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Chemistry And Biology Of Hyaluronan

Author: Hari G. Garg
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080472225
Size: 37.81 MB
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It was probably the French chemist Portes, who first reported in 1880 that the mucin in the vitreous body, which he named hyalomucine, behaved differently from other mucoids in cornea and cartilage. Fifty four years later Karl Meyer isolated a new polysaccharide from the vitreous, which he named hyaluronic acid. Today its official name is hyaluronan, and modern-day research on this polysaccharide continues to grow. Expertly written by leading scientists in the field, this book provides readers with a broad, yet detailed review of the chemistry of hyaluronan, and the role it plays in human biology and pathology. Twenty-seven chapters present a sequence leading from the chemistry and biochemistry of hyaluronan, followed by its role in various pathological conditions, to modified hylauronans as potential therapeutic agents and finally to the functional, structural and biological properties of hyaluronidases. Chemistry and Biology of Hyaluronan covers the many interesting facets of this fascinating molecule, and all chapters are intended to reach the wider research community. Comprehensive look at the chemistry and biology of hyaluronans Essential to Chemists, Biochemists and Medical researchers Broad yet detailed review of this rapidly growing research area

The Biology Of Hyaluronan

Author: CIBA Foundation Symposium
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470513780
Size: 78.92 MB
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Presents state-of-the-art applications in hyaluronan research, from hyaluronan's physicochemical properties to its clinical role as a connective tissue marker and its surgical implications, particularly in ear, eye and orthopaedic surgery. Covers hyaluronan's synthesis and catabolism, its role in cells, its interactions with specific binding proteins, and its role in the embryonic nervous system.

The Chemistry Biology And Medical Applications Of Hyaluronan And Its Derivatives

Author: T. C. Laurent
Publisher: Portland Press, London
ISBN:
Size: 53.89 MB
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The aim of this book is to collect within one volume information on hyaluronan. This polysaccharide has received rapid attention for two reasons: it has important regulative functions within cell biology; and it has become a commercially important product because of its use in ophthalmic surgery and treatment of joint diease. A number of other practical applications are also discussed. The book covers various aspects of hyaluronan from the structure and chemistry of the polymer to its metabolism, cell biological interactions, behaviour in pathological processes, and potentially new medical applications.

Uhmwpe Biomaterials Handbook

Author: Steven M. Kurtz
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080884448
Size: 71.39 MB
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This book describes the science, development, properties and application of of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) used in artificial joints. This material is currently used in 1.4 million patients around the world every year for use in the hip, knee, upper extremities, and spine. Since the publication of the 1st edition there have been major advances in the development and clinical adoption of highly crosslinked UHMWPE for hip and knee replacement. There has also been a major international effort to introduce Vitamin E stabilized UHMWPE for patients. The accumulated knowledge on these two classes of materials are a key feature of the 2nd edition, along with an additional 19 additional chapters providing coverage of the key engineering aspects (biomechanical and materials science) and clinical/biological performance of UHMWPE, providing a more complete reference for industrial and academic materials specialists, and for surgeons and clinicians who require an understanding of the biomaterials properties of UHMWPE to work successfully on patient applications. * The UHMWPE Handbook is the comprehensive reference for professionals, researchers, and clinicians working with biomaterials technologies for joint replacement * New to this edition: 19 new chapters keep readers up to date with this fast moving topic, including a new section on UHMWPE biomaterials; highly crosslinked UHMWPE for hip and knee replacement; Vitamin E stabilized UHMWPE for patients; clinical performance, tribology an biologic interaction of UHMWPE * State-of-the-art coverage of UHMWPE technology, orthopedic applications, biomaterial characterisation and engineering aspects from recognised leaders in the field

The Biology Of Hyaluronan

Author: Julie Whelan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471923053
Size: 47.19 MB
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The Biology of Hyaluronan Chairman: T. C. Laurent 1989 Hyaluronan is a unique linear polysaccharide found in cartilage and in soft connective tissues such as synovial fluid and skin. It is an apparently simple homopolymer with a mechanical role as space filler or lubricant which also takes part in cell surface activities of great specificity, as recent work described in this symposium shows. Hyaluronan synthase was first identified in streptococci; isolation of the mammalian enzyme and its properties are discussed. The degradation of hyaluronan is mainly intracellular after receptor-mediated uptake. The catabolic enzymes involved and the fate of the resulting monosaccharides (including their recycling) are becoming understood. Various hyaluronan-binding proteins have been identified, including one in fibroblasts which may help regulate cell motility. Hyaluronan is a major component of the intercellular matrix surrounding proliferating and migrating cells in embryonic tissues, including the developing nervous system. It is involved in inflammation, angiogenesis and wound healing. High concentrations are found in malignant tissues, the result (in culture at least) of stimulation of hyaluronan synthesis in fibroblasts by tumour cells. Another stimulatory factor, produced by activated blood mononuclear cells, links hyaluronan to inflammatory diseases such as scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis. High levels are produced in cirrhotic liver disease, malignant mesothelioma and sarcoidosis. The clinical use of hyaluronan as a connective tissue marker is leading to a better understanding of such diseases. The symposium concludes with a discussion of the surgical use of purified hyaluronan, including the development of new molecular forms for use in the control of adhesions, scar formation and tissue regeneration. Related Ciba Foundation Symposia: No 124 Functions of the proteoglycans Chairman: V. C. Hascall 1986 ISBN 0 471 91090 2 No 136 Cell and molecular biology of vertebrate hard tissues Chairman: G. A. Rodan 1988 ISBN 0 471 91885 7 No 145 Carbohydrate recognition in cellular function Chairman: E. Ruoslahti 1989 ISBN 0 471 92307

Comprehensive Biomaterials

Author: Paul Ducheyne
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080552943
Size: 23.17 MB
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Comprehensive Biomaterials brings together the myriad facets of biomaterials into one, major series of six edited volumes that would cover the field of biomaterials in a major, extensive fashion: Volume 1: Metallic, Ceramic and Polymeric Biomaterials Volume 2: Biologically Inspired and Biomolecular Materials Volume 3: Methods of Analysis Volume 4: Biocompatibility, Surface Engineering, and Delivery Of Drugs, Genes and Other Molecules Volume 5: Tissue and Organ Engineering Volume 6: Biomaterials and Clinical Use Experts from around the world in hundreds of related biomaterials areas have contributed to this publication, resulting in a continuum of rich information appropriate for many audiences. The work addresses the current status of nearly all biomaterials in the field, their strengths and weaknesses, their future prospects, appropriate analytical methods and testing, device applications and performance, emerging candidate materials as competitors and disruptive technologies, and strategic insights for those entering and operational in diverse biomaterials applications, research and development, regulatory management, and commercial aspects. From the outset, the goal was to review materials in the context of medical devices and tissue properties, biocompatibility and surface analysis, tissue engineering and controlled release. It was also the intent both, to focus on material properties from the perspectives of therapeutic and diagnostic use, and to address questions relevant to state-of-the-art research endeavors. Reviews the current status of nearly all biomaterials in the field by analyzing their strengths and weaknesses, performance as well as future prospects Presents appropriate analytical methods and testing procedures in addition to potential device applications Provides strategic insights for those working on diverse application areas such as R&D, regulatory management, and commercial development

Hyaluronic Acid

Author: V. N. Khabarov
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118695933
Size: 15.98 MB
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Hyaluronic acid is an essential part of connective, epithelial and neural tissues, and contributes to cell proliferation and migration. It is used as a stimulating agent for collagen synthesis and is a common ingredient in skin-care products, a multi-billion dollar industry, as it is believed to be a key factor in fighting the aging process. Hyaluronic Acid: Production, Properties, Application in Biology and Medicine consists of six chapters discussing the various issues of hyaluronic acid research. In Chapter 1, a historical analysis recounts the discovery and milestones of the research leading to the practical applications of hyaluronan. Chapter 2 is dedicated to biological role of the hyaluronic acid in nature, in particular in the human body. The chapter starts from the phylogenesis of hyaluronic acid, then describes hyaluronan functions in human ontogenesis and especially the role which hyaluronan plays in extracellular matrix of the different tissues. Chapter 3 describes the methods to manufacture and purify hyaluronic acid, including the analytical means for assessing quality of the finished product. Chapter 4 discusses the structure and rheological properties of hyaluronic acid considering effects on conformation and biological properties related to molecular weight. In Chapter 5, the physical and chemical methods for modifying the structure of hyaluronan are discussed including cross-linking using bi-functional reagents, solid-phase modification and effects of the combined action of high pressures and shift deformation. The final chapter focuses on the products derived from hyaluronic acid, including therapeutics composed of modified hyaluronan conjugated to vitamins, amino acids and oligo-peptides. The biological roles and medical applications of this polysaccharide have been extensively studied and this book provides a wealth of scientific data demonstrating the critical role of hyaluronic acid and its promise as a multifaceted bio-macromolecule. Approaching hyaluronic acid from multiple angles, this book links relationships between its biological functions, structure and physical–chemical properties. It will be an invaluable resource to researchers, both industrial and academic, involved in all aspects of hyaluronan-based technologies.

Carbohydrate Chemistry Biology And Medical Applications

Author: Hari G. Garg
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080558141
Size: 61.52 MB
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The finding by Emil Fischer that glucose and fructose on treatment with phenylhydrazine gave the identical osazone led him to the elucidation of stereochemistry of carbohydrates. Since then, progress in the field of carbohydrates has been amazing with the unraveling their basic structure, biosynthesis, immunology, functions, and clinical uses, for pure carbohydrates and for protein-linked carbohydrates (glycoproteins and proteoglycans). The chapters in Carbohydrate Chemistry, Biology and Medical Applications present a logical sequence leading from the chemistry and biochemistry of carbohydrates, followed by their role in various pathological conditions, to carbohydrates as potential therapeutic and diagnostic agents. This book offers a detailed panoramic review of the chemistry and biology of carbohydrates for chemists, biologists and health professionals. Each chapter is authored by contributors expert in the particular area of research. Explains how carbohydrates are important to life Details the chemistry, biology and medical aspects of carbohydrates Interdisciplinary and international team of authors

Molecular Aspects Of Innate And Adaptive Immunity

Author: Kenneth B. M. Reid
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 0854046984
Size: 46.32 MB
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This book provides a survey of topics, in the area of innate and adaptive immunity, which have been researched within the MRC Immunochemistry Unit, at Oxford University, over a period of forty years. The topics include: -antibody structure - for which the first Director of the Immunochemistry Unit, Professor RR Porter, was awarded a Nobel prize in 1972 -the characterization of membrane proteins on lymphoid cells - leading to the concept of these molecules belonging to an immunoglobulin super family -the proteins of the human serum complement system - one of the body's major defences against microbial infection - the human cell -surface integrins and the hyaluronan- binding proteins, which are involved in regulation of inflammation at cell surfaces and within the extracellular matrix -the family of collectin molecules - containing distinct globular carbohydrate -binding domains linked to collagen-like regions - which play important roles in innate immunity in the lungs and bloodstream by immediate recognition and clearance of microbial pathogens Each chapter in the book gives a brief historical background to a topic and then provides a survey of recent advances in the field and are written by internationally recognised renowned experts. The theme running through the chapters is that of protein structure-function relationships - including, amongst other things, a description of the mechanism of how the reactive thiol ester bonds, found in the complement system components C3 and C4, are activated to allow the covalent binding of these proteins to suitable targets on microbes. Molecular Aspects of Innate and Adaptive Immunity is aimed primarily at established senior research scientists, postdoctoral research scientists and PhD students who have an interest in proteins of the immune system. However, the wide range of immunity system topics, while staying broadly within innate/adaptive immunity will also appeal to a wider audience.

Hyaluronan

Author: J F Kennedy
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 9781855735705
Size: 67.97 MB
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Hyaluronan and its derivatives has developed very quickly in the last few years from a scientific novelty into an important new material for a diverse range of medical and biomaterial applications. This landmark conference focused on developments and applications in the use of hyaluronan in tissue repair and reconstruction, drug delivery systems, anti-cancer treatments and joint recovery and engineering. The entire range of hyaluronan progress is covered in depth by the more than 135 individual papers: Analytical chemistry Structural elucidation and basic chemistry Electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy Production, purification and characterisation Quality in production systems Chemical modification Derivatives and properties Cross-linking Free radical modification Physical characterisation Rheology Aggregation phenomena Interaction with water and solution properties Cell biology Control and regulation of HA synthases Cell surface chemistry HA cell receptors and cell signalling Interaction with proteins and other biological ligands Biophysical aspects Effects on pain receptors Neurobiology Role in organisation of extracellular matrix Role in development (embryogenesis): cell movement/migration Medical applications Uses in cartilage and wound repair Inflammation Wound regenerative healing Surgery and tissue engineering Viscosupplementation / osteoarthritis Viscoaugmentation and viscoprotection Anti-adhesion applications Brug delivery systems Binding onto tumour cells and metastases Outlines the proceedings of the landmark conference which focused on key developments and applications in the use of hyaluronan in tissue repair and reconstruction, among other uses The entire range of hyaluronan processes is dealt with in depth by more than 135 individual papers presented in two volumes Covers analytical chemistry, chemical modification, physical characterisation, cell biology and medical applications