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Chemical Energy And Exergy

Author: Norio Sato
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444516459
Size: 36.66 MB
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This book is a beginners introduction to chemical thermodynamics for engineers. In the textbook efforts have been made to visualize as clearly as possible the main concepts of thermodynamic quantities such as enthalpy and entropy, thus making them more perceivable. Furthermore, intricate formulae in thermodynamics have been discussed as functionally unified sets of formulae to understand their meaning rather than to mathematically derive them in detail. In this textbook, the affinity of irreversible processes, defined by the second law of thermodynamics, has been treated as the main subject, rather than the equilibrium of chemical reactions. The concept of affinity is applicable in general not only to the processes of chemical reactions but also to all kinds of irreversible processes. This textbook also includes electrochemical thermodynamics in which, instead of the classical phenomenological approach, molecular science provides an advanced understanding of the reactions of charged particles such as ions and electrons at the electrodes. Recently, engineering thermodynamics has introduced a new thermodynamic potential called exergy, which essentially is related to the concept of the affinity of irreversible processes. This textbook discusses the relation between exergy and affinity and explains the exergy balance diagram and exergy vector diagram applicable to exergy analyses in chemical manufacturing processes. This textbook is written in the hope that the readers understand in a broad way the fundamental concepts of energy and exergy from chemical thermodynamics in practical applications. Finishing this book, the readers may easily step forward further into an advanced text of their specified line. - Visualizes the main concepts of thermodynamics to show the meaning of the quantities and formulae. - Focuses mainly on the affinity of irreversible processes and the related concept of exergy. - Provides an advanced understanding of electrochemical thermodynamics.

Analysis Of Energy Efficiency Of Industrial Processes

Author: Vladimir S. Stepanov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642771483
Size: 62.61 MB
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It is universally recognized that the end of the current and the beginning of the next century will be characterized by a radical change in the existing trends in the economic development of all countries and a transition to new principles of economic management on the basis of a resource and energy conservation policy. Thus there is an urgent necessity to study methods, technical aids and economic consequences of this change, and particularly, to determine the possible amounts of energy resources which could be conserved (energy "reserves") in different spheres of the national economy. An increased interest towards energy conservation in industry, one of the largest energy consumers, is quite natural and is manifested by the large num ber of publications on this topic. But the majority of publications are devoted to the solution of narrowly defined problems, determination of energy reserves in specific processes and plants, efficiency estimation of individual energy conserva tion measures, etc. However, it is necessary to develop a general methodological approach to the solution of such problems and create a scientific and methodical base for realizing an energy conservation policy. Such an effort is made in this book, which is concerned with methods for studying energy use efficiency in technological processes and estimation of the theoretical and actual energy reserves in a given process, technology, or industrial sector on the basis of their complete energy balances.

Efficiency Of Biomass Energy

Author: Krzysztof J. Ptasinski
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111911814X
Size: 32.23 MB
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Details energy and exergy efficiencies of all major aspects of bioenergy systems Covers all major bioenergy processes starting from photosynthesis and cultivation of biomass feedstocks and ending with final bioenergy products, like power, biofuels, and chemicals Each chapter includes historical developments, chemistry, major technologies, applications as well as energy, environmental and economic aspects in order to serve as an introduction to biomass and bioenergy A separate chapter introduces a beginner in easy accessible way to exergy analysis and the similarities and differences between energy and exergy efficiencies are underlined Includes case studies and illustrative examples of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation biofuels production, power and heat generation (thermal plants, fuel cells, boilers), and biorefineries Traditional fossil fuels-based technologies are also described in order to compare with the corresponding bioenergy systems

Thermodynamics And Energy Systems Analysis

Author: Lucien Borel
Publisher: EPFL Press
ISBN: 9781439835166
Size: 57.65 MB
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Carefully designed to teach thermodynamics to engineers, this book focuses on the phenomena of irreversibility and the notion of entropy. It also presents a general theory of exergy, with methods of analyse that allow engineers to master problems of current interest in the field of energy management. The authors illustrate practical aspects of the theory by descibiing specific applications such as combustion chambers, turbines, compressors, heat pumps, fuel cells, refrigeration, and more.

Exergy Energy System Analysis And Optimization Volume I

Author: Christos A. Frangopoulos
Publisher: EOLSS Publications
ISBN: 1848261640
Size: 19.96 MB
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Exergy, Energy System Analysis, and Optimization theme is a component of the Encyclopedia of Energy Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources which is part of the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. These three volumes are organized into five different topics which represent the main scientific areas of the theme: 1. Exergy and Thermodynamic Analysis; 2. Thermoeconomic Analysis; 3. Modeling, Simulation and Optimization in Energy Systems; 4. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in Energy Systems Analysis; 5. Sustainability Considerations in the Modeling of Energy Systems. Fundamentals and applications of characteristic methods are presented in these volumes. These three volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students, Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy Analysts, Managers, and Decision Makers and NGOs.

Exergy

Author: Ibrahim Dincer
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0080970907
Size: 37.97 MB
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This book deals with exergy and its applications to various energy systems and applications as a potential tool for design, analysis and optimization, and its role in minimizing and/or eliminating environmental impacts and providing sustainable development. In this regard, several key topics ranging from the basics of the thermodynamic concepts to advanced exergy analysis techniques in a wide range of applications are covered as outlined in the contents. Offers comprehensive coverage of exergy and its applications, along with the most up-to-date information in the area with recent developments Connects exergy with three essential areas in terms of energy, environment and sustainable development Provides a number of illustrative examples, practical applications, and case studies Written in an easy-to-follow style, starting from the basics to advanced systems

Energy And Exergy Evaluations On A Microturbine System

Author: Di Yuan
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780494403242
Size: 29.21 MB
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In this research, energy and exergy analyses were thoroughly performed on a microturbine system. Experimental data from testing conducted at three load conditions were collected and utilized to do comparisons and verification with the modeling. MATLAB computational programs were compiled to assist the prediction. The results of the modeling show good agreement with the manufacturer's data and experimental performance results. Exergy analysis was applied for this system based on the results of the modeling. Exergy destruction which reflects the wasted work potential was also investigated. The results show that the combustion chamber contributes over 50% of the total exergy destruction. However, it is a fundamental limitation arising from the conversion of chemical energy into heat prior to conversion into work. The results suggested that the most effective means of minimizing the effect of this limitation is to combine the microturbine with some form of heat recovery into a micro-cogeneration system.

Eco Exergy As Sustainability

Author: Sven Erik Jørgensen
Publisher: WIT Press
ISBN: 1845640594
Size: 13.41 MB
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Exergy is the measurement of the amount of work capacity i.e. the amount of energy that can do work. The author applies this concept to ecology, where it can be used as an ecological indicator for ecosystem health assessment and this is presented in the book with illustrative examples. In addition, the question of how it is possible to define a special ecological exergy concept to calculate the exergy for models of ecosystems is covered. The use of exergy and an introduced fourth law of thermodynamics make it possible to understand the ecosystem reactions and how the ecosystem can grow in three different forms - biomass, complexity of network and information. From this analysis, it is clear why ecosystems are sustainable systems and what characteristic properties ecosystems have to ensure that sustainability. A parallel from ecosystems to society makes it possible to formulate the same rules (laws) for society. The concept of exergy as a health indicator measuring the degree of sustainability of society can also be used. Examples will be applied to illustrate the application of exergy and the deduced ecological rules (laws) for understanding the society.

Sustainable Energy Landscapes

Author: Sven Stremke
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439894388
Size: 47.82 MB
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In the near future the appearance and spatial organization of urban and rural landscapes will be strongly influenced by the generation of renewable energy. One of the critical tasks will be the re-integration of these sustainable energy landscapes into the existing environment—which people value and want to preserve—in a socially fair, environmentally sound, and economically feasible manner. Accordingly, Sustainable Energy Landscapes: Designing, Planning, and Development focuses on the municipal and regional scale, where energy-conscious interventions are effective, and stakeholders can participate actively in the transition process. This book presents state-of-the-art knowledge in the exciting new field of sustainable energy landscapes. It bridges the gap between theory and fundamental research on the one hand, and practice and education on the other. The chapters—written by experts in their fields—present a selection of interdisciplinary, cutting-edge projects from across the world, illustrating the inspiring challenge of developing sustainable energy landscapes. They include unique case studies from Germany, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, Canada, Denmark, Austria, Italy, and the United States. The editors and team of contributing authors aim to inspire readers, providing a comprehensive overview of sustainable energy landscapes, including principles, concepts, theories, and examples. The book describes various methods, such as energy potential mapping and heat mapping, multicriteria decision analysis, energy landscape visualization, and employing exergy and carbon models. It addresses how to quantify the impact of energy transition both on landscape quality and energy economy, issues of growing importance. The text infuses readers with enthusiasm to promote further research and action toward the important goal of building energy landscapes for a sustainable future.