprotection, radiation dosimetry, quality assurance and educational aspects are also covered. This handbook will be suitable for a very broad audience, including graduate students in medical physics and biomedical engineering; medical physics residents; radiographers; physicists and engineers in the field of imaging and non-destructive industrial testing using X-rays; and scientists interested in understanding and using X-ray imaging techniques. The handbook's editor, Dr. Paolo Russo, has over 30 years’ experience in the academic teaching of medical physics and X-ray imaging research. He has authored several book chapters in the field of X-ray imaging, is Editor-in-Chief of an international scientific journal in medical physics, and has responsibilities in the publication committees of international scientific organizations in medical physics.

Integrally Gated Carbon Nanotube On Post Field Emitter Arrays

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Carbon nanotubes (cNT) are excellent field emitters on account of their chemical, structural, and electronic properties, which afford important aspects of robustness that have been lacking in the conventional metal and silicon field emitter arrays (FEA). They possess high current-carrying capacity and mechanical strength. Their small diameters (2-50 nm) and high aspect ratios produce high geometric field enhancement, which remains nearly constant even when material is removed from the end of the tubes such as by back ion bombardment. A key contributing factor to their stability as field emitters is the lack of surface oxide formation. Surface oxide formation on metal or silicon emitters impedes electron transport to the surface and causes changes in the emission characteristics during operation. Furthermore, the oxides could be the main cause for FEA catastrophic destruction by trapping charge which could lead to arcing. 1 It has also been suggested that carbon nanotubes do not form nanoprotrusions as metal and silicon cathodes do, thus making current runaway and arcing less likely to occur. 2.

Characterization Of Carbon Nanotube Based Thin Film Field Emitter

Author: Niraj Sinha
ISBN: 9780494433478
Size: 56.20 MB
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In recent years, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as one of the best field emitters for a variety of technological applications. The field emitting cathodes have several advantages over the conventional thermionic cathodes: (i) current density from field emission would be orders of magnitude greater than in the thermionic case, (ii) a cold cathode would minimize the need for cooling, and (iii) a field emitting cathode can be miniaturized. In spite of good performance of such cathodes, the procedure to estimate the device current is not straight forward and the required insight towards design optimization is not well understood. In addition, the current in CNT-based thin film devices shows fluctuation. Such fluctuation in field emission current is not desirable for many biomedical applications such as x-ray devices. The CNTs in a thin film undergo complex dynamics during field emission, which includes processes such as (i) evolution, (ii) electromechanical interaction, (iii) thermoelectric heating, (iv) ballistic transport, and (v) electron gas flow. These processes are coupled and nonlinear. Therefore, they must be analyzed accurately from the stability and long-term performance point of view. In this research, we develop detailed physics-based models of CNTs considering the aspects mentioned above.

In Plane Carbon Nanotube Field Emitters For High Temperature Integrated Electronics

Author: Andrew Hayes Monica
Publisher: ProQuest
ISBN: 9780549740896
Size: 78.39 MB
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The field emitter structures consist of carbon nanotubes that are created using one of two distinct techniques: dielectrophoretic assembly or thermal chemical vapor deposition synthesis. I will discuss how such techniques can be used to create lateral CNT structures suitable for planar field emission while also enabling complete compatibility with modern semiconductor processing techniques. The electrical and thermal performance results of planar CNT field emitters operating in diode and triode configurations are also reported.

Carbon Alloys

Author: Ei-ichi Yasuda
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080441634
Size: 65.57 MB
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In recent years the Japanese have funded a comprehensive study of carbon materials which incorporate other elements including boron, nitrogen and fluorine, hence the title of the project "Carbon Alloys". Coined in 1992, the phrase "Carbon Alloys" can be applied to those materials mainly composed of carbon materials in multi-component systems. The carbon atoms of each component have a physical and/or chemical interactive relationship with other atoms or compounds. The carbon atoms of the components may have different hybrid bonding orbitals to create quite different carbon components. Eiichi Yasuda and his team consider the definition of Carbon Alloys, present the results of the Carbon Alloys projects, describe typical Carbon Alloys and their uses, discuss recent techniques for their characterization, and finally, illustrate potential applications and future developments for Carbon Alloy science. The book contains over thirty chapters on these studies from as many researchers. The most modern of techniques, particularly in the area of spectroscopy, were used as diagnostic tools, and many of these are applicable to pure carbons also. Porosity in carbons received considerable attention.

Carbon Nanotubes

Author: M. Meyyappan
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203494936
Size: 57.24 MB
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Carbon nanotubes, with their extraordinary mechanical and unique electronic properties, have garnered much attention in the past five years. With a broad range of potential applications including nanoelectronics, composites, chemical sensors, biosensors, microscopy, nanoelectromechanical systems, and many more, the scientific community is more motivated than ever to move beyond basic properties and explore the real issues associated with carbon nanotube-based applications. Taking a comprehensive look at this diverse and dynamic subject, Carbon Nanotubes: Science and Applications describes the field's various aspects, including properties, growth, and processing techniques, while focusing on individual major application areas. Well-known authors who practice the craft of carbon nanotubes on a daily basis present an overview on structures and properties, and discuss modeling and simulation efforts, growth by arc discharge, laser ablation, and chemical vapor deposition. Applications become the focal point in chapters on scanning probe microscopy, carbon nanotube-based diodes and transistors, field emission, and the development of chemical and physical sensors, biosensors, and composites. Presenting up-to-date literature citations that express the current state of the science, this book fully explores the development phase of carbon nanotube-based applications. It is a valuable resource for engineers, scientists, researchers, and professionals in a wide range of disciplines whose focus remains on the power and promise of carbon nanotubes. Editor Meyya Meyyappan will receive the Pioneer Award in Nanotechnology from the IEEE Nanotechnology Council at the IEEE Nano Conference in Portland, Oregon in August, 2011