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Challenges To The Swedish Welfare State

Author: Mr. Desmond Lachman
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1452785325
Size: 29.48 MB
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Sweden's economy in the early 1990s has been characterized by a deep recession, high unemployment, a ballooning public sector budgete deficit, and a decline in the value of the currency- developments that have raised questions about the country's capacity to sustain its comprehensive welfare state. This study provides an analysis of recent economic developments in a longer-term context and assesses their implications for future policies.

Sweden S Welfare State

Author: Mr. Subhash Madhav Thakur
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1452740232
Size: 61.65 MB
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Sweden has long been viewed as epitomizing a particular approach to economic and social policy. To its advocates, the Swedish welfare state builds on a strong social consensus favoring extensive state intervention to ensure a high quality of life for all Swedes. To its critics, the Swedish system is marked by excessive government intervention and attendant inefficiencies. These contrasting views are captured in imagery used by Prime Minister Göran Persson: "Think of a bumblebee. With its overly heavy body and little wings, supposedly it should not be able to fly--but it does." The Swedish welfare state is the bumblebee that has managed to fly. This book draws on many years of IMF surveillance and policy advice to explain how it has done so, to assess the challenges that the Swedish model faces in the new century, to propose a strategy for dealing with those challenges, and to draw lessons for the many other countries that face similar challenges from globalization and demographics.

The Lao People S Democratic Republic Systemic Transformation And Adjustment

Author: Jonathan G. Anderson
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 9781557755605
Size: 28.30 MB
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Faced with a steadily worsening economy, the government of the Lao Peoples Democratic Republic took its first steps toward reforming its centrally planned economy in December 1979. The reform process gathered momentum with the introduction of the New Economic Mechanism in 1985, as the authorities began a series of far-reaching policy reforms in virtually all economic areas. This paper provides a much-needed overview of the Lao P.D.R.'s experience with systemic transformation and macroeconomic adjustments in recent years and highlights challenges that the country is likely to face in the coming years.

India Economic Reform And Growth

Author: Ajai Chopra
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 9781557755391
Size: 72.30 MB
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This paper explores the Indian adjustment program of 1991/92 and its initial results. The contents include long-term growth trends for output, investment, and macroeconomic condition; education, labor employment, and poverty; growth, accumulation, and productivity; results of India-specific studies; the stabilization and adjustment strategy; the response to the reforms; the impact on unemployment and poverty; the behavior of private investment; fiscal adjustment and reform; recent experience with a surge in capital inflows: overall trends, the investor base, comparison with other countries, and factors behind the flows; the impact on the economy; the sustainability of capital flows; and structural reforms and the implications for investment and growth; trade reform; the investment regime; public enterprise reform; and financial market reform.

The International Monetary Fund

Author: Elisabeth P. McLellan
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Size: 53.35 MB
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The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the institution designed to support global trade and economic growth by helping to maintain stability in the international financial system. Originally created to finance short-term balance of payments deficits during the Bretton Woods Era of gold/dollar fixed exchange rates (1944--1971), in the current world where flexible exchange rates dominate in the industrial economics, it has focused on developing countries where ever larger financial crises have erupted. The book provides a basic understanding of its mission and operations, and how they may have evolved. A comprehensive bibliography is included with easy access by subject, author and title indexes.

Quasi Fiscal Operations Of Public Financial Institutions

Author: Professor G Calvin MacKenzie
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 9781557755834
Size: 72.42 MB
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Central banks and other public financial institutions act as agents of fiscal policy in many countries. Their "quasi-fiscal" operations and activities can affect the overall public sector balance without affecting the budget deficit as conventionally measured, may also have important allocative effects, and increase the effective size of the public sector. This paper analyzes the macroeconomic and financial effects of such quasi-fiscal activities, as well as the taxes, subsidies, and other expenditures that such activities introduce outside the budget. Measurement and accounting issues are addressed, and policy recommendations are offered.

Currency Board Arrangements Issues And Experiences

Author: Tomás J. T. Baliño
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 9781557756688
Size: 62.92 MB
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This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the attractions and disadvantages of currency board arrangements in their various institutional configurations. It asks what defines a currency board arrangement, what are their strengths and weaknesses, and what constraints they place on macroeconomic policies. It also reviews country experiences with these arrangements.