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Classical Mathematical Logic

Author: Richard L. Epstein
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400841550
Size: 31.39 MB
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In Classical Mathematical Logic, Richard L. Epstein relates the systems of mathematical logic to their original motivations to formalize reasoning in mathematics. The book also shows how mathematical logic can be used to formalize particular systems of mathematics. It sets out the formalization not only of arithmetic, but also of group theory, field theory, and linear orderings. These lead to the formalization of the real numbers and Euclidean plane geometry. The scope and limitations of modern logic are made clear in these formalizations. The book provides detailed explanations of all proofs and the insights behind the proofs, as well as detailed and nontrivial examples and problems. The book has more than 550 exercises. It can be used in advanced undergraduate or graduate courses and for self-study and reference. Classical Mathematical Logic presents a unified treatment of material that until now has been available only by consulting many different books and research articles, written with various notation systems and axiomatizations.

Predicate Logic

Author: Richard L. Epstein
Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing Company
ISBN:
Size: 58.34 MB
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A presentation of the fundamental ideas that generate the formal systems of predicate logic. This text clearly relates predicate logic to reasoning in ordinary language, with hundreds of examples of formalization, with a clear theory of how to formalize ordinary arguments. The writing is exceptionally clear and easy to read.

Classical And Nonclassical Logics

Author: Eric Schechter
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691122793
Size: 13.98 MB
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Classical logic is traditionally introduced by itself, but that makes it seem arbitrary and unnatural. This text introduces classical alongside several nonclassical logics (relevant, constructive, quantative, paraconsistent).

Algebraic Methods Of Mathematical Logic

Author: Ladislav Rieger
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483270521
Size: 50.25 MB
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Algebraic Methods of Mathematical Logic focuses on the algebraic methods of mathematical logic, including Boolean algebra, mathematical language, and arithmetization. The book first offers information on the dialectic of the relation between mathematical and metamathematical aspects; metamathematico-mathematical parallelism and its natural limits; practical applications of methods of mathematical logic; and principal mathematical tools of mathematical logic. The text then elaborates on the language of mathematics and its symbolization and recursive construction of the relation of consequence. Discussions focus on recursive construction of the relation of consequence, fundamental descriptively-semantic rules, mathematical logic and mathematical language as a material system of signs, and the substance and purpose of symbolization of mathematical language. The publication examines expressive possibilities of symbolization; intuitive and mathematical notions of an idealized axiomatic mathematical theory; and the algebraic theory of elementary predicate logic. Topics include the notion of Boolean algebra based on joins, meets, and complementation, logical frame of a language and mathematical theory, and arithmetization and algebraization. The manuscript is a valuable reference for mathematicians and researchers interested in the algebraic methods of mathematical logic.

Foundations Of Fuzzy Logic And Semantic Web Languages

Author: Umberto Straccia
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439853487
Size: 29.99 MB
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Managing vagueness/fuzziness is starting to play an important role in Semantic Web research, with a large number of research efforts underway. Foundations of Fuzzy Logic and Semantic Web Languages provides a rigorous and succinct account of the mathematical methods and tools used for representing and reasoning with fuzzy information within Semantic Web languages. The book focuses on the three main streams of Semantic Web languages: Triple languages RDF and RDFS Conceptual languages OWL and OWL 2, and their profiles OWL EL, OWL QL, and OWL RL Rule-based languages, such as SWRL and RIF Written by a prominent researcher in this area, the book is the first to combine coverage of fuzzy logic and Semantic Web languages. The first part of the book covers all the theoretical and logical aspects of classical (two-valued) Semantic Web languages. The second part explains how to generalize these languages to cope with fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic. With an extensive bibliography, this book provides in-depth insight into fuzzy Semantic Web languages for non-fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic experts. It also helps researchers of non-Semantic Web languages get a better understanding of the theoretical fundamentals of Semantic Web languages.

Three Views Of Logic

Author: Donald W. Loveland
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 140084875X
Size: 35.26 MB
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Demonstrating the different roles that logic plays in the disciplines of computer science, mathematics, and philosophy, this concise undergraduate textbook covers select topics from three different areas of logic: proof theory, computability theory, and nonclassical logic. The book balances accessibility, breadth, and rigor, and is designed so that its materials will fit into a single semester. Its distinctive presentation of traditional logic material will enhance readers' capabilities and mathematical maturity. The proof theory portion presents classical propositional logic and first-order logic using a computer-oriented (resolution) formal system. Linear resolution and its connection to the programming language Prolog are also treated. The computability component offers a machine model and mathematical model for computation, proves the equivalence of the two approaches, and includes famous decision problems unsolvable by an algorithm. The section on nonclassical logic discusses the shortcomings of classical logic in its treatment of implication and an alternate approach that improves upon it: Anderson and Belnap's relevance logic. Applications are included in each section. The material on a four-valued semantics for relevance logic is presented in textbook form for the first time. Aimed at upper-level undergraduates of moderate analytical background, Three Views of Logic will be useful in a variety of classroom settings. Gives an exceptionally broad view of logic Treats traditional logic in a modern format Presents relevance logic with applications Provides an ideal text for a variety of one-semester upper-level undergraduate courses

Philosophy Of Logic

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080466637
Size: 12.42 MB
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The papers presented in this volume examine topics of central interest in contemporary philosophy of logic. They include reflections on the nature of logic and its relevance for philosophy today, and explore in depth developments in informal logic and the relation of informal to symbolic logic, mathematical metatheory and the limiting metatheorems, modal logic, many-valued logic, relevance and paraconsistent logic, free logics, extensional v. intensional logics, the logic of fiction, epistemic logic, formal logical and semantic paradoxes, the concept of truth, the formal theory of entailment, objectual and substitutional interpretation of the quantifiers, infinity and domain constraints, the Löwenheim-Skolem theorem and Skolem paradox, vagueness, modal realism v. actualism, counterfactuals and the logic of causation, applications of logic and mathematics to the physical sciences, logically possible worlds and counterpart semantics, and the legacy of Hilbert’s program and logicism. The handbook is meant to be both a compendium of new work in symbolic logic and an authoritative resource for students and researchers, a book to be consulted for specific information about recent developments in logic and to be read with pleasure for its technical acumen and philosophical insights. - Written by leading logicians and philosophers - Comprehensive authoritative coverage of all major areas of contemporary research in symbolic logic - Clear, in-depth expositions of technical detail - Progressive organization from general considerations to informal to symbolic logic to nonclassical logics - Presents current work in symbolic logic within a unified framework - Accessible to students, engaging for experts and professionals - Insightful philosophical discussions of all aspects of logic - Useful bibliographies in every chapter

Mathematical Logic

Author: Wei Li
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3034808623
Size: 11.98 MB
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Mathematical logic is a branch of mathematics that takes axiom systems and mathematical proofs as its objects of study. This book shows how it can also provide a foundation for the development of information science and technology. The first five chapters systematically present the core topics of classical mathematical logic, including the syntax and models of first-order languages, formal inference systems, computability and representability, and Gödel’s theorems. The last five chapters present extensions and developments of classical mathematical logic, particularly the concepts of version sequences of formal theories and their limits, the system of revision calculus, proschemes (formal descriptions of proof methods and strategies) and their properties, and the theory of inductive inference. All of these themes contribute to a formal theory of axiomatization and its application to the process of developing information technology and scientific theories. The book also describes the paradigm of three kinds of language environments for theories and it presents the basic properties required of a meta-language environment. Finally, the book brings these themes together by describing a workflow for scientific research in the information era in which formal methods, interactive software and human invention are all used to their advantage. The second edition of the book includes major revisions on the proof of the completeness theorem of the Gentzen system and new contents on the logic of scientific discovery, R-calculus without cut, and the operational semantics of program debugging. This book represents a valuable reference for graduate and undergraduate students and researchers in mathematics, information science and technology, and other relevant areas of natural sciences. Its first five chapters serve as an undergraduate text in mathematical logic and the last five chapters are addressed to graduate students in relevant disciplines.

Philosophical Logic

Author: John P. Burgess
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691137896
Size: 43.39 MB
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Philosophical Logic is a clear and concise critical survey of nonclassical logics of philosophical interest written by one of the world's leading authorities on the subject. After giving an overview of classical logic, John Burgess introduces five central branches of nonclassical logic (temporal, modal, conditional, relevantistic, and intuitionistic), focusing on the sometimes problematic relationship between formal apparatus and intuitive motivation. Requiring minimal background and arranged to make the more technical material optional, the book offers a choice between an overview and in-depth study, and it balances the philosophical and technical aspects of the subject. The book emphasizes the relationship between models and the traditional goal of logic, the evaluation of arguments, and critically examines apparatus and assumptions that often are taken for granted. Philosophical Logic provides an unusually thorough treatment of conditional logic, unifying probabilistic and model-theoretic approaches. It underscores the variety of approaches that have been taken to relevantistic and related logics, and it stresses the problem of connecting formal systems to the motivating ideas behind intuitionistic mathematics. Each chapter ends with a brief guide to further reading. Philosophical Logic addresses students new to logic, philosophers working in other areas, and specialists in logic, providing both a sophisticated introduction and a new synthesis.

Logic

Author: Nicholas Jeremy Josef Smith
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691151636
Size: 15.44 MB
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Provides an essential introduction to classical logic.