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Cognitive Enhancement

Author: Robert H. Blank
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137572485
Size: 33.35 MB
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Rapid advances in cognitive neuroscience and converging technologies have led to a vigorous debate over cognitive enhancement. This book outlines the ethical and social issues, but goes on to focus on the policy dimensions, which until now have received much less attention. As the economic, social and personal stakes involved with cognitive enhancement are so high, and the advances in knowledge so swift, we are likely to see increasing demands for government involvement in cognitive enhancement techniques. The book therefore places these techniques in a political context and brings the subsequent considerations and divisions to the forefront of the debate, situating their resolution within the milieu of interest group politics. The book will provide a starting point from which readers can develop a balanced policy framework for addressing such concerns.

Social Public Policy Of Alzheimer S Disease In The United States

Author: Robert H. Blank
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811306567
Size: 10.96 MB
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This book focuses on the public policy and political dimensions of Alzheimer’s Disease and other dementias (AD/D) in the United States, with coverage of the global dimensions and relevant examples from other countries. Starting off with a discussion on the characteristics of AD/D and competing theories of their causes, their human and financial costs, and the increasing burden they place on all societies as populations age, the book examines in detail the range of policy issues they raise. These include funding policies, payment policy and regulatory functions, long-term services and support (LTCS), public health and prevention policies. The book analyses the big business surrounding AD/D and shows that the strong public fear of developing dementia heightens the likelihood of exploitation of vulnerable people looking for a technological fix. It examines both informal and formal caregivers and the heavy burden placed on families, primarily women, and recent policy attempts to strengthen LTCS. It also examines the latest evidence of potential risk-reduction and prevention strategies and the difficult issues surrounding advance directives, assisted suicide, and definitions of death that increasingly face policy makers. It concludes by analyzing the policy implications on possible technological scenarios.

Rethinking Cognitive Enhancement

Author: Ruud ter Meulen
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191040827
Size: 65.90 MB
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There has been much recent excitement amongst neuroscientists and ethicists about the possibility of using drugs, as well as other technologies, to enhance cognition in healthy individuals. This excitement has arisen from recent advances in neuroscientific technologies such as drugs that increase alertness and wakefulness in healthy individuals or technologies that can stimulate activity in different parts of the brain - either via the scalp or via electrodes - raising the possibility of producing cognitive and affective improvements in otherwise healthy individuals. Despite this growing interest, there are conflicting views on the ethics of cognitive enhancement. Some argue that enhancement is not only an ethical pursuit but one that we have a moral obligation to pursue. Others are more skeptical about the ethical implications and long term effects of cognitive enhancement. Some neuroscientists argue that use of stimulants as putative enhancers will lead to misuse, abuse and addiction in some users, and might have undesirable long-term consequences. This book critically explores and analyses the scientific and ethical debates surrounding cognitive enhancers. Including contributions from neuroscientists, neuropsychopharmacologists, ethicists, philosophers, public health professionals, and policy researchers, the book offers a multidisciplinary, critical consideration of the ethics of the use of cognitive enhancers.

Cognitive Enhancement

Author: Fabrice Jotterand
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199396817
Size: 47.82 MB
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There is a growing literature in neuroethics dealing with cognitive neuro-enhancement for healthy adults. However, discussions on this topic tend to focus on abstract theoretical positions while concrete policy proposals and detailed models are scarce. Furthermore, discussions appear to rely solely on data from the US or UK, while international perspectives are mostly non-existent. This volume fills this gap and addresses issues on cognitive enhancement comprehensively in three important ways: 1) it examines the conceptual implications stemming from competing points of view about the nature and goals of enhancement; 2) it addresses the ethical, social, and legal implications of neuroenhancement from an international and global perspective including contributions from scholars in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America; and 3) it discusses and analyzes concrete legal issues and policy options tailored to specific contexts.

Cognitive Enhancement

Author: Shira Knafo
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124171257
Size: 35.30 MB
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Cognitive Enhancement: Pharmacologic, Environmental and Genetic Factors addresses the gap that exists in research on the topic, gathering multidisciplinary knowledge and tools that help the reader understand the basics of cognitive enhancement. It also provides assistance in designing procedures and pharmacological approaches to further the use of novel cognitive enhancers, a field that offers potential benefit to a variety of populations, including those with neurologic and psychiatric disorders, mild aging-related cognitive impairment, and those who want to improve intellectual performance. The text builds on our knowledge of the molecular/cellular basis of cognitive function, offering the technological developments that may soon enhance cognition. Separate sections cover enhancement drugs, environmental conditions, and genetic factors in terms of both human and animal studies, including both healthy/young and aging/diseased individuals. Provides a multidisciplinary knowledge, enabling a further understanding of cognitive enhancement Offers coverage of the pharmacologic, environmental, and genetic factors relevant to the topic Discusses cognitive enhancement from the perspective of both healthy and diseased or aging populations Topics are discussed in terms of both human and animal studies

Enhancing Human Capacities

Author: Julian Savulescu
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781444393545
Size: 17.65 MB
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Enhancing Human Capacities is the first to review the very latest scientific developments in human enhancement. It is unique in its examination of the ethical and policy implications of these technologies from a broad range of perspectives. Presents a rich range of perspectives on enhancement from world leading ethicists and scientists from Europe and North America The most comprehensive volume yet on the science and ethics of human enhancement Unique in providing a detailed overview of current and expected scientific advances in this area Discusses both general conceptual and ethical issues and concrete questions of policy Includes sections covering all major forms of enhancement: cognitive, affective, physical, and life extension

Ethics And Public Policy

Author: Andrew Bradstock
Size: 27.20 MB
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Exploring the ethical frameworks and principles upon which governments can and should base their policies, this study draws on papers from the 2009 Ethical Foundations of Public Policy conference held in Wellington, covering topics such as ethics in decision-making and giving advice, sustainability, equality and justice, and measuring progress. The examination contends that interplay between ethical considerations and policy creation is often complex, controversial, and challenging, but that the careful management of this interplay is vital to the effective functioning of liberal, democratic government. Demonstrating the inextricable link between ethics and public policy, this is essential reading for policymakers, students, and those interested in the policy process.

Oxford Handbook Of Neuroethics

Author: Judy Illes
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199680639
Size: 77.30 MB
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A landmark in the scientific literature, the Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics presents a pioneering review of a topic central to the biosciences. It breaks new ground in bringing together leading neuroscientists, philosophers, and lawyers to tackle some of the most significant ethical issues that face us now and will continue to do so.

Enhancing Human Performance

Author: Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309573998
Size: 74.56 MB
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In its evaluation, Enhancing Human Performance reviews the relevant materials, describes each technique, makes recommendations in some cases for further scientific research and investigation, and notes applications in military and industrial settings. The techniques address a wide range of goals, from enhancing classroom learning to improving creativity and motor skills.


Author: Nick Bostrom
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191666831
Size: 62.46 MB
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The human brain has some capabilities that the brains of other animals lack. It is to these distinctive capabilities that our species owes its dominant position. Other animals have stronger muscles or sharper claws, but we have cleverer brains. If machine brains one day come to surpass human brains in general intelligence, then this new superintelligence could become very powerful. As the fate of the gorillas now depends more on us humans than on the gorillas themselves, so the fate of our species then would come to depend on the actions of the machine superintelligence. But we have one advantage: we get to make the first move. Will it be possible to construct a seed AI or otherwise to engineer initial conditions so as to make an intelligence explosion survivable? How could one achieve a controlled detonation? To get closer to an answer to this question, we must make our way through a fascinating landscape of topics and considerations. Read the book and learn about oracles, genies, singletons; about boxing methods, tripwires, and mind crime; about humanity's cosmic endowment and differential technological development; indirect normativity, instrumental convergence, whole brain emulation and technology couplings; Malthusian economics and dystopian evolution; artificial intelligence, and biological cognitive enhancement, and collective intelligence. This profoundly ambitious and original book picks its way carefully through a vast tract of forbiddingly difficult intellectual terrain. Yet the writing is so lucid that it somehow makes it all seem easy. After an utterly engrossing journey that takes us to the frontiers of thinking about the human condition and the future of intelligent life, we find in Nick Bostrom's work nothing less than a reconceptualization of the essential task of our time.