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The Anglo Portuguese Alliance And The English Merchants In Portugal 1654 1810

Author: L.M.E. Shaw
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351894919
Size: 41.28 MB
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The alliance made between Cromwell and John IV in 1654, cemented by the Articles of Marriage between Charles II and Catherine of Braganza in 1661 lasted for 156 years. Together, they provided a guarantee of Portugal’s independence and formed a framework for an expansion of trade between England, Portugal and its overseas possessions. The Inquisition had ruined the ’New Christians’ (Sephardic Jews) who had been Portugal’s principal middlemen, enabling the English merchants to play a dominant role in that expansion once they had overcome their French and Dutch rivals. They held that position until Pombal succeeded by 1770 in breaking the hold which foreigners had established over Portuguese commerce. This book is the result of many years of research into Portuguese and British archival sources. It interweaves politics, economics, religion and commerce to portray what life was like for English merchants in Portugal in the period.

Commercial Realism And Eu Trade Policy

Author: Katharina L. Meissner
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351047620
Size: 57.44 MB
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The European Union (EU) is at the forefront of engaging in external trade relations outside of the World Trade Organization (WTO) with entire regions and economic powerhouses. Understanding why and how the EU engages in one of the most active fields of external relations is crucial. This book fills a gap in the literature by analysing motives on the modes – bilateralism, inter-regionalism, or multilateralism - of EU external trade relations towards regional organizations in Asia and Latin America outside of the WTO. In particular, it examines why the EU turned from interregional to bilateral external trade relations towards these world regions – a question that is, to date, under-researched. By developing and testing an original approach rooted in realist theorizing coined ‘commercial realism’, it examines systematically the explanatory power of commercial realism against liberal-institutionalist approaches dominant in the literature on EU external relations through five in-depth case studies. This book will be of key interest to scholars and students in EU Politics/Studies, EU external relations, inter-regionalism and more broadly to International Relations and International Political Economy.

The Economic And Business History Of Occupied Japan

Author: Thomas French
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317270088
Size: 66.44 MB
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The Occupation era (1945-1952) witnessed major change in Japan and the beginnings of its growth from of the ashes of defeat towards its status as a developmental model for much of the world. The period arguably saw the sowing of the seeds of the post-war flowering of what some term the ‘postwar Japanese economic miracle’. However, some scholars dispute this position and argue that the Occupation's policies and impacts actually hindered Japan's recovery. This volume addresses this question and others surrounding the business and economic history of this crucial period. The chapters presented in The Economic and Business History of Occupied Japan are authored by major scholars of the Occupation from the U.S., Japan, and Europe. The chapters are divided into three sections: 'Planning, reform and recovery', 'Industries under the Occupation', and 'Legacies of the Occupation era'. Following an introduction focusing on the historiographical background, the first section examines zaibatsu dissolution and its significance, the role of Japanese businessmen within the Occupation's reforms, the crucial impact of Japan's postwar Materials Crisis, and the impact of reform at the local level in Hokkaid?. Part two looks at a number of individual industries and their development during the era, including the fishing, automotive, and cotton spinning industries. The final section looks at the human impact of the changes of the initial postwar years, including the reintegration of repatriates into the Japanese labour force and the impact of changing working patterns on society and family life. This book covers a key period of the economic and business history of Japan and presents numerous new approaches and original contributions to the scholarship of the Occupation era. It will be of interest to scholars of modern Japan, economic history, business history, development studies and postwar U.S.-Japan relations.

Beyond Market Access For Economic Development

Author: Gerrit Faber
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113401578X
Size: 16.42 MB
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The Economic Partnership Agreements between the European Union and the Africa, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries have drastically restructured Europe’s trade architecture towards the third world. This volume examines the consequences of EPAs for development in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Starting from the observation that the establishment of free trade as such will substantially impact upon economic development, the different contributions focus on the potential contribution of non-traditional aspects of EPAs. More specifically, the authors analyze the role of Aid for Trade schemes, regulatory integration issues and broader foreign policy considerations. How can these non-market access aspects stimulate development in Africa, and how have they been addressed in the EPAs? In short, this brings us to the question whether the ‘light version EPAs’ as they currently stand are a missed chance or a blessing in disguise?

State Business Relations And Economic Development In Africa And India

Author: Kunal Sen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135129061
Size: 30.88 MB
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When the state and business interact effectively they can promote a more efficient allocation of scarce resources, appropriate industrial policy and a more effective and prioritised removal of key obstacles to growth, than when the two sides fail to co-operate or engage in harmful collusion. This book, based on original empirical research undertaken in Africa and India, addresses what constitutes the effectiveness of state-business relations, what explains their formation and evolution over time and whether effective state-business relations matter for economic performance. Analysing the effects of state-business relations on economic performance at both the macro and micro levels, the book concludes that where effective state-business relations are established – either through formal or informal institutional patterns and relationships – the growth effects are generally positive. Establishing, sustaining and renewing effective state-business relations are political processes. The better organized the business community and the government are for purposes of such relations, the more effective state-business relations will be in negotiating growth enhancing policies. The book is of interest to researchers in the fields of development studies, management, economics and political science.

Europe Canada And The Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement

Author: Kurt Hübner
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1136741313
Size: 78.38 MB
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The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) is a challenging project that will kick-start enormous changes in trade policy-making as well as in market openness in Canada. It will mark the EU’s efforts to re-make the Atlantic Economy. This book provides deep insights into the ambiguity of the project and addresses the implications of a rapidly changing global economy for trade policy. Offering analysis of the financial industry, banking, trade policy, climate change strategy, and the Euro exchange rate, this book should be of interest to students and policy-makers alike.

Portugal In The European Union

Author: Laura C. Ferreira-Pereira
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317815440
Size: 32.24 MB
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This book examines the involvement of Portugal in the European integration process since the country signed the Accession Treaty in 1985. The volume elicits how Portugal has grasped opportunities and challenges emanating from its participation in the institutional, regulatory and political frameworks of the European Union (EU), as these have become more intricate as well as intrusive. It scrutinizes the adjustments and transformations that have taken place in Portuguese society, politics and economics as well as in the country’s international relations, as engendered by its increasing enmeshment in the Community-building dynamics. It is divided into three main parts: • Part I focuses on the major changes within the domestic arena, notably on the political, economic and social fronts; • Part II addresses the adjustments that the Portuguese leadership had to make in order to secure the country's participation in key common policies and strategies; • Part III is centred on foreign policy and assesses and discusses the impact upon Portugal’s international relations. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of European politics, EU studies, comparative politics and those with a strong interest in Portugal.

Routledge Handbook Of Modern Economic History

Author: Robert Whaples
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415677041
Size: 64.19 MB
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The Routledge Handbook of Modern Economic History aims to introduce readers to important approaches and findings of economic historians who study the modern world. Its short chapters reflect the most up-to-date research and are written by well-known economic historians who are authorities on their subjects. Modern economic history blends two approaches – Cliometrics (which focuses on measuring economic variables and explicitly testing theories about the historical performance and development of the economy) and the New Institutional Economics (which focuses on how social, cultural, legal and organizational norms and rules shape economic outcomes and their evolution). Part 1 of the Handbook introduces these approaches and other important methodological issues for economic history. The most fundamental shift in the economic history of the world began about two and a half centuries ago when eons of slow economic change and faltering economic growth gave way to sustained, rapid economic expansion. Part 2 examines this theme and the primary forces economic historians have linked to economic growth, stagnation and fluctuations – including technological change, entrepreneurship, competition, the biological environment, war, financial panics and business cycles. Part 3 examines the evolution of broad sectors that typify a modern economy including agriculture, banking, transportation, health care, housing, and entertainment. It begins by examining an equally important "sector" of the economy which scholars have increasingly analyzed using economic tools – religion. Part 4 focuses on the work force and human outcomes including inequality, labor markets, unions, education, immigration, slavery, urbanization, and the evolving economic roles of women and African-Americans. The text will be of great value to those taking economic history courses as well as a reference book useful to professional practitioners, policy makers and the public.