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Cesar Cost Efficient Methods And Processes For Safety Relevant Embedded Systems

Author: Ajitha Rajan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3709113873
Size: 10.16 MB
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The book summarizes the findings and contributions of the European ARTEMIS project, CESAR, for improving and enabling interoperability of methods, tools, and processes to meet the demands in embedded systems development across four domains - avionics, automotive, automation, and rail. The contributions give insight to an improved engineering and safety process life-cycle for the development of safety critical systems. They present new concept of engineering tools integration platform to improve the development of safety critical embedded systems and illustrate capacity of this framework for end-user instantiation to specific domain needs and processes. They also advance state-of-the-art in component-based development as well as component and system validation and verification, with tool support. And finally they describe industry relevant evaluated processes and methods especially designed for the embedded systems sector as well as easy adoptable common interoperability principles for software tool integration.

Making Systems Safer

Author: Chris Dale
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781849960861
Size: 79.46 MB
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Making Systems Safer contains the papers presented at the eighteenth annual Safety-critical Systems Symposium, held at Bristol, UK, in February 2010. The Symposium is for engineers, managers and academics in the field of system safety, across all industry sectors, so the papers making up this volume offer a wide-ranging coverage of current safety topics, and a blend of academic research and industrial experience. They include both recent developments in the field and discussion of open issues that will shape future progress. The first paper reflects a tutorial – on Formalization in Safety Cases – held on the first day of the Symposium. The subsequent 15 papers are presented under the headings of the Symposium’s sessions: Perspectives on Systems Safety, Managing Safety-Related Projects, Transport Safety, Safety Standards, Safety Competencies and Safety Methods. The book will be of interest to both academics and practitioners working in the safety-critical systems arena.

Engineering Embedded Systems

Author: Peter Hintenaus
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319106805
Size: 25.67 MB
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This is a textbook for graduate and final-year-undergraduate computer-science and electrical-engineering students interested in the hardware and software aspects of embedded and cyberphysical systems design. It is comprehensive and self-contained, covering everything from the basics to case-study implementation. Emphasis is placed on the physical nature of the problem domain and of the devices used. The reader is assumed to be familiar on a theoretical level with mathematical tools like ordinary differential equation and Fourier transforms. In this book these tools will be put to practical use. Engineering Embedded Systems begins by addressing basic material on signals and systems, before introducing to electronics. Treatment of digital electronics accentuating synchronous circuits and including high-speed effects proceeds to micro-controllers, digital signal processors and programmable logic. Peripheral units and decentralized networks are given due weight. The properties of analog circuits and devices like filters and data converters are covered to the extent desirable by a systems architect. The handling of individual elements concludes with power supplies including regulators and converters. The final section of the text is composed of four case studies: • electric-drive control, permanent magnet synchronous motors in particular; • lock-in amplification with measurement circuits for weight and torque, and moisture; • design of a simple continuous wave radar that can be operated to measure speed and distance; and • design of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for process applications. End-of-chapter exercises will assist the student to assimilate the tutorial material and these are supplemented by a downloadable solutions manual for instructors. The “pen-and-paper” problems are further augmented with laboratory activities. In addition to its student market, Engineering Embedded Systems will assist industrial practitioners working in systems architecture and the design of electronic measurement systems to keep up to date with developments in embedded systems through self study.

The Agile Safety Case

Author: Thor Myklebust
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319702653
Size: 55.94 MB
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The safety case (SC) is one of the railway industry’s most important deliverables for creating confidence in their systems. This is the first book on how to write an SC, based on the standard EN 50129:2003. Experience has shown that preparing and understanding an SC is difficult and time consuming, and as such the book provides insights that enhance the training for writing an SC. The book discusses both "regular" safety cases and agile safety cases, which avoid too much documentation, improve communication between the stakeholders, allow quicker approval of the system, and which are important in the light of rapidly changing technology. In addition, it discusses the necessity of frequently updating software due to market requirements, changes in requirements and increased cyber-security threats. After a general introduction to SCs and agile thinking in chapter 1, chapter 2 describes the majority of the roles that are relevant when developing railway-signaling systems. Next, chapter 3 provides information related to the assessment of signaling systems, to certifications based on IEC 61508 and to the authorization of signaling systems. Chapter 4 then explains how an agile safety plan satisfying the requirements given in EN 50126-1:1999 can be developed, while chapter 5 provides a brief introduction to safety case patterns and notations. Lastly, chapter 6 combines all this and describes how an (agile) SC can be developed and what it should include. To ensure that infrastructure managers, suppliers, consultants and others can take full advantage of the agile mind-set, the book includes concrete examples and presents relevant agile practices. Although the scope of the book is limited to signaling systems, the basic foundations for (agile) SCs are clearly described so that they can also be applied in other cases.

Living In A Networked World

Author: Eva Geisberger
Publisher: Herbert Utz Verlag
ISBN: 3831644497
Size: 34.49 MB
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The rapid progress of information technology allows for increasingly powerful software intensive embedded systems (machines) executing integrated applications connected by and to global networks. Thus these systems are more and more networked among each other, but also with data and services on the Internet. Intelligent solutions originate which gather processes of the living environment by means of sensors and actuators, connect them to virtual software worlds and interpret, monitor and control these processes in interaction with people. In this way, so-called Cyber-Physical Systems evolve – a living in a networked world. The interlocking applications include smart cities, social infrastructures with integrated telemedicine care, enhanced connected mobility with fully or semi-autonomous driving cars and traffic systems, safety, security and privacy as well as networked production and the sustainable energy turnaround. The integrated research agenda Cyber-Physical-Systems (agendaCPS) provides a comprehensive overview of the capabilities and benefits of the arising CPS-applications and manifold technological and social challenges involved. The agenda illustrates which value the subject for economy and society has: revolutionary applications of Cyber-Physical Systems address technological and social trends and needs; at the same time they penetrate and interconnect more and more areas of life. On the basis of concrete future scenarios essential application domains are shown. Their analysis reveals which capabilities and technologies form the basis of Cyber-Physical systems and which innovation and possible conflict potential is inherent. The agendaCPS makes clear which researchand action areas are from particular importance. In these contexts opportunities, but also risks become apparent for Germany by Cyber-Physical Systems. This ist the English translation of the report agenda Cyber-Physical Systems finished three years ago as a German acatech project by a German publication.

Advanced Model Based Engineering Of Embedded Systems

Author: Klaus Pohl
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319480030
Size: 31.62 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive introduction into the SPES XT modeling framework. Moreover, it shows the applicability of the framework for the development of embedded systems in different industry domains and reports on the lessons learned. It also describes how the SPES XT modeling framework can be tailored to meet domain and project-specific needs. The book is structured into four parts: Part I “Starting Situation” discusses the status quo of the development of embedded systems with specific focus on model-based engineering and summarizes key challenges emerging from industrial practice. Part II “Modeling Theory” introduces the SPES XT modeling framework and explains the core underlying principles. Part III “Application of the SPES XT Framework” describes the application of the SPES XT modeling framework and how it addresses major industrial challenges. Part IV “Evaluation and Technology Transfer” assess the impact of the SPES XT modeling framework and includes various exemplary applications from automation, automotive, and avionics. Overall, the SPES XT modeling framework offers a seamless model-based engineering approach. It addresses core challenges faced during the engineering of embedded systems. Among others, it offers aligned and integrated techniques for the early validation of engineering artefacts (including requirements and functional and technical designs), the management of product variants and their variability, modular safety assurance and deployment of embedded software.

Systems And Software Quality

Author: Martin Wieczorek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642399711
Size: 62.93 MB
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Software and systems quality is playing an increasingly important role in the growth of almost all ─ profit and non-profit ─ organisations. Quality is vital to the success of enterprises in their markets. Most small trade and repair businesses use software systems in their administration and marketing processes. Every doctor’s surgery is managing its patients using software. Banking is no longer conceivable without software. Aircraft, trucks and cars use more and more software to handle their increasingly complex technical systems. Innovation, competition and cost pressure are always present in on-going business decisions. The question facing all these organisations is how to achieve the right quality of their software-based systems and products; how to get the required level of quality, a level that the market will reward, a level that mitigates the organisation’s risks and a level that the organisation is willing to pay for. Although a number of good practices are in place, there is still room for huge improvements. Thus, let us take a look into the two worlds of “Embedded systems” and “ICT systems” and let us learn from both worlds, from overlaps and individual solutions. The next step for industrialisation in the software industry is required now. Hence, three pillars will be focused in this book: (1) a fundamental notion of right software and systems quality (RiSSQ); (2) portfolio management, quality governance, quality management, and quality engineering as holistic approach over the three layers of an enterprise, i.e. strategic, tactical, and operational layer; and (3) an industrialisation framework for implementing our approach.

Gsn The Goal Structuring Notation

Author: John Spriggs
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447123115
Size: 30.94 MB
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Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) is becoming increasing popular; practitioners use it in the railway, air traffic management and nuclear industries, amongst others. Originally developed to present safety assurance arguments, GSN need not be restricted to safety assurances only; in principle, you can use it to present (and test) any argument. Anyone wishing to support, or refute, a claim can use GSN. Written by an experienced practitioner, The Goal Structuring Notation is both for those who wish to prepare and present compelling arguments using the notation, and for those who wish to review such arguments critically and effectively. To emphasise the versatility of this approach The Goal Structuring Notation presents examples and questions based on diverse subject areas including Business Management, Drama, Engineering, Politics and Astrobiology. Simple examples introduce each symbol of the notation before introducing more complex structures which illustrate how the symbols work together in practical scenarios. To aid learning, questions and problems augment the text, so that the reader may reflect upon and try out the new concepts and principles presented. As a comprehensive instruction in the basics of GSN and it’s application, The Goal Structuring Notation also serves as a references or manual for the practitioner to dip into as problems are encountered or as a key resource for engineers working in those industries which require a clear description of the notation, covering the initial principles and showing why each piece of the notation is necessary. Originally developed to present safety assurance arguments, GSN need not be so restricted. GSN - The Goal Structuring Notation presents examples from diverse subject areas, including business management, drama, engineering, politics and astrobiology.

Real Time Systems

Author: Hermann Kopetz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306470551
Size: 67.88 MB
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7. 6 Performance Comparison: ET versus TT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 7. 7 The Physical Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Points to Remember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Bibliographic Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Review Questions and Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Chapter 8: The Time-Triggered Protocols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 8. 1 Introduction to Time-Triggered Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 8. 2 Overview of the TTP/C Protocol Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 8. 3 TheBasic CNI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Internal Operation of TTP/C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 8. 4 8. 5 TTP/A for Field Bus Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Points to Remember. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Bibliographic Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Review Questions and Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Chapter 9: Input/Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 9. 1 The Dual Role of Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 9. 2 Agreement Protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 9. 3 Sampling and Polling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 9. 4 Interrupts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 9. 5 Sensors and Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 9. 6 Physical Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Points to Remember. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Bibliographic Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Review Questions and Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Chapter 10: Real-Time Operating Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 10. 1 Task Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 10. 2 Interprocess Communication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 10. 3 Time Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 10. 4 Error Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 10. 5 A Case Study: ERCOS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Points to Remember. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Bibliographic Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Review Questions and Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Chapter 11: Real-Time Scheduling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 11. 1 The Scheduling Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 11. 2 The Adversary Argument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 11. 3 Dynamic Scheduling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 x TABLE OF CONTENTS 11. 4 Static Scheduling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Points to Remember. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Bibliographic Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Review Questions and Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Chapter 12: Validation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 12. 1 Building aConvincing Safety Case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 12. 2 Formal Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 12. 3 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .