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Climate Adaptation And Flood Risk In Coastal Cities

Author: Jeroen Aerts
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136528938
Size: 73.20 MB
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This book presents climate adaptation and flood risk problems and solutions in coastal cities including an independent investigation of adaptation paths and problems in Rotterdam, New York and Jakarta. The comparison draws out lessons that each city can learn from the others. While the main focus is on coastal flooding, cities are also affected by climate change in other ways, including impacts that occur away from the coast. The New York City Water Supply System, for example, stretches as far as 120 miles upstate, and the New York City Department of Environmental Protection has undertaken extensive climate assessment not only for its coastal facilities, but also for its upstate facilities, which will be affected by rising temperatures, droughts, inland flooding and water quality changes. The authors examine key questions, such as: Are current city plans climate proof or do we need to finetune our ongoing investments? Can we develop a flood proof subway system? Can we develop new infrastructure in such a way that it serves flood protection, housing and natural values?

Climate Change And The Coast

Author: Bruce Glavovic
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482288583
Size: 42.83 MB
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Coastal communities are at the frontline of a changing climate. Escalating problems created by sea-level rise, a greater number of severe coastal storms, and other repercussions of climate change will exacerbate already pervasive impacts resulting from rapid coastal population growth and intensification of development. To prosper in the coming decades, coastal communities need to build their adaptive capacity and resilience. Telling the stories of real-world communities in a wide range of coastal settings, including America’s Gulf of Mexico coast, Britain, Australia, New Zealand, The Maldives, southern Africa, Bangladesh, and Vietnam, the case studies in Climate Change and the Coast: Building Resilient Communities reveal a rich diversity of adaptation approaches. A number of common themes emerge that indicate opportunities, barriers, and on-ground realities for progressing adaptation at the coast. Together, they highlight the need to consciously reflect on current circumstances, contemplate future prospects, and deliberately choose pathways that are attuned to the changing circumstances climate change will bring to coastal regions. This process is termed "reflexive adaptation," capturing the principle of critical self-reflection and self-correction in the face of adversity, uncertainty, surprise, and contestation. Provides practical advice for adapting to climate change based on case studies written by leading specialists with firsthand experience in real-world communities in diverse coastal settings around the globe Integrates insights from research and practice in an accessible way so that coastal communities can plan proactively for a future shaped by climate change Explains how climate change compounds pervasive unsustainable practices in coasts around the world Explores how coastal governance and adaptation theory and practices have evolved Details the barriers and opportunities for adapting to climate change Climate Change and the Coast: Building Resilient Communities will interest those concerned about the future of coastal communities. It shows what has succeeded and what has failed around the world, and where there are opportunities to be grasped and pitfalls to be avoided. It will be invaluable to those involved in enabling adaptation to climate change, including policy-makers, coastal managers, day-to-day decision-makers, students, and researchers.

Climate Change And Cities

Author: Cynthia Rosenzweig
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316944565
Size: 43.68 MB
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The Urban Climate Change Research Network's Second Assessment Report on Climate Change in Cities (ARC3.2) is the second in a series of global, science-based reports to examine climate risk, adaptation, and mitigation efforts in cities. The book explicitly seeks to explore the implications of changing climatic conditions on critical urban physical and social infrastructure sectors and intersectoral concerns. The primary purpose of ARC3.2 is to inform the development and implementation of effective urban climate change policies, leveraging ongoing and planned investments for populations in cities of developing, emerging, and developed countries. This volume, like its predecessor, will be invaluable for a range of audiences involved with climate change and cities: mayors, city officials and policymakers; urban planners; policymakers charged with developing climate change mitigation and adaptation programs; and a broad spectrum of researchers and advanced students in the environmental sciences.

An Introduction To Climate Change Economics And Policy

Author: Felix FitzRoy
Publisher: Earthscan
ISBN: 1844078094
Size: 46.49 MB
Format: PDF
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Interest in climate change has generated a mountain of literature leaving many floundering in the sheer flood of information, commentary, claims and initiatives. This highly accessible book assumes no prior knowledge and cuts through the confusion to explain the key economic and policy issues related to climate change in simple language and with only a few statistics. Coverage slices across the breadth and depth of climate change, providing short summaries of the most relevant research and conclusions from various disciplines. The authors highlight where economists and policy makers generally misunderstand the science of climate change, underestimate the risks of runaway warming and exaggerate the costs of radical measures to stabilize the climate. A key focus is the impact of climate change on world agriculture, the world's most important activity. The authors provide a critical examination of how current policies that promote poor water usage and soil erosion are risking a catastrophic collapse of agriculture in the poorest and most populous countries in a warming world. They look at the solutions such as how no-till, conservation farming, third generation biofuels from waste land, alternative energy, and bio-char production to raise sustainable yields, reduce emissions and sequester carbon in soil. The second, crucial thrust is a critical examination of the growth economy paradigm of rich countries that is driving climate change. The authors look at economic measures to control climate change including switching taxes from labour to carbon and subsidies from fossil and nuclear energy to renewable alternatives as well as demand management and energy saving. Overall the book provides a comprehensive, critical introduction to the issues and highlights the main policies that are needed to initiate the transformation to sustainability and avert the worst risks of climate catastrophe.

Adapting To Climate Change In Urban Areas

Author:
Publisher: IIED
ISBN: 184369669X
Size: 34.47 MB
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This paper discusses the possibilities and constraints for adaptation to climate change in urban areas in low- and middle-income nations. These contain a third of the world's population and a large proportion of the people and economic activities most at risk from sea-level rise and from the heatwaves, storms and floods whose frequency and/or intensity climate change is likely to increase. Section I outlines both the potentials for adaptation and the constraints. Section II discusses the scale of urban change. Section III considers direct and indirect impacts of climate change on urban areas and which nations, cities and population groups are particularly at risk. This highlights how prosperous, well-governed cities could generally adapt, but most of the world's urban population lives in cities or smaller urban centres ill-equipped for adaptation. A key part of adaptation concerns infrastructure and buildings - but much of the urban population in Africa, Asia and Latin America lack the infrastructure to adapt. Most international agencies have long refused to support urban programmes, especially those that address these problems. Section IV discusses innovations by urban governments and community organizations and in financial systems that address such problems, including the relevance of recent innovations in disaster-risk reduction for adaptation. It notes how few city and national governments are taking any action on adaptation. Section V discusses how local innovation in adaptation can be encouraged and supported at national scale, and the funding needed to support this. Section VI considers the mechanisms for financing this and the larger ethical challenges that achieving adaptation raises - especially the fact that most climate-change-related urban (and rural) risks are in low-income nations with the least adaptive capacity, including many that have contributed very little to greenhouse-gas emissions.

Planning For Climate Change

Author: Simin Davoudi
Publisher: Earthscan
ISBN: 1849770158
Size: 31.26 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Climate change is changing the context of spatial planning and shaping its priorities. It has strengthened its environmental dimension and has become a new rationale for coordinating actions and integrating different policy priorities. This book sets out the economic, social and environmental challenges that climate change raises for urban and regional planners and explores current and potential responses. These are set within the context of recent research and scholarly works on the role of spatial planning in combating climate change. Addressing both mitigation measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to the effects of climate change, the book provides an overview of emerging practice, with analysis of the drivers of policy change and practical implementation of measures. It scopes planning issues and opportunities at different spatial scales, drawing on both the UK and international experiences and highlighting the need to link global and local responses to shared risks and opportunities.

Adapting Cities To Climate Change

Author: Jane Bicknell
Publisher: Earthscan
ISBN: 1849770360
Size: 64.32 MB
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This volume brings together, for the first time, a wide-ranging and detailed body of information identifying and assessing risk, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in urban centres in low- and middle-income countries. Framed by an overview of the main possibilities and constraints for adaptation, the contributors examine the implications of climate change for cities in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and propose innovative agendas for adaptation. The book should be of interest to policy makers, practitioners and academics who face the challenge of addressing climate change vulnerability and adaptation in urban centres throughout the global South.Published with E&U and International Institute for Environment and Development

Building Safer Cities

Author: Alcira Kreimer
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN:
Size: 11.28 MB
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Disaster impacts are increasing in severity. Annual direct losses for weather-related events have increased from $3.9 million in the 1950s to $63 million in the 1990s. Moreover, a number of ongoing trends have the potential to cause even more severe and broader disaster impacts than ever before. These include increased environmental degradation, the impacts of climate change, population growth in cities, and globalization.In developing countries, disasters can cause major setbacks to economic and social development, inflict massive casualties, and cause the diversion of funds from development to emergency relief and recovery. By applying innovative approaches to disaster risk reduction and by empowering people through effective disaster reduction strategies, communities and government will be more resilient when disaster strikes and better able to protect their lives, homes, livelihoods and assets.

The New Global Frontier

Author: George Martine
Publisher: Earthscan
ISBN: 1849773157
Size: 70.51 MB
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The world�s developing countries will be experiencing massive increases in their urban populations over the 21st century. If managed intelligently and humanely, this growth can pave the way to sustainable development; otherwise, it will favour higher levels of poverty and environmental stress. The outcome depends on decisions being made now.The principal theme that runs through this volume is the need to transform urbanization into a positive force for development. Part I of this book reviews the demography of the urban transition, stressing the importance of benefi cial rural-urban connections and challenging commonly held misconceptions. Part II asks how urban housing, land and service provision can be improved in the face of rapid urban expansion, drawing lessons from experiences around the world. Part III analyses the challenges and opportunities that urbanization presents for improving living environments and reducing pressures on local and global ecosystems. These social and environmental challenges must be met in the context of fast-changing demographic circumstances; Part IV explores the range of opportunities that these transformations represent. These challenges and opportunities vary greatly across Africa, Asia and Latin America, as detailed in Part V.Published with IIED and UNFPA

State Of The World S Cities

Author: UN-HABITAT.
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781844076963
Size: 25.39 MB
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Cities are perhaps one of humanity's most complex creations, never finished, never definitive. They are like a journey that never ends. Their evolution is determined by their ascent into greatness or their descent into decline. They are the past, the present and the future. Cities contain both order and chaos. In them reside beauty and ugliness, virtue and vice. They can bring out the best or the worst in humankind. They are the physical manifestation of history and culture and incubators of innovation, industry, technology, entrepreneurship and creativity. Cities are the materialization of humanity's noblest ideas, ambitions and aspirations but when not planned or governed properly, can be the repository of society's ills. Cities drive national economies by creating wealth, enhancing social development and providing employment but they can also be the breeding grounds for poverty, exclusion and environmental degradation. The 21st Century is the Century of the City. Half of humanity now lives in cities, and within the next two decades, 60 per cent of the world's people will reside in urban areas. How can city planners and policymakers harmonize the various interests, diversity and inherent contradictions within cities? What ingredients are needed to create harmony between the physical, social, environmental and cultural aspects of a city and the human beings that inhabit it? This report adopts the concept of Harmonious Cities as a theoretical framework in order to understand today's urban world, and also as an operational tool to confront the most important challenges facing urban areas and their development processes. It recognizes that tolerance, diversity, social justice and good governance, all of which are inter-related, are as important to sustainable urban development as physical planning. It addresses national concerns by searching for solutions at the city level. For that purpose, it focuses on three key areas: spatial or regional harmony, which examines the main drivers of urban growth in the developing world and explores the spatial nuances of economic and social policies; social harmony, which presents and analyzes new data on urban inequalities worldwide and describes the types of shelter deprivations experienced by slum dwellers in developing world regions; and environmental harmony, which examines the role of cities in the climate change debate, and the impact of global warming on the most vulnerable cities. The report also assesses the various intangible assets within cities that contribute to harmony, such as cultural heritage, sense of place and memory and the complex set of social and symbolic relationships that give cities meaning. It argues that these intangible assets represent the soul of the city and are as important for harmonious urban development as tangible assets. Harmony within cities, argues the report, is both a journey and a destination. Published with UN-HABITAT