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Chronobiology Of Marine Organisms

Author: Ernest Naylor
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 113948494X
Size: 49.68 MB
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Do intertidal organisms simply respond to the rise and fall of tides, or do they possess biological timing and navigation mechanisms that allow them to anticipate when conditions are most favourable? How are the patterns of growth, development and reproduction of some marine plants and animals related to changes in day-length or to phases of the moon? The author describes how marine organisms, from single cells to vertebrates, on sea shores, in estuaries and in the open ocean, have evolved inbuilt biological clockwork and synchronisation mechanisms which control rhythmic processes and navigational behaviour, permitting successful exploitation of highly variable and often hostile environments. Adopting a hypothesis-testing and experimental approach, the book is intended for undergraduate and postgraduate students of marine biology, marine ecology, animal behaviour, oceanography and other biological sciences and also as an introduction for researchers, including physiologists, biochemists and molecular biologists entering the field of chronobiology.

Marine Biorhythms Bridging Chronobiology And Ecology

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ISBN:
Size: 36.12 MB
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Abstract : Marine organisms adapt to complex temporal environments that include daily, tidal, semi-lunar, lunar and seasonal cycles. However, our understanding of marine biological rhythms and their underlying molecular basis is mainly confined to a few model organisms in rather simplistic laboratory settings. Here, we use new empirical data and recent examples of marine biorhythms to highlight how field ecologists and laboratory chronobiologists can complement each other's efforts. First, with continuous tracking of intertidal shorebirds in the field, we reveal individual differences in tidal and circadian foraging rhythms. Second, we demonstrate that shorebird species that spend 8–10 months in tidal environments rarely maintain such tidal or circadian rhythms during breeding, likely because of other, more pertinent, temporally structured, local ecological pressures such as predation or social environment. Finally, we use examples of initial findings from invertebrates (arthropods and polychaete worms) that are being developed as model species to study the molecular bases of lunar-related rhythms. These examples indicate that canonical circadian clock genes (i.e. the homologous clock genes identified in many higher organisms) may not be involved in lunar/tidal phenotypes. Together, our results and the examples we describe emphasize that linking field and laboratory studies is likely to generate a better ecological appreciation of lunar-related rhythms in the wild. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wild clocks: integrating chronobiology and ecology to understand timekeeping in free-living animals'.

Insect Clocks

Author: D. S. Saunders
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483182185
Size: 16.69 MB
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Insect Clocks is mainly concerned with the phenomena in which ""environmental time"" has a practical implication for the life of insects for them to perform behavioral or physiological episodes at the ""right time"" and season. This text first discusses the concept of rhythms and clocks, along with the seasonal changes in the environment that affect a particular group of organisms. This book then explains circadian rhythms of insects. Photoperiodism and seasonal cycles of development; photoperiodic response, clock, and counter; and other types of insect clock are also tackled. This text concludes by explaining the anatomical location of photoreceptors and clocks. This publication will be invaluable to those interested in studying insects and their development affected by circles of influences.

Moonstruck

Author: Ernest Naylor
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198724217
Size: 65.76 MB
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Throughout history, the influence of the full Moon on humans and animals has featured in folklore and myths. Yet it has become increasingly apparent that many organisms really are influenced indirectly, and in some cases directly, by the lunar cycle. Breeding behaviour among some marine animals has been demonstrated to be controlled by internal circalunar biological clocks, to the point where lunar-daily and lunar-monthly patterns of Moon-generated tides are embedded in their genes. Yet, intriguingly, Moon-related behaviours are also found in dry land and fresh water species living far beyond the influence of any tides. In Moonstruck, Ernest Naylor dismisses the myths concerning the influence of the Moon, but shows through a range of fascinating examples the remarkable real effects that we are now finding through science. He suggests that since the advent of evolution on Earth, which occurred shortly after the formation of the Moon, animals evolved adaptations to the lunar cycle, and considers whether, if Moon-clock genes occur in other animals, might they also exist in us?

Oceanography And Marine Biology

Author: R. N. Gibson
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439890005
Size: 43.22 MB
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Ever-increasing interest in oceanography and marine biology and their relevance to global environmental issues creates a demand for authoritative reviews summarising the results of recent research. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review has catered to this demand since its founding by the late Harold Barnes fifty years ago. Its objectives are to consider, annually, the basic areas of marine research, returning to them when appropriate in future volumes; to deal with subjects of special and topical importance; and to add new subjects as they arise. The favourable reception accorded to all the volumes shows that the series is fulfilling a very real need: reviews and sales have been gratifying. A milestone in the history of the series, the fiftieth volume follows closely the objectives and style of the earlier volumes, continuing to regard the marine sciences—with all their various aspects—as a unity. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of marine science are dealt with by experts actively engaged in these fields. The series is an essential reference text for researchers and students in all fields of marine science and related subjects, and it finds a place in libraries of not only marine stations and institutes, but also universities. It is consistently among the highest ranking impact factors for the marine biology category of the citation indices compiled by the Institute for Scientific Information.

Textbook Of Animal Behaviour Third Edition

Author: MANDAL, FATIK BARAN
Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN: 8120351487
Size: 21.16 MB
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This well-accepted book, now in its Third Edition, is an extension of the previous edition. The text has further enriched with more information to understand animal behaviour coherently and scientifically. The book attempts to provide a reasonably suitable account of animal behaviour for undergraduate as well as postgraduate students. Although behaviour of animals has fascinated people for a long, behavioural biology has been incorporated in the syllabi very recently. The study of behaviour received its important boost from the work of Charles Darwin who used the term ‘instinct’, to refer to the natural behaviour of animals. In the 1930s, a comprehensive theory of animal behaviour emerged through the work of Konrad Lorenz and, later of Niko Tinbergen. Biological study of behaviour, in fact came of age as a science when Lorenz, Tinbergen and Karl von Frisch received the Nobel Prize for their contribution to science. Observing and describing exactly what animals do is fascinating and scientific analysis of their behaviour is significant for several reasons. Each species tends to have an array of stereotyped behaviours, some of which are shared with related species, but others are unique. Ecology, natural selection, macroevolution, microevolution, and gene constitute the foundation of animal behaviour. Various animal groups exhibit diverse strategies for their survival and reproduction which are discussed in this book. The book is primarily intended for the students of B.Sc./M.Sc. (Zoology/Life Science) for their courses. It would be useful for the researchers in the field of animal behaviour, and conservation biologists. It would also attract students who are pursuing courses in Sociology and Anthropology. Key features • Presents a well-balanced view of ethology. • Discusses the current development in the field. • Includes a glossary of important terms. • Offers chapter-end questions to check the students’ understanding of the concept.

Long Walk To Freedom

Author: Nelson Mandela
Publisher: Little, Brown
ISBN: 9780759521049
Size: 15.92 MB
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The book that inspired the major new motion picture Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom. Nelson Mandela is one of the great moral and political leaders of our time: an international hero whose lifelong dedication to the fight against racial oppression in South Africa won him the Nobel Peace Prize and the presidency of his country. Since his triumphant release in 1990 from more than a quarter-century of imprisonment, Mandela has been at the center of the most compelling and inspiring political drama in the world. As president of the African National Congress and head of South Africa's antiapartheid movement, he was instrumental in moving the nation toward multiracial government and majority rule. He is revered everywhere as a vital force in the fight for human rights and racial equality. LONG WALK TO FREEDOM is his moving and exhilarating autobiography, destined to take its place among the finest memoirs of history's greatest figures. Here for the first time, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela tells the extraordinary story of his life--an epic of struggle, setback, renewed hope, and ultimate triumph.

The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus Japonicus

Author: Hongsheng Yang
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128004673
Size: 22.37 MB
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While sea cucumber is one of China's and Asia’s most prized seafoods, and aquaculture programs are being developed on a huge commercial scale, Chinese expertise and knowledge in this area has not been well disseminated worldwide. The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is the first book to bridge this gap by compiling key information related to hatchery and aquaculture techniques, nutritional and medical values, markets, and trade flow of the number one sea cucumber species. It summarizes the historical and most recent developments in the trade and aquaculture of Apostichopus japonicus, as well as important aspects of its anatomy, population dynamics, reproduction, development, physiology, and biochemistry. With sea cucumber harvest and aquaculture booming worldwide, comprehensive knowledge of China’s technological breakthroughs in this rapidly expanding field is key. The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is essential to understanding the cultural underpinnings of the insatiable market demands for sea cucumber and what drives sea cucumber trade. It also provides biological information and aquaculture techniques that can be adapted to other species, making it a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners involved in sea cucumber harvesting, aquaculture, and conservation. Explores the historical and current importance of Apostichopus japonicus in China, Japan, and the two Koreas Presents innovative production technologies in sea cucumber aquaculture Provides the latest scientific methods to maximize efficiency and production Includes important information on the design and operation of farms Discusses hot topics, current challenges, and future opportunities in aquaculture Highlights important advances in the study of sea cucumbers at the behavioral, cellular, and molecular levels

Farewell To The Internal Clock

Author: Gunter Klein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387403159
Size: 77.30 MB
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"This book is not a contribution to the numerous superstitious beliefs relating to the moon. Rather, the following will demonstrate and above all prove by means of experiments which can be reproduced at any time that the moon does in fact influence certain biological rhythms, evoking them and determining their timing." So begins Gunter Klein's exploration of the notion of internal clocks. With the fresh perspective of a curious and insightful non-scientist, Mr. Klein examines the question of what force, time or tide, actually provides more influence over cellular biomechanics. Readers may agree or disagree with his hypothesis, but Mr. Klein's provocative outlook is sure to engage the mind and encourage discussion.