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Chromosomal Translocations And Genome Rearrangements In Cancer

Author: Janet D. Rowley
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319199838
Size: 65.36 MB
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This volume collates world experts’ insights into the molecular biology of cancer chromosomes, their abnormalities and the subsequent cellular consequences. Exploring themes involving oncogenes, such as by chromosomal translocations, other genome rearrangements and somatic mutations, this book is a review of the field of cancer genetics that presages a new era, as whole genome sequencing becomes more accessible. The work begins with a look at historical themes, such as the analysis of metaphase chromosomes using microscopy and staining techniques, advances in which provided our first broad glimpse into the genetic anatomy of a malignant cell. Readers will learn about the application of DNA molecular cloning techniques in the 1980s, that led to the identification of the genes involved in the Philadelphia and Burkitt's lymphoma chromosomal translocations, solidifying the role of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes in cancer aetiology via chromosomal alterations and which launched a field in cancer genetics. Subsequent chapters bring the reader up to date by reviewing recent developments in the field, with dedicated sections on leukaemia/lymphoma, sarcomas and epithelial tumours. Contributions feature numerous colour tables and illustrations and this volume will provide a basis for understanding cancer chromosomes for many years to come.

Malignant Lymphomas

Author: Steven P. Treon
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110366916
Size: 27.80 MB
Format: PDF
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This book is an up to date compendium on the biology and molecular pathogenesis of lymphomas, which represent malignant cancers of the lymphoid system. With its focus on the biology and genetic basis of these diseases, the book is of interest to basic scientists, biologists, clinical hematologists and pathologists as well as medical students.

Runx Proteins In Development And Cancer

Author: Yoram Groner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811032335
Size: 63.82 MB
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This volume provides the reader with an overview of the diverse functions of the RUNX family of genes. As highlighted in the introduction and several of the 29 chapters, humans and other mammals have three RUNX genes that are known to play specific roles in blood, bone and neuronal development. However, their evolutionary history has recently been traced back to unicellular organisms and their involvement in many well-known signaling pathways (Wnt, TGFb, Notch, Hippo) is indicative of a more general function in cell biology. Their documented roles in cell fate decisions include control of proliferation, differentiation, survival, senescence and autophagy. The pleiotropic effects of RUNX in development are mirrored in cancer, where RUNX genes can function as oncogenes that collaborate strongly with Myc family oncogenes or as tumour suppressor genes. In the latter role, they display hallmarks of both ‘gatekeepers’ that modulate p53 responses and ‘caretakers’ that protect the genome from DNA damage. Several chapters focus on the importance of these genes in leukemia research, where RUNX1 and CBFB are frequently affected by chromosomal translocations that generate fusion oncoproteins, while recent studies suggest wider roles for RUNX modulation in solid cancers. Moreover, RUNX genes are intimately involved in the development and regulation of the immune system, while emerging evidence suggests a role in innate immunity to infectious agents, including HIV. At the biochemical level, the RUNX family can serve as activators or repressors of transcription and as stable mediators of epigenetic memory through mitosis. Not surprisingly, RUNX activity is controlled at multiple levels, this includes miRNAs and a plethora of post-translational modifications. Several chapters highlight the interplay between the three mammalian RUNX genes, where cross-talk and partial functional redundancies are evident. Finally, structural analysis of the RUNX/CBFB interaction has led to the development of small molecule inhibitors that provide exciting new tools to decipher the roles of RUNX in development and as targets for therapy. This volume provides a compendium and reference source that will be of broad interest to cancer researchers, developmental biologists and immunologists.

Mechanisms Of Dna Recombination And Genome Rearrangements Intersection Between Homologous Recombination Dna Replication And Dna Repair

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128139803
Size: 76.10 MB
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Mechanisms of DNA Recombination and Genome Rearrangements: Intersection between Homologous Recombination, DNA Replication and DNA Repair, Volume 601, the latest release in the Methods in Enzymology series, continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. Homologous genetic recombination remains the most enigmatic process in DNA metabolism. The molecular machines of recombination preserve the integrity of the genetic material in all organisms and generate genetic diversity in evolution. The same molecular machines that support genetic integrity by orchestrating accurate repair of the most deleterious DNA lesions, however, also promote survival of cancerous cells and emergence of radiation and chemotherapy resistance. This two-volume set offers a comprehensive set of cutting edge methods to study various aspects of homologous recombination and cellular processes that utilize the enzymatic machinery of recombination. The chapters are written by the leading researches and cover a broad range of topics from the basic molecular mechanisms of recombinational proteins and enzymes to emerging cellular techniques and drug discovery efforts. contributions by the leading experts in the field of DNA repair, recombination, replication and genome stability documents cutting edge methods

Oncology Of Infancy And Childhood E Book

Author: Stuart H. Orkin
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 1437721389
Size: 53.95 MB
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To address the growing complexities of childhood cancer, Nathan and Oski’s Hematology and Oncology of Infancy and Childhood has now been separated into two distinct volumes. With this volume devoted strictly to pediatric oncology, and another to pediatric hematology, you will be on the cutting edge of these two fields. This exciting new, full-color reference provides you with the most comprehensive, authoritative, up-to-date information for diagnosing and treating children with cancer. It brings together the pathophysiology of disease with detailed clinical guidance on diagnosis and management for the full range of childhood cancers, including aspects important in optimal supportive care. Written by the leading names in pediatric oncology, this resource is an essential tool for all who care for pediatric cancer patients. Offers comprehensive coverage of all pediatric cancers, including less common tumors, making this the most complete guide to pediatric cancer. Covers emerging research developments in cancer biology and therapeutics, both globally and in specific pediatric tumors. Includes a section on supportive care in pediatric oncology, written by authors who represent the critical subdisciplines involved in this important aspect of pediatric oncology. Uses many boxes, graphs, and tables to highlight complex clinical diagnostic and management guidelines. Presents a full-color design that includes clear illustrative examples of the relevant pathology and clinical issues, for quick access to the answers you need. Incorporates the codified WHO classification for all lymphomas and leukemias.

Genome And Disease

Author: Jean-Nicolas Volff
Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
ISBN: 3805580290
Size: 19.34 MB
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Cancer and other genetic human diseases are caused by a variety of mutations, ranging from subtle sequence changes to larger genomic rearrangements and alterations in chromosome number (aneuploidy). With contributions by reputed experts, this book aims to update the knowledge on the multiple mechanisms of genomic instability leading to human disease. Emphasis is given to the different types of genomic sequences involved in disease-related genomic rearrangements as well as to the various exogenous factors increasing the frequency of mutations. Several chapters are dedicated to the dysfunction of important cellular mechanisms like DNA repair and chromosome segregation, which may cause genomic instability and result in tumorigenesis. Important 'caretaker' genes controlling the stability of our genome have been identified through their defect in genomic instability syndromes, which are also extensively reviewed in this volume. This book provides an important update not only for investigators in biology and medicine, but also for physicians and anyone interested in the molecular basis of human disease.

Principles Of Molecular Oncology

Author: Miguel H. Bronchud
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1592596649
Size: 26.67 MB
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At the midpoint of the 20th century, our knowledge of cancer was based on epide- ology and pathology, and treatment consisted of surgery and radiation therapy. At mid-century, Medawar and colleagues initiated the understanding of transplantation immunology, Farber described the first use of an antifolic drug to treat leukemia, and Jacobson and coworkers described the irradiation-protection effect of spleen cells. These observations opened the door to the development of chemotherapy and tra- plantation in the treatment of cancer. Despite the rapid development of these new disciplines, progress was usually based on empiric observations and clinical trials. The rapid advances in molecular biology at the end of the 20th century mark a new era in our knowledge of cancer. Molecular immunology, molecular genetics, mole- lar pharmacology, and the Human Genome Project are in the process of providing a level of understanding of cancer undreamed of in the past. Optimism is based on the firm belief that understanding at the molecular level will lead to better and earlier di- nosis, to new forms of treatment, and, most importantly, eventually to prevention of many types of cancer.

Chromosomal Instability In Cancer Cells

Author: B. Michael Ghadimi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331920291X
Size: 71.34 MB
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This issue of Recent Results in Cancer Research presents a comprehensive review of current understanding of chromosomal instability in cancer and of strategies to use this information for better treatment of patients with cancer. Cancer is a disease of the chromosomes, and chromosomal instability in cancer disrupts gene function by either inactivating tumor suppressor genes or activating growth-promoting oncogenes. The chromosomal basis for these aberrations is either translocations, which change the integrity of genes, or abnormal numbers of chromosomes, a condition referred to as aneuploidy, which results in abnormal gene expression levels. Such structural or numerical chromosomal aberrations are specific for distinct tumor entities. The degree of chromosomal instability and the degree of intratumor heterogeneity have profound consequences for disease outcome and for therapeutic stratification.