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Child Pornography

Author: Alisdair A. Gillespie
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136733825
Size: 14.41 MB
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Child Pornography: Law and Policy draws on interdisciplinary work in order to critically address the law relating to child pornography.

Refining Child Pornography Law

Author: Carissa B Hessick
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
ISBN: 0472121669
Size: 21.38 MB
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The legal definition of child pornography is, at best, unclear. In part because of this ambiguity and in part because of the nature of the crime itself, the prosecution and sentencing of perpetrators, the protection of and restitution for victims, and the means for preventing repeat offenses are deeply controversial. In Refining Child Pornography Law, experts in law, sociology, and social work examine child pornography law and its consequences in an effort to clarify the questions and begin to formulate answers. Focusing on the roles of language and crime definition, the contributors discuss the increasing visibility child pornography plays in the national conversation about child safety, and present a range of views regarding the punishment of those who produce, distribute, and possess materials that may be considered child pornography.

Internet Child Pornography And The Law

Author: Yaman Akdeniz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317113659
Size: 39.20 MB
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This book provides a critical assessment of the problem of internet child pornography and its governance through legal and non-legal means, including a comparative assessment of laws in England and Wales, the United States of America and Canada in recognition that governments have a compelling interest to protect children from sexual abuse and exploitation. The internet raises novel and complex challenges to existing regulatory regimes. Efforts towards legal harmonization at the European Union, Council of Europe, and United Nations level are examined in this context and the utility of additional and alternative methods of regulation explored. This book argues that effective implementation, enforcement and harmonization of laws could substantially help to reduce the availability and dissemination of child pornography on the internet. At the same time, panic-led policies must be avoided if the wider problems of child sexual abuse and commercial sexual exploitation are to be meaningfully addressed.

The Regulation Of Internet Pornography

Author: Abhilash Nair
ISBN: 9780415745772
Size: 43.69 MB
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The regulation of pornography has always been a contentious issue, and has sparked wide ranging debates in relation to its regulation and control. However, the use of the internet to distribute and access pornography has magnified this debate due to the global nature of the internet and the variety and scale of legal and illegal pornography available. This has resulted in a range of regulatory responses in different countries, including the U.K. Whilst no internet specific sui generis legislation for regulating pornography was enacted in the UK, a number of amendments were made to existing legislation, which created new simple possession offences for child pornography, including pseudo and virtual child pornography, and adult extreme pornography. These possession offences impose liability on the end-user consumer of pornography, marking a departure from the traditional regulatory model which focused on the publisher and distributor of pornography. This book provides an in-depth analysis of the legal issues stemming from this relatively new regulatory model in the context of the various kinds of pornography including adult legal pornography, illegal adult extreme pornography, and virtual and pseudo child pornography. The book includes a comparative study of the relevant position in other jurisdictions, most notably the United States and continental Europe. The book will analyse the legal implications of the changes in regulation and examine how the traditional justifications for censorship and proportionality apply, if at all, to the new model. Key issues surrounding the regulation of internet pornography are highlighted including alternatives to possession offences where applicable, the risk of over-blocking, relevant constitutional and human rights implications, the feasibility of an internet specific regulatory model, and the potential role of the Internet Governance Forum and other supranational bodies.

The History Of The Child Pornography Guidelines

Author: United States Sentencing Commission
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781546900795
Size: 29.48 MB
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The United States Sentencing Commission ("Commission") was created by Congress to "establish sentencing policies and practices for the Federal criminal justice system" that implement the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 ("SRA"),1 including the purposes of sentencing enumerated at 18 U.S.C. 3553(a)(2).2 In establishing such policies and practices, principally through the promulgation of federal sentencing guidelines and policy statements, the Commission's efforts are guided by the substantive and procedural requirements of the SRA and other congressional sentencing legislation. The SRA directs that the Commission "periodically shall review and revise, in consideration of comments and data coming to its attention, the guidelines."3 To this end, the Commission has established a review of the child pornography guidelines as a policy priority for the guidelines amendment cycle ending May 1, 2010.4 This report is the first step in the Commission's work on this priority. Congress has been particularly active over the last decade creating new offenses, increasing penalties, and issuing directives to the Commission regarding child pornography offenses. Indeed, in 2008, the 110th Congress passed three new laws amending child pornography statutes and creating a new offense for creating child pornography throughadapting or modifying a depiction of a child.5 Prompted by congressional action, and on its own initiative, the Commission has reviewed and substantively revised the child pornography guidelines nine times. This report describes the nine revisions made to the possession and trafficking in child pornography guidelines and the guidelines' relation to the requirements imposed on the Commission by related legislation and the SRA

Investigating Child Exploitation And Pornography

Author: Monique Mattei Ferraro
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0121631052
Size: 45.98 MB
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Crime scenes associated with child sexual exploitation and trafficking in child pornography were once limited to physical locations such as school playgrounds, church vestibules, trusted neighbors' homes, camping trips and seedy darkly lit back rooms of adult bookstores. The explosion of Internet use has created a virtual hunting ground for sexual predators and has fueled a brisk, multi-billion dollar trade in the associated illicit material. Approximately half of the caseload in computer crimes units involves the computer assisted sexual exploitation of children. Despite the scale of this problem, or perhaps because of it, there are no published resources that bring together the complex mingling of disciplines and expertise required to put together a computer assisted child exploitation case. This work fills this void, providing police, prosecutors and forensic examiners with the historical, legal, technical, and social background for the laws prohibiting child exploitation, in particular, child pornography. The book will become an indispensable resource for those involved in the investigation, prosecution and study of computer-assisted child sexual exploitation. The book provides a history of child exploitation cases and studies, outlining the roles of technology in this type of crime and the evidence they can contain, and documenting new research performed by the authors. It details how successful undercover Internet operations are conducted, how the associated evidence is collected, and how to use the evidence to locate and apprehend the offender. The heart of this work is a legal section, detailing all of the legal issues that arise in Internet child exploitation cases. A forensic examination section presents evidentiary issues from a technical perspective and describes how to conduct a forensic examination of digital evidence gathered in the investigative and probative stages of a child exploitation case. Citations to related documents are provided for readers who want to learn more about certain issues. Actual case examples from computer assisted child exploitation cases are explored, at all times protecting the privacy of the victims while providing enough detail to educate the reader. In addition to providing guidance on the technical and legal aspects of child exploitation investigations, this work identifies and analyzes trends in this type of crime and helps readers understand the similarities and differences between child predators who take to the Internet and predators who do not. Data from the thirty Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) Task Forces are compiled and reported to provide a deeper understanding of the types of cases, types of offenders and the level of danger they pose to themselves, their victims, and investigating officers. Also, sex offender data from the Offices of Attorneys General in the United States and similar offices in foreign countries are gathered to increase the study sample size, establish controls, and expand the scope of the research to outside of the United States. - The first comprehensive title in this subject area - It will use real cases and examples of criminal behavior and the means to detect it. - Provides guidelines for developing a Field Manual and a Checklist to supplement the investigation and legal process - Establishes a reliable system and legal, procedural-backed protocol by which to conduct an online sexual investigation and collect evidence

Beyond Tolerance

Author: Philip Jenkins
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814742637
Size: 76.26 MB
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White Cargo is the forgotten story of the thousands of Britons who lived and died in bondage in Britain’s American colonies. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, more than 300,000 white people were shipped to America as slaves. Urchins were swept up from London’s streets to labor in the tobacco fields, where life expectancy was no more than two years. Brothels were raided to provide “breeders” for Virginia. Hopeful migrants were duped into signing as indentured servants, unaware they would become personal property who could be bought, sold, and even gambled away. Transported convicts were paraded for sale like livestock. Drawing on letters crying for help, diaries, and court and government archives, Don Jordan and Michael Walsh demonstrate that the brutalities usually associated with black slavery alone were perpetrated on whites throughout British rule. The trade ended with American independence, but the British still tried to sell convicts in their former colonies, which prompted one of the most audacious plots in Anglo-American history. This is a saga of exploration and cruelty spanning 170 years that has been submerged under the overwhelming memory of black slavery. White Cargo brings the brutal, uncomfortable story to the surface.

Child Pornography

Author: Ian O'Donnell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135846359
Size: 31.67 MB
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This book explores the enduring appeal of child pornography and its ramifications for criminal justice systems around the world. It is based on an extensive review of academic literature and newspaper coverage, a trawl of websites frequented by those with a sexual interest in children, a survey of how police investigate these offences, examination of prosecutors' decisions, and interviews with judges. It provides a framework for understanding the contemporary nature of this problem, especially the harms it causes, its intimate relationship with new technologies and the challenges it poses to law enforcement authorities. The internet plays a pivotal role. Its sheer size, the anarchic way it grows, the lack of any boundaries to its expansion and its disregard for national borders make it a legal environment without parallel. An unwavering focus on the threat of sexual abuse has contributed to the emergence of a context where routine dealings with children are viewed through a 'paedophilic' lens. This can have the unfortunate consequence of distracting attention from more urgent concerns (such as poverty and neglect), which make children vulnerable to sexual exploitation. In this way an emphasis on the sexualisation of children could be said to aggravate the problem that it sets out to address. The book: provides a comprehensive analysis of child pornography issues in all of their complexity, including legal, psychological, criminal justice and social perspectives. presents significant volume of original empirical data gathered from police, prosecutors and judges. includes new qualitative and quantitative information set against a background of shifting international developments. The analysis is explicitly comparative. draws on a variety of sources including support groups for paedophiles, newspaper coverage of court cases involving child pornography, victim testimony and police operations.

Child Pornography And Sexual Grooming

Author: Suzanne Ost
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139489569
Size: 68.15 MB
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Child pornography and sexual grooming provide case study exemplars of problems that society and law have sought to tackle to avoid both actual and potential harm to children. Yet despite the considerable legal, political and societal concern that these critical phenomena attract, they have not, thus far, been subjected to detailed socio-legal and theoretical scrutiny. How do society and law construct the harms of child pornography and grooming? What impact do constructions of the child have upon legal and societal responses to these phenomena? What has been the impetus behind the expanding criminalisation of behaviour in these areas? Suzanne Ost addresses these and other important questions, exploring the critical tensions within legal and social discourses which must be tackled to discourage moral panic reactions towards child pornography and grooming, and advocating a new, more rational approach towards combating these forms of exploitation.

Child Abuse On The Internet

Author: Carlos A. Arnaldo
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9781571812469
Size: 63.62 MB
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Child pornography and the sexual abuse of children through misuse of the media and the Internet are complex yet closely related issues. Not only do they necessitate complex solutions, they also demand a social response from all sectors of society. This volume records the response of these various sectors and shows how individuals and organizations can cooperate effectively. It describes the major work being carried out in some African countries, in Albania, Brazil, Guatemala, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka, and shows the efforts being made to share information and build networks. A reference section provides the site locations or organizations that have made significant advances in protecting children online. In addition, this book offers an action plan to encourage cooperation with others in the same fields in a coherent and coordinated manner.