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Central Asia Views From Washington Moscow And Beijing

Author: Eugene B. Rumer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315289512
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The disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 rapidly and irrevocably transformed Central Asia's political landscape. This region of five sovereign states with a population of some fifty million people quickly became a major focus of interest and influence for competing poles of power. The eminent contributors to this volume offer a four-part analysis of the region's new importance in world affairs. Rajan Menon examines the place of Central Asia in a global perspective. Eugene Rumer considers the perspective of the post-9/11 United States. Dimitri Trenin looks at the region from the standpoint of traditional hegemon Russia. Huasheng Zhao provides the view from economic superpower-in-the-making China.

Central Asian Security Trends

Author: Stephen Blank
Publisher: Strategic Studies Institute
ISBN: 1584874872
Size: 45.95 MB
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The war in Afghanistan has added considerably to the strategic significance of Central Asia due to its proximity to the conflict. Moreover, the continuation of the war increasingly involves the vital interests of many other actors other than the U.S. and NATO forces currently there. This monograph, taken from SSI's conference ("Contemporary Issues in International Security") with European and Russian scholars in 2010, provides a comprehensive analysis of the means and objectives of Russia's involvement in Central Asia. It provides Russian perspectives concerning the other actors in Central Asia and how Moscow views the policy significance of those efforts, and a French analysis of the strategic situation evolving there. For obvious reasons: the war in Afghanistan, proximity to major global actors, large energy holdings, and for less obvious reasons, i.e., that possibility that domestic instability in one or more of these states could spread to other Muslim states as we now see in the Arab revolutions of 2011, Central Asia is an increasingly important and interesting region.

Axis Of Convenience

Author: Bobo Lo
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815701460
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Few relationships have been as misunderstood as the "strategic partnership" between Russia and China. Official rhetoric portrays it as the very model of international cooperation: Moscow and Beijing claim that ties are closer and warmer than at any time in history. In reality, however, the picture is highly ambiguous. While both sides are committed to multifaceted engagement, cooperation is complicated by historical suspicions, cultural prejudices, geopolitical rivalries, and competing priorities. For Russia, China is at once the focus of a genuine convergence of interests and the greatest long-term threat to its national security. For China, Russia is a key supplier of energy and weapons, but is frequently dismissed as a self-important power whose rhetoric far outstrips its real influence. A xis of Convenience cuts through the mythmaking and examines the Sino-Russian partnership on its own merits. It steers between the overblown interpretation of an anti-Western (particularly, anti-American) alliance and the complacent assumption that past animosities and competing agendas must always divide the two nations. Their relationship reflects a new geopolitics, one that eschews formal alliances in favor of more flexible and opportunistic arrangements. Ultimately, it is an axis of convenience driven by cold-eyed perceptions of the national interest. In evaluating the current state and future prospects of the relationship, Bobo Lo assesses its impact on the evolving strategic environments in Central and East Asia. He also analyzes the global implications of rapprochement between Moscow and Beijing, focusing in particular on the geopolitics of energy and Russia-China-U.S. triangularism.

Radicalism Drug Trafficking And Outside Influence In Central Asia

Author: Caroline Mutuku
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3668753482
Size: 78.67 MB
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Seminar paper from the year 2018 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Peace and Conflict Studies, Security, grade: 1, , language: English, abstract: Central Asia has been experiencing immense instability in the last decades, and this situation seems to have advanced into a curse of stability. Currently, it is speculated that peace in the post-Soviet Central Asia has been tense. As a result, there is a high potential for bloodshed in the region, and this aspect can be evidenced by the events which occurred in Kyrgyzstan recently in 2010. It is believed that waves of lethal violence which were experienced in Kyrgyzstan have spread within the Central Asian region. This is so because elements of radicalism have emerged in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan. Historically, volatility is one of the principal reputations of Central Asia since 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed resulting into tense security situation in the region. Since then, Central Asian states have been characterized by violence, instability, destabilization and Islamic extremism. In addition, other nefarious aspects have been reported within the region leading to the emergence of the so-called ‘the Eurasian Balkans.’ It is observed that the state of perennial instability within Central Asia is attributable to the crumbling infrastructure, remittance economies and brutal dictatorship . In the past, political leadership in the region has been characterized with immense repression and corruption. As a result, citizens in the respective countries have been experiencing social injustice leading to radicalism and civil unrest. It appears that the events occurring within Central Asia may lead to state collapse given that all countries are faced with mass violence. For instance, Tajikistan is experiencing separatism, Kyrgyzstan succumb ethnic warfare and Uzbekistan battles repression and violent conflict that erupted in 2005. Therefore, instability in Central Asia is something that should be paid attention, in order to address the tortuous decline of the affected countries. In response to peace lapses in the region, issues such as radicalism, drug trafficking and outside influence require extensive evaluation to ascertain their role in regional instability. Therefore, this research paper will provide a comprehensive overview on how radicalism, drug trafficking and outside influence may cause instability in Central Asia.

Great Games Local Rules

Author: Alexander Cooley
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199978581
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The struggle between Russia and Great Britain over Central Asia in the nineteenth century was the original "great game." But in the past quarter century, a new "great game" has emerged, pitting America against a newly aggressive Russia and a resource-hungry China, all struggling for influence over the same region, now one of the most volatile areas in the world: the long border region stretching from Iran through Pakistan to Kashmir. In Great Games, Local Rules, Alexander Cooley, one of America's most respected international relations scholars, explores the dynamics of the new competition for control of the region since 9/11. All three great powers have crafted strategies to increase their power in the area, which includes Afghanistan and the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. Each nation is pursuing important goals: basing rights for the US, access to natural resources for the Chinese, and increased political influence for the Russians. However, overlooked in all of the talk about this new great game is fact that the Central Asian governments have proven themselves critical agents in their own right, establishing local rules for external power involvement that serve to fend off foreign interest. As a result, despite a decade of intense interest from the United States, Russia, and China, Central Asia remains a collection of segmented states, and the external competition has merely reinforced the sovereign authority of the individual Central Asian governments. A careful and surprising analysis of how small states interact with great powers in a vital region, Great Games, Local Rules greatly advances our understanding of how global politics actually works in the contemporary era.

The Strategic Importance Of Central Asia An American View

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Undoubtedly Central Asia's strategic importance in international affairs is growing. The rivalries among Russia, China, United States, Iran, India, and Pakistan not tomention the ever-changing pattern of relations among local states (five former Soviet republics and Afghanistan) make the region's importance obviously clear. Central Asia's strategic importance for Washington, Moscow, and Beijing varies with each nation s perception of its strategic interests. Washington focuses primarily on Central Asia as an important theater in the war on terrorism. Additionally, it is viewed as a theater where America might counter a revived Russia or China, or a place to blunt any extension of Iranian influence. Moscow and Beijing view the region as a vital locale for defending critical domestic interests. This asymmetry of interest is a major factor in the competition among states for influence in the region.

Key Players And Regional Dynamics In Eurasia

Author: Maria Raquel Freire
Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan
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Introduction Russia in Eurasia: External Players and Regional Dynamics-- M.R.Freire & R.E.Kanet PART I: THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE GREATER CASPIAN BASIAN Russia and the CIS Region: The Russian Regional Security Complex-- B.Nygren International Rivalries in Eurasia-- S.Blank Eurasia at the Heart of Russian Politics: Dynamics of (In)Dependence in a Complex Setting-- M.R.Freire PART II: EXTERNAL POWERS, RUSSIA AND EURASIA Russia and the Greater Caspian Basin: Withstanding the U.S. Challenge-- R.E.Kanet Competing for Eurasia: Russian and European Union Perspectives-- S.Fernandes & L.Simao Russia and China in Eurasia: The Wary Partnership-- J.Berryman India and Central Asia-- A.D.Gupta Eurasia between Russia, Turkey and Iran-- M.Mesbahi PART III: INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND NON-STATE ACTORS, RUSSIA AND EURASIA Senseless Dreams and Small Steps: The CIS and CSTO Between Integration and Cooperation-- R.Sakwa The Atlantic Alliance in Eurasia: A Different Player?-- A.Priego Intergovernmental Organisations and Non-State Actors, Russia and Eurasia: The OSCE-- P.T.Hopmann Strategic Resources, Strategic Players: The Role of National versus International Oil Companies in Post-Soviet Eurasia-- H.Kjarnet Conclusion-- M.R.Freire.

China Xinjiang And Central Asia

Author: Colin Mackerras
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134053878
Size: 23.44 MB
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Central Asia and Xinjiang – the far north-western province of China – are of increasing international importance. The United States, having established military bases in Central Asia after September 2001, has now become a force in what was previously predominantly a Russian sphere of influence; whilst China, Russia and Iran all continue to exert strong influence. These external, international influences have had a significant impact on local politics, with the overthrow of a long-standing regime in Kyrgyzstan, continued unrest and opposition to the current regime in Uzbekistan and the intensification of Chinese control in Xinjiang. This book explores the effect of global and local dynamics across the region: global influences include the ‘War on Terror’ and international competition for energy resources; local dynamics include Islamic revival, Central Asian nationalism, drugs trafficking; economic development and integration. The authors argue that these multiple challenges, in fact, unite Xinjiang and Central Asia in a common struggle for identities and economic development. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the region’s historical significance, the contemporary international forces which affect the region, and of current political, economic and cultural developments.

Eastern Europe Russia And Central Asia 2008

Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781857434248
Size: 30.59 MB
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Extensive coverage of the political, economic and social affairs of the region. This impartial up-to-date survey of the countries and territories that make up the region includes: * incisive analysis by acknowledged experts * the latest statistics on the major economic indicators and population * invaluable directory material. General Survey * leading authorities on the region analyse topics of regional importance including: An Economic Survey of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS); International Relations of Russia and the CIS; The Politics of Energy in the Caspian Sea Region; Uneven Progress towards Democracy in the Region; Poverty and Social Welfare; Organized Crime; The Politics of Water in Central Asia; and Environmental Degradation. Country Surveys Individual chapters on every country containing: * an introductory survey, containing essays on the geography, recent history and economy of each country, which includes a map and full chronology * an extensive statistical survey of economic indicators, which include area and population, health and welfare, agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, industry, finance, trade, transport, tourism, media and education. * a full directory containing names, addresses, contact numbers and e-mail and internet addresses for the following areas: the constitution, the government, legislature, local government, political organizations, diplomatic representation, the judiciary, religion, the media, finance, trade and industry, transport, tourism, culture, education, social welfare, the environment and defence * a useful bibliography, providing sources for further research. Who's Who in Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia * biographical details on more than 160 of the leading political figures in the region. Regional Information * detailed information on the following: regional organizations; research institutes; a select periodicals bibliography and a select books bibliography.

China S Energy Geopolitics

Author: Thrassy N. Marketos
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134106025
Size: 60.53 MB
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China’s need for energy has become a driving factor in contemporary world politics and a precondition for sustaining China’s continuing high economic growth. Accordingly, Chinese energy policy has been a political and strategic rather than market-driven policy. This book focuses on the need of a stable and secure investment environment which is necessary for the energy provision of China from the Central Asian states. The author argues that the institutionalization of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (S.C.O.), the Friendship and Cooperation Treaty between Russia and China and Chinese bilateral agreements with individual Central Asian states present an avenue and a framework of stability in which pipeline construction can commence. With the backing of the US in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, Chinese involvement in the region has now been expanding. However, in order to stabilize the region for Chinese investment in energy resources, the author states that the US needs to be present in the region and that a strategic framework of cooperation between Russia, China and the US has to be developed. The book will be of interest to academics working in the field of International Security, International Relations and Central Asian and Chinese politics.