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Causality

Author: Carlo Berzuini
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119941733
Size: 25.92 MB
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A state of the art volume on statistical causality Causality: Statistical Perspectives and Applications presents a wide-ranging collection of seminal contributions by renowned experts in the field, providing a thorough treatment of all aspects of statistical causality. It covers the various formalisms in current use, methods for applying them to specific problems, and the special requirements of a range of examples from medicine, biology and economics to political science. This book: Provides a clear account and comparison of formal languages, concepts and models for statistical causality. Addresses examples from medicine, biology, economics and political science to aid the reader's understanding. Is authored by leading experts in their field. Is written in an accessible style. Postgraduates, professional statisticians and researchers in academia and industry will benefit from this book.

Applied Bayesian Modeling And Causal Inference From Incomplete Data Perspectives

Author: Donald B. Rubin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470090435
Size: 42.74 MB
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This book brings together a collection of articles onstatistical methods relating to missing data analysis, includingmultiple imputation, propensity scores, instrumental variables, andBayesian inference. Covering new research topicsand real-world examples which do not feature in manystandard texts. The book is dedicated to Professor Don Rubin(Harvard). Don Rubin has made fundamental contributions tothe study of missing data. Key features of the book include: Comprehensive coverage of an imporant area for both researchand applications. Adopts a pragmatic approach to describing a wide range ofintermediate and advanced statistical techniques. Covers key topics such as multiple imputation, propensityscores, instrumental variables and Bayesian inference. Includes a number of applications from the social and healthsciences. Edited and authored by highly respected researchers in thearea.

Causal Inference In Statistics

Author: Judea Pearl
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119186862
Size: 65.33 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Many of the concepts and terminology surrounding modern causal inference can be quite intimidating to the novice. Judea Pearl presents a book ideal for beginners in statistics, providing a comprehensive introduction to the field of causality. Examples from classical statistics are presented throughout to demonstrate the need for causality in resolving decision-making dilemmas posed by data. Causal methods are also compared to traditional statistical methods, whilst questions are provided at the end of each section to aid student learning.

Statistics And Causality

Author: Wolfgang Wiedermann
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118947053
Size: 80.43 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A one-of-a-kind guide to identifying and dealing with modern statistical developments in causality Written by a group of well-known experts, Statistics and Causality: Methods for Applied Empirical Research focuses on the most up-to-date developments in statistical methods in respect to causality. Illustrating the properties of statistical methods to theories of causality, the book features a summary of the latest developments in methods for statistical analysis of causality hypotheses. The book is divided into five accessible and independent parts. The first part introduces the foundations of causal structures and discusses issues associated with standard mechanistic and difference-making theories of causality. The second part features novel generalizations of methods designed to make statements concerning the direction of effects. The third part illustrates advances in Granger-causality testing and related issues. The fourth part focuses on counterfactual approaches and propensity score analysis. Finally, the fifth part presents designs for causal inference with an overview of the research designs commonly used in epidemiology. Statistics and Causality: Methods for Applied Empirical Research also includes: New statistical methodologies and approaches to causal analysis in the context of the continuing development of philosophical theories End-of-chapter bibliographies that provide references for further discussions and additional research topics Discussions on the use and applicability of software when appropriate Statistics and Causality: Methods for Applied Empirical Research is an ideal reference for practicing statisticians, applied mathematicians, psychologists, sociologists, logicians, medical professionals, epidemiologists, and educators who want to learn more about new methodologies in causal analysis. The book is also an excellent textbook for graduate-level courses in causality and qualitative logic.

Matched Sampling For Causal Effects

Author: Donald B. Rubin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139458507
Size: 51.10 MB
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Matched sampling is often used to help assess the causal effect of some exposure or intervention, typically when randomized experiments are not available or cannot be conducted. This book presents a selection of Donald B. Rubin's research articles on matched sampling, from the early 1970s, when the author was one of the major researchers involved in establishing the field, to recent contributions to this now extremely active area. The articles include fundamental theoretical studies that have become classics, important extensions, and real applications that range from breast cancer treatments to tobacco litigation to studies of criminal tendencies. They are organized into seven parts, each with an introduction by the author that provides historical and personal context and discusses the relevance of the work today. A concluding essay offers advice to investigators designing observational studies. The book provides an accessible introduction to the study of matched sampling and will be an indispensable reference for students and researchers.

Introductory Statistics And Analytics

Author: Peter C. Bruce
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118881338
Size: 11.14 MB
Format: PDF
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Concise, thoroughly class-tested primer that features basic statistical concepts in the concepts in the context of analytics, resampling, and the bootstrap A uniquely developed presentation of key statistical topics, Introductory Statistics and Analytics: A Resampling Perspective provides an accessible approach to statistical analytics, resampling, and the bootstrap for readers with various levels of exposure to basic probability and statistics. Originally class-tested at one of the first online learning companies in the discipline, www.statistics.com, the book primarily focuses on applications of statistical concepts developed via resampling, with a background discussion of mathematical theory. This feature stresses statistical literacy and understanding, which demonstrates the fundamental basis for statistical inference and demystifies traditional formulas. The book begins with illustrations that have the essential statistical topics interwoven throughout before moving on to demonstrate the proper design of studies. Meeting all of the Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE) requirements for an introductory statistics course, Introductory Statistics and Analytics: A Resampling Perspective also includes: Over 300 “Try It Yourself” exercises and intermittent practice questions, which challenge readers at multiple levels to investigate and explore key statistical concepts Numerous interactive links designed to provide solutions to exercises and further information on crucial concepts Linkages that connect statistics to the rapidly growing field of data science Multiple discussions of various software systems, such as Microsoft Office Excel®, StatCrunch, and R, to develop and analyze data Areas of concern and/or contrasting points-of-view indicated through the use of “Caution” icons Introductory Statistics and Analytics: A Resampling Perspective is an excellent primary textbook for courses in preliminary statistics as well as a supplement for courses in upper-level statistics and related fields, such as biostatistics and econometrics. The book is also a general reference for readers interested in revisiting the value of statistics.

Causal Inference For Statistics Social And Biomedical Sciences

Author: Guido W. Imbens
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316094391
Size: 60.29 MB
Format: PDF
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Most questions in social and biomedical sciences are causal in nature: what would happen to individuals, or to groups, if part of their environment were changed? In this groundbreaking text, two world-renowned experts present statistical methods for studying such questions. This book starts with the notion of potential outcomes, each corresponding to the outcome that would be realized if a subject were exposed to a particular treatment or regime. In this approach, causal effects are comparisons of such potential outcomes. The fundamental problem of causal inference is that we can only observe one of the potential outcomes for a particular subject. The authors discuss how randomized experiments allow us to assess causal effects and then turn to observational studies. They lay out the assumptions needed for causal inference and describe the leading analysis methods, including matching, propensity-score methods, and instrumental variables. Many detailed applications are included, with special focus on practical aspects for the empirical researcher.

Theoretical Foundations Of Functional Data Analysis With An Introduction To Linear Operators

Author: Tailen Hsing
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470016914
Size: 19.99 MB
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Functional data is data in the form of curves that is becoming a popular method for interpreting scientific data. Statistical Analysis of Functional Data provides an authoritative account of function data analysis covering its foundations, theory, methodology, and practical implementation. It also contains examples taken from a wide range of disciplines, including finance, medicine, and psychology. The book includes a supporting Web site hosting the real data sets analyzed in the book and related software. Statistical researchers or practitioners analyzing functional data will find this book useful.

Clinical Trials

Author: Steven Piantadosi
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118959213
Size: 16.17 MB
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Presents elements of clinical trial methods that are essential in planning, designing, conducting, analyzing, and interpreting clinical trials with the goal of improving the evidence derived from these important studies This Third Edition builds on the text’s reputation as a straightforward, detailed, and authoritative presentation of quantitative methods for clinical trials. Readers will encounter the principles of design for various types of clinical trials, and are then skillfully guided through the complete process of planning the experiment, assembling a study cohort, assessing data, and reporting results. Throughout the process, the author alerts readers to problems that may arise during the course of the trial and provides common sense solutions. All stages of therapeutic development are discussed in detail, and the methods are not restricted to a single clinical application area. The authors bases current revisions and updates on his own experience, classroom instruction, and feedback from teachers and medical and statistical professionals involved in clinical trials. The Third Edition greatly expands its coverage, ranging from statistical principles to new and provocative topics, including alternative medicine and ethics, middle development, comparative studies, and adaptive designs. At the same time, it offers more pragmatic advice for issues such as selecting outcomes, sample size, analysis, reporting, and handling allegations of misconduct. Readers familiar with the First and Second Editions will discover revamped exercise sets; an updated and extensive reference section; new material on endpoints and the developmental pipeline, among others; and revisions of numerous sections. In addition, this book: • Features accessible and broad coverage of statistical design methods—the crucial building blocks of clinical trials and medical research -- now complete with new chapters on overall development, middle development, comparative studies, and adaptive designs • Teaches readers to design clinical trials that produce valid qualitative results backed by rigorous statistical methods • Contains an introduction and summary in each chapter to reinforce key points • Includes discussion questions to stimulate critical thinking and help readers understand how they can apply their newfound knowledge • Provides extensive references to direct readers to the most recent literature, and there are numerous new or revised exercises throughout the book Clinical Trials: A Methodologic Perspective, Third Edition is a textbook accessible to advanced undergraduate students in the quantitative sciences, graduate students in public health and the life sciences, physicians training in clinical research methods, and biostatisticians and epidemiologists. Steven Piantadosi, MD, PhD, is the Phase One Foundation Distinguished Chair and Director of the Samuel Oschin Cancer Institute, and Professor of Medicine at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California. Dr. Piantadosi is one of the world’s leading experts in the design and analysis of clinical trials for cancer research. He has taught clinical trials methods extensively in formal courses and short venues. He has advised numerous academic programs and collaborations nationally regarding clinical trial design and conduct, and has served on external advisory boards for the National Institutes of Health and other prominent cancer programs and centers. The author of more than 260 peer-reviewed scientific articles, Dr. Piantadosi has published extensively on research results, clinical applications, and trial methodology. While his papers have contributed to many areas of oncology, he has also collaborated on diverse studies outside oncology including lung disease and degenerative neurological disease.

Exploratory Causal Analysis With Time Series Data

Author: James M. McCracken
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1627059342
Size: 16.48 MB
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Many scientific disciplines rely on observational data of systems for which it is difficult (or impossible) to implement controlled experiments. Data analysis techniques are required for identifying causal information and relationships directly from such observational data. This need has led to the development of many different time series causality approaches and tools including transfer entropy, convergent cross-mapping (CCM), and Granger causality statistics. A practicing analyst can explore the literature to find many proposals for identifying drivers and causal connections in time series data sets. Exploratory causal analysis (ECA) provides a framework for exploring potential causal structures in time series data sets and is characterized by a myopic goal to determine which data series from a given set of series might be seen as the primary driver. In this work, ECA is used on several synthetic and empirical data sets, and it is found that all of the tested time series causality tools agree with each other (and intuitive notions of causality) for many simple systems but can provide conflicting causal inferences for more complicated systems. It is proposed that such disagreements between different time series causality tools during ECA might provide deeper insight into the data than could be found otherwise.