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Civil Society And Women Activists In The Middle East

Author: Wanda Krause
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857732145
Size: 25.54 MB
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In the Middle East, and in Egypt in particular, there has always been a tendency to accord complete supremacy to the authority and might of the state, and to see ‘society’ as a separate, powerless entity. However, after the uprisings which began in early 2011, this assumption was turned on its head. And it is the wide range of political activity beyond the remit of the official state where Wanda Krause locates a dynamic potential for political change from the bottom up. She looks in particular at the influential role of women’s private voluntary organisations in shaping concepts of civil society and democracy, contextualizing their demands within a situation which sees the neglect of services and basic needs of the poor by the Egyptian state. Since the late 1970s, beginning with the Bread Riots, Egyptian unskilled and skilled labourers, factory workers and civil servants have carried out a number of strikes and demonstrations - many prompted by women. And in the twenty-first century, with the rumours that Hosni Mubarak would attempt to devolve power to his son, Gamal Mubarak, protests increased, culminating in the extraordinary scenes on Tahrir Square. Here, Krause explores the role of the female as the political actor in many of these calls for protest and reform, arguing that female activists are changing the face of Egyptian politics by instilling democratic values from the bottom up. Moreover, and as a surprise to many, it may not only be those who profess to be progressive, secular and liberal who are significant in this respect. By looking at the activities and women involved in both secular and ‘Islamist’ organizations, she offers a steadfast critique of the view that Islamic women activists are insignificant, ‘backward’ or ‘uncivil’, also pointing out the often-ignored contextual dimensions of secular feminist action. Krause’s examination of women activists in Egypt today is vital for those interested in Middle East and Gender Studies, as well as those researching the wider issues of civil society and democratization.

Do Muslim Women Need Saving

Author: Lila Abu-Lughod
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674726332
Size: 54.33 MB
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Do Muslim Women Need Saving? is an indictment of a mindset that has justified all manner of foreign interference, including military invasion, in the name of rescuing women from Islam. It offers a detailed, moving portrait of the actual experiences of ordinary Muslim women, and of the contingencies with which they live.

Women S Rights In Authoritarian Egypt

Author: Hiam Elgousi
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857729780
Size: 67.46 MB
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During the uprisings of late 2010 and 2011 which took place across the Middle East and North Africa, women made up an important part of the crowds protesting. However, despite this, women’s rights were not central to the demands made and, in the ensuing social and political struggles, these rights have not progressed much beyond the situation under previous governments. Hiam El-Gousi’s book offers an examination of the status of women under Egypt’s various authoritarian regimes. In exploring the role played by religious scholars in helping to define women’s status in society, she focuses on personal status laws and health rights. In examining the issue of women’s rights El-Gousi begins with an account of feminism in Egypt: the centre of feminist thought in the Middle East at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century. Based on extensive research in the country, especially at grassroots level, El-Gousi goes on to analyse the constitutional and legislative rulings which have affected the lives and rights of Egyptian women. This book will become a vital primary resource for those studying feminism in the wider Middle East and North Africa.

Perceptions Of Islam In Europe

Author: Hakan Yilmaz
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 1848851642
Size: 16.98 MB
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both inside and outside Europe. In a ground breaking social-scientific study of Islam in Europe, this book goes beyond a descriptive account of the 'problems' of Muslim communities to provide genuine and realistic analyses about perceptions of Islam in the West. Looking at encounters between the two 'worlds' in both historical and contemporaary contexts, it bridges these analyses with in-depth case studies from Britain, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Turkey and other parts of the European Union. The themes explored in this book are not limited to either the modernist 'integration' or post-modernist 'multiculturalism' models of the study of Islam in the West. Instead, the authors critique and challenge such widely used concepts in examining Europe-Islam encounters as secularism, laicism, gender, integration, assimilation, multiculturalism, colonialism and globalization.

Women In Civil Society

Author: W. Krause
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230615759
Size: 27.46 MB
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Women in Civil Society: The State, Islamism and Networking in the UAE investigates how women in an Arab Gulf country prove to play a key role in how civil society takes shape with and against one another through case studies on women in state-run organizations, Islamic organizations, and networks.

Gender And Civil Society

Author: Jude Howell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134308329
Size: 73.95 MB
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Over the last two decades there has been considerable enthusiasm for the concept of civil society amongst researchers, practitioners and activists. Yet despite this enthusiasm for the concept, the gendered nature of civil society and the impact of feminist organizing on civil society has received minimal attention. This edited volume seeks to address this gap, and considers: * how the political environment and nature of the state shapes the way women organize, the issues they address, and their capacity to affect changes in state policies on gender * is the women's movement structurally different from other civil society organizations? * does the gender lens alter our vision of civil society? The chapters in this volume pursue two or more of these questions and cover a diversity of contexts, including the US, East and Central Europe, China, the Middle East, Africa, South East Asia, Central America and Chile. This book not only draws together the concepts of gender and civil society, but also adopts an international perspective, highlighting the diverse trajectories of women organizing in different country contexts and the historical, cultural and political specificities of civil society.

A Quiet Revolution

Author: Leila Ahmed
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300175051
Size: 69.26 MB
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In Cairo in the 1940s, Leila Ahmed was raised by a generation of women who never dressed in the veils and headscarves their mothers and grandmothers had worn. To them, these coverings seemed irrelevant to both modern life and Islamic piety. Today, however, the majority of Muslim women throughout the Islamic world again wear the veil. Why, Ahmed asks, did this change take root so swiftly, and what does this shift mean for women, Islam, and the West? When she began her study, Ahmed assumed that the veil's return indicated a backward step for Muslim women worldwide. What she discovered, however, in the stories of British colonial officials, young Muslim feminists, Arab nationalists, pious Islamic daughters, American Muslim immigrants, violent jihadists, and peaceful Islamic activists, confounded her expectations. Ahmed observed that Islamism, with its commitments to activism in the service of the poor and in pursuit of social justice, is the strain of Islam most easily and naturally merging with western democracies' own tradition of activism in the cause of justice and social change. It is often Islamists, even more than secular Muslims, who are at the forefront of such contemporary activist struggles as civil rights and women's rights. Ahmed's surprising conclusions represent a near reversal of her thinking on this topic. Richly insightful, intricately drawn, and passionately argued, this absorbing story of the veil's resurgence, from Egypt through Saudi Arabia and into the West, suggests a dramatically new portrait of contemporary Islam.

Political Islam

Author: Joel Beinin
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520204485
Size: 42.90 MB
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The essays and case studies collected here--featuring some of the best material from Middle East Report over the past decade as well as much original material--challenge the facile generalizations about what Western media and political establishments usually call "Islamic fundamentalism." The authors demonstrate the complexity of these movements and offer complementary and contrasting interpretations of their origins and significance. The material included covers a broad range of themes--including democracy and civil society, gender relations and popular culture--as they have emerged in countries throughout the Middle East and North Africa.

Shi A Of Samarra

Author: Imranali Panjwani
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 1786729822
Size: 78.99 MB
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On 22 February 2006, the main dome of the al-Askariyya shrine in Samarra was blown up. In the aftermath, sectarian strife between Shi’i and Sunni communities in Iraq and the wider region resonated around the world. The assault on Samarra, which was built in the period of the Abbasid caliphate in the ninth century CE, therefore came to represent for many a symbol of the destructive civil conflict which engulfed Iraq following the 2003 US-led invasion. The Shi’a of Samarra explores and analyses the cultural, architectural and political heritage of the Shi’a in both Samarra and the Middle East, thus highlighting how this city functions as a microcosm for the contentious issues and debates which remain at the forefront of efforts to rebuild the modern Iraqi state. From its origins under the eighth Abbasid caliph to its rise as a recognized site for visitation (ziyarat), akin to that of Najaf and Karbala, Samarra in the early period of Islam was a prominent gathering place for Shi’i Muslims. Of particular importance was the presence of the shrines of the tenth and eleventh Imams, and Samarra’s status as the last known residence of the twelfth Imam. But upon the return of the Abbasids to their former capital of Baghdad at the end of the ninth century, Samarra’s importance declined. Although there were Shi’i Muslims present in Samarra, it was in the late nineteenth century that the city once again became a centre for religious and juridical learning, for the most part due to the presence of the Ayatollah Mirza Hasan Shirazi. Here, the book highlights the cross-border linkages of Shi’i clerics and the impact of their teaching on both the Shi’a and Sunni within the city, and across the Middle East. Crucially, this volume also examines the history of sectarianism in Samarra: exploring issues of citizenship and identity in Iraq, and - bearing in mind the specific socio-political context of this conflict - analysing the rise of violence between the Shi’a and the Sunni. In the aftermath of the US-led invasion, and the bombings of the main dome in 2006 and the two minarets in 2007, this book also details the efforts at reconstruction that have taken place, providing important insights for students and researchers working on the history and politics of Iraq and the Middle East, as well as those interested in the art and architecture of the Islamic world.

State Power And Politics In The Making Of The Modern Middle East

Author: Roger Owen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134432917
Size: 54.36 MB
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Roger Owen has fully revised and updated his authoritative text to take into account the latest developments in the Middle East. This book continues to serve as an excellent introduction for newcomers to the modern history and politics of this fascinating region. This third edition continues to explore the emergence of individual Middle Eastern states since the fall of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the First World War and the key themes that have characterized the region since then.