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Challenges In Infectious Diseases

Author: I.W. Fong
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461444969
Size: 26.32 MB
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This next volume in the series will provide up to date Information and discussion on future approach to control several challenging Infectious Disease worldwide. The past decade has been highlighted by numerous advances in research of medical scientific knowledge. medical technology and the biological and diagnostic techniques-but somewhat less dramatic changes or improvement in management of medical conditions. This volume will address some of the emerging issues, challenges, and controversies in Infectious Diseases.

Global Infectious Disease Surveillance And Detection

Author: Board on Global Health
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309111145
Size: 56.99 MB
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Early detection is essential to the control of emerging, reemerging, and novel infectious diseases, whether naturally occurring or intentionally introduced. Containing the spread of such diseases in a profoundly interconnected world requires active vigilance for signs of an outbreak, rapid recognition of its presence, and diagnosis of its microbial cause, in addition to strategies and resources for an appropriate and efficient response. Although these actions are often viewed in terms of human public health, they also challenge the plant and animal health communities. Surveillance, defined as "the continual scrutiny of all aspects of occurrence and spread of a disease that are pertinent to effective control", involves the "systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data." Disease detection and diagnosis is the act of discovering a novel, emerging, or reemerging disease or disease event and identifying its cause. Diagnosis is "the cornerstone of effective disease control and prevention efforts, including surveillance." Disease surveillance and detection relies heavily on the astute individual: the clinician, veterinarian, plant pathologist, farmer, livestock manager, or agricultural extension agent who notices something unusual, atypical, or suspicious and brings this discovery in a timely way to the attention of an appropriate representative of human public health, veterinary medicine, or agriculture. Most developed countries have the ability to detect and diagnose human, animal, and plant diseases. Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges -- Finding Solutions, Workshop Summary is part of a 10 book series and summarizes the recommendations and presentations of the workshop.

Evolution Of Infectious Disease

Author: Paul W. Ewald
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195345193
Size: 41.17 MB
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Findings from the field of evolutionary biology are yielding dramatic insights for health scientists, especially those involved in the fight against infectious diseases. This book is the first in-depth presentation of these insights. In detailing why the pathogens that cause malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, and AIDS have their special kinds of deadliness, the book shows how efforts to control virtually all diseases would benefit from a more thorough application of evolutionary principles. When viewed from a Darwinian perspective, a pathogen is not simply a disease-causing agent, it is a self-replicating organism driven by evolutionary pressures to pass on as many copies of itself as possible. In this context, so-called "cultural vectors"--those aspects of human behavior and the human environment that allow spread of disease from immobilized people--become more important than ever. Interventions to control diseases don't simply hinder their spread but can cause pathogens and the diseases they engender to evolve into more benign forms. In fact, the union of health science with evolutionary biology offers an entirely new dimension to policy making, as the possibility of determining the future course of many diseases becomes a reality. By presenting the first detailed explanation of an evolutionary perspective on infectious disease, the author has achieved a genuine milestone in the synthesis of health science, epidemiology, and evolutionary biology. Written in a clear, accessible style, it is intended for a wide readership among professionals in these fields and general readers interested in science and health.

Health Systems And The Challenge Of Communicable Diseases

Author: Rifat A. Atun
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)
ISBN: 0335236286
Size: 63.33 MB
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This fascinating book looks at two regions where rapid economic changes means that many health systems must undergo organisational transition and find ways of adapting to an ever changing context.

China S Capacity To Manage Infectious Diseases

Author: Charles Freeman
Publisher: CSIS
ISBN: 9780892065806
Size: 12.55 MB
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During the Seventeenth Party Congress in October 2007, it was clear that improving health care in China had become a political priority for the country's leadership. Three decades of double-digit economic growth had not been matched by progress in China's ability to prevent and treat diseases. The rudimentary Maoist-era health care infrastructure had largely collapsed in the reformist years of Deng Xiaoping and Jiang Zemin, and by the time Hu Jintao took office in 2002, it was in tatters, particularly in rural China.At the same time, the socioeconomic changes wrought by China's economic explosion and openness to the outside world created enormous new health care challenges and strains on the country's capacity to manage them. As part of his government's efforts to reduce social inequities resulting from 30 years of runaway growth, Hu made improving China's health care system a priority. The SARS crisis of 2003 was a catalyzing period for China, and since then Beijing's blueprint for national health care has been drawn and redrawn several times. The problems are deep and multifaceted; identifying solutions is not easy, no matter how clear a priority the task might be.If China cannot meet its health care challenges, it will further tax an already strained international infrastructure. On the other hand, if China is successful, it can not only short-circuit an international spread of disease but also become a net donor to the global health community. To that end, the Freeman Chair in China Studies at CSIS assembled a group of international experts to address the current health care situation in China, China's efforts to tackle the problems of infectious disease and health care reform, and the regional and global dimensions of these reform efforts. This report is intended as a tool to help international policymakers and practitioners, as well as Chinese officials and academics, meet the challenges of health care in China head on.

Deadliest Enemy

Author: Michael T. Osterholm
Publisher: Little, Brown
ISBN: 0316343684
Size: 61.45 MB
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We are facing an overwhelming army of deadly, invisible enemies. We need a plan -- before it's too late. Unlike natural disasters, whose destruction is concentrated in a limited area over a period of days, and illnesses, which have devastating effects but are limited to individuals and their families, infectious disease has the terrifying power to disrupt everyday life on a global scale, overwhelming public and private resources and bringing trade and transportation to a grinding halt. In today's world, it's easier than ever to move people, animals, and materials around the planet, but the same advances that make modern infrastructure so efficient have made epidemics and even pandemics nearly inevitable. And as outbreaks of Ebola, MERS, yellow fever, and Zika have demonstrated, we are woefully underprepared to deal with the fallout. So what can -- and must -- we do in order to protect ourselves from mankind's deadliest enemy? Drawing on the latest medical science, case studies, policy research, and hard-earned epidemiological lessons, Deadliest Enemy explores the resources and programs we need to develop if we are to keep ourselves safe from infectious disease. The authors show how we could wake up to a reality in which many antibiotics no longer cure, bioterror is a certainty, and the threat of a disastrous influenza pandemic looms ever larger. Only by understanding the challenges we face can we prevent the unthinkable from becoming the inevitable. Deadliest Enemy is high scientific drama, a chronicle of medical mystery and discovery, a reality check, and a practical plan of action.

Molecular Tools And Infectious Disease Epidemiology

Author: Betsy Foxman
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080920849
Size: 43.23 MB
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Molecular Tools and Infectious Disease Epidemiology examines the opportunities and methodologic challenges in the application of modern molecular genetic and biologic techniques to infectious disease epidemiology. The application of these techniques dramatically improves the measurement of disease and putative risk factors, increasing our ability to detect and track outbreaks, identify risk factors and detect new infectious agents. However, integration of these techniques into epidemiologic studies also poses new challenges in the design, conduct, and analysis. This book presents the key points of consideration when integrating molecular biology and epidemiology; discusses how using molecular tools in epidemiologic research affects program design and conduct; considers the ethical concerns that arise in molecular epidemiologic studies; and provides a context for understanding and interpreting scientific literature as a foundation for subsequent practical experience in the laboratory and in the field. The book is recommended for graduate and advanced undergraduate students studying infectious disease epidemiology and molecular epidemiology; and for the epidemiologist wishing to integrate molecular techniques into his or her studies. Presents the key points of consideration when integrating molecular biology and epidemiology Discusses how using molecular tools in epidemiologic research affects program design and conduct Considers the ethical concerns that arise in molecular epidemiologic studies Provides a context for understanding and interpreting scientific literature as a foundation for subsequent practical experience in the laboratory and in the field

Modern Infectious Disease Epidemiology

Author: Alexander Krämer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387938356
Size: 40.94 MB
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Hardly a day goes by without news headlines concerning infectious disease threats. Currently the spectre of a pandemic of influenza A|H1N1 is raising its head, and heated debates are taking place about the pro’s and con’s of vaccinating young girls against human papilloma virus. For an evidence-based and responsible communication of infectious disease topics to avoid misunderstandings and overreaction of the public, we need solid scientific knowledge and an understanding of all aspects of infectious diseases and their control. The aim of our book is to present the reader with the general picture and the main ideas of the subject. The book introduces the reader to methodological aspects of epidemiology that are specific for infectious diseases and provides insight into the epidemiology of some classes of infectious diseases characterized by their main modes of transmission. This choice of topics bridges the gap between scientific research on the clinical, biological, mathematical, social and economic aspects of infectious diseases and their applications in public health. The book will help the reader to understand the impact of infectious diseases on modern society and the instruments that policy makers have at their disposal to deal with these challenges. It is written for students of the health sciences, both of curative medicine and public health, and for experts that are active in these and related domains, and it may be of interest for the educated layman since the technical level is kept relatively low.

Antibiotic Resistance Challenges And Opportunities An Issue Of Infectious Disease Clinics Of North America

Author: Robert A. Bonomo
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323446191
Size: 37.59 MB
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For many years, physicians and the public assumed that the discovery of new antimicrobial agents would outpace the ability of bacteria to mutate and develop drug resistance. Yet the development of new antibiotics has not kept up with bacterial evolution, especially since the late 1990’s. At that time a multitude of pharmaceutical companies abandoned antibiotic research because of strong economic disincentives. For example, it is challenging for these companies to recuperate the investment (typically in the hundreds of millions of dollars) made in developing a new antibiotic, which is typically prescribed for a few days, compared to drugs that treat chronic conditions like heart disease or mental illness. This situation has led the U.S. federal government to take a more active lead in addressing antibiotic resistance. Recently, the White House announced an action plan that includes improving surveillance, developing better diagnostic tools, accelerating drug development, and improving global coordination of antibiotic resistance issues. Equally important is the $1.2 billion dollars that has been pledged to fund these efforts. While we await the implementation of new policies, this issue of Infectious Disease Clinics of North America brings together leading authorities in the field of antibiotic resistance who discuss current issues including antibiotic stewardship, the changing role of the microbiology laboratory in determining antibiotic resistance in gram-negative pathogens, the continuing spread of metallo-ß-lactamases, ESBLs and KPCs, antibiotic options for treating resistant gram-negative infections such as colistin and tigecycline, resistance mechanisms and new treatment options for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emerging resistance mechanisms in aminoglycosides, issues with antibiotic resistance in immunocompromised patients, new ß-lactamase inhibitors in the clinic, and resistance in VRE and Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, combination therapy for resistant gram-negative infections has been advocated by some authorities and the advantages and disadvantages of this strategy will be reviewed.