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Common Errors In Statistics And How To Avoid Them

Author: Phillip I. Good
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118360117
Size: 54.82 MB
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Praise for Common Errors in Statistics (and How to AvoidThem) "A very engaging and valuable book for all who use statistics inany setting." —CHOICE "Addresses popular mistakes often made in data collection andprovides an indispensable guide to accurate statistical analysisand reporting. The authors' emphasis on careful practice, combinedwith a focus on the development of solutions, reveals the truevalue of statistics when applied correctly in any area ofresearch." —MAA Reviews Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them), FourthEdition provides a mathematically rigorous, yet readilyaccessible foundation in statistics for experienced readers as wellas students learning to design and complete experiments, surveys,and clinical trials. Providing a consistent level of coherency throughout, the highlyreadable Fourth Edition focuses on debunking popular myths,analyzing common mistakes, and instructing readers on how to choosethe appropriate statistical technique to address their specifictask. The authors begin with an introduction to the main sources oferror and provide techniques for avoiding them. Subsequent chaptersoutline key methods and practices for accurate analysis, reporting,and model building. The Fourth Edition features newly addedtopics, including: Baseline data Detecting fraud Linear regression versus linear behavior Case control studies Minimum reporting requirements Non-random samples The book concludes with a glossary that outlines key terms, andan extensive bibliography with several hundred citations directingreaders to resources for further study. Presented in an easy-to-follow style, Common Errors inStatistics, Fourth Edition is an excellent book for studentsand professionals in industry, government, medicine, and the socialsciences.

Common Errors In Statistics And How To Avoid Them I Good Hardin 2003

Author: John Wiley & Sons, Inc
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
Size: 50.79 MB
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ONE OF THE VERY FIRST STATISTICAL APPLICATIONS ON which Dr. Good worked was an analysis of leukemia cases in Hiroshima, Japan following World War II; on August 7, 1945 this city was the target site of the first atomic bomb dropped by the United States. Was the high incidence of leukemia cases among survivors the result of exposure to radiation from the atomic bomb? Was there a relationship between the number of leukemia cases and the number of survivors at certain distances from the atomic bomb’s epicenter? To assist in the analysis, Dr. Good had an electric (not an electronic) calculator, reams of paper on which to write down intermediate results, and a prepublication copy of Scheffe’s Analysis of Variance. The work took several months and the results were somewhat inconclusive, mainly because he could never seem to get the same answer twice—a consequence of errors in transcription rather than the absence of any actual relationship between radiation and leukemia. Today, of course, we have high-speed computers and prepackaged statistical routines to perform the necessary calculations. Yet, statistical software will no more make one a statistician than would a scalpel turn one into a neurosurgeon. Allowing these tools to do our thinking for us is a sure recipe for disaster. Pressed by management or the need for funding, too many research workers have no choice but to go forward with data analysis regardless of the extent of their statistical training. Alas, while a semester or two of undergraduate statistics may suffice to develop familiarity with the names of some statistical methods, it is not enough to be aware of all the circumstances under which these methods may be applicable. The purpose of the present text is to provide a mathematically rigorous but readily understandable foundation for statistical procedures. Here for the second time are such basic concepts in statistics as null and alternative Preface hypotheses, p value, significance level, and power. Assisted by reprints from the statistical literature, we reexamine sample selection, linear regression, the analysis of variance, maximum likelihood, Bayes’ Theorem, metaanalysis, and the bootstrap. Now the good news: Dr. Good’s articles on women’s sports have appeared in the San Francisco Examiner, Sports Now, and Volleyball Monthly. So, if you can read the sports page, you’ll find this text easy to read and to follow. Lest the statisticians among you believe this book is too introductory, we point out the existence of hundreds of citations in statistical literature calling for the comprehensive treatment we have provided. Regardless of past training or current specialization, this book will serve as a useful reference; you will find applications for the information contained herein whether you are a practicing statistician or a well-trained scientist who just happens to apply statistics in the pursuit of other science. The primary objective of the opening chapter is to describe the main sources of error and provide a preliminary prescription for avoiding them. The hypothesis formulation—data gathering—hypothesis testing and estimate cycle is introduced, and the rationale for gathering additional data before attempting to test after-the-fact hypotheses is detailed. Chapter 2 places our work in the context of decision theory. We emphasize the importance of providing an interpretation of each and every potential outcome in advance of consideration of actual data. Chapter 3 focuses on study design and data collection for failure at the planning stage can render all further efforts valueless. The work of Vance Berger and his colleagues on selection bias is given particular emphasis. Desirable features of point and interval estimates are detailed in Chapter 4 along with procedures for deriving estimates in a variety of practical situations. This chapter also serves to debunk several myths surrounding estimation procedures. Chapter 5 reexamines the assumptions underlying testing hypotheses. We review the impacts of violations of assumptions, and we detail the procedures to follow when making two- and k-sample comparisons. In addition, we cover the procedures for analyzing contingency tables and two-way experimental designs if standard assumptions are violated. Chapter 6 is devoted to the value and limitations of Bayes’ Theorem, meta-analysis, and resampling methods. Chapter 7 lists the essentials of any report that will utilize statistics, debunks the myth of the “standard” error, and describes the value and limitations of p values and confidence intervals for reporting results. Practical significance is distinguished from statistical significance, and induction is distinguished from deduction. x PREFACE Twelve rules for more effective graphic presentations are given in Chapter 8 along with numerous examples of the right and wrong ways to maintain reader interest while communicating essential statistical information. Chapters 9 through 11 are devoted to model building and to the assumptions and limitations of standard regression methods and data mining techniques. A distinction is drawn between goodness of fit and prediction, and the importance of model validation is emphasized. Seminal articles by David Freedman and Gail Gong are reprinted. Finally, for the further convenience of readers, we provide a glossary grouped by related but contrasting terms, a bibliography, and subject and author indexes. Our thanks to William Anderson, Leonardo Auslender, Vance Berger, Peter Bruce, Bernard Choi, Tony DuSoir, Cliff Lunneborg, Mona Hardin, Gunter Hartel, Fortunato Pesarin, Henrik Schmiediche, Marjorie Stinespring, and Peter A. Wright for their critical reviews of portions of this text. Doug Altman, Mark Hearnden, Elaine Hand, and David Parkhurst gave us a running start with their bibliographies. We hope you soon put this textbook to practical use. Phillip Good Huntington Beach, CA [email protected] James Hardin College Station, TX [email protected] PREFACE

Beyond Basic Statistics

Author: Kristin H. Jarman
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118856120
Size: 48.80 MB
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Features basic statistical concepts as a tool for thinking critically, wading through large quantities of information, and answering practical, everyday questions Written in an engaging and inviting manner, Beyond Basic Statistics: Tips, Tricks, and Techniques Every Data Analyst Should Know presents the more subjective side of statistics—the art of data analytics. Each chapter explores a different question using fun, common sense examples that illustrate the concepts, methods, and applications of statistical techniques. Without going into the specifics of theorems, propositions, or formulas, the book effectively demonstrates statistics as a useful problem-solving tool. In addition, the author demonstrates how statistics is a tool for thinking critically, wading through large volumes of information, and answering life’s important questions. Beyond Basic Statistics: Tips, Tricks, and Techniques Every Data Analyst Should Know also features: Plentiful examples throughout aimed to strengthen readers’ understanding of the statistical concepts and methods A step-by-step approach to elementary statistical topics such as sampling, hypothesis tests, outlier detection, normality tests, robust statistics, and multiple regression A case study in each chapter that illustrates the use of the presented techniques Highlights of well-known shortcomings that can lead to false conclusions An introduction to advanced techniques such as validation and bootstrapping Featuring examples that are engaging and non-application specific, the book appeals to a broad audience of students and professionals alike, specifically students of undergraduate statistics, managers, medical professionals, and anyone who has to make decisions based on raw data or compiled results.

Statistical Methods For Quality Improvement

Author: Thomas P. Ryan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118058107
Size: 10.97 MB
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Praise for the Second Edition "As a comprehensive statistics reference book for quality improvement, it certainly is one of the best books available." —Technometrics This new edition continues to provide the most current, proven statistical methods for quality control and quality improvement The use of quantitative methods offers numerous benefits in the fields of industry and business, both through identifying existing trouble spots and alerting management and technical personnel to potential problems. Statistical Methods for Quality Improvement, Third Edition guides readers through a broad range of tools and techniques that make it possible to quickly identify and resolve both current and potential trouble spots within almost any manufacturing or nonmanufacturing process. The book provides detailed coverage of the application of control charts, while also exploring critical topics such as regression, design of experiments, and Taguchi methods. In this new edition, the author continues to explain how to combine the many statistical methods explored in the book in order to optimize quality control and improvement. The book has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect the latest research and practices in statistical methods and quality control, and new features include: Updated coverage of control charts, with newly added tools The latest research on the monitoring of linear profiles and other types of profiles Sections on generalized likelihood ratio charts and the effects of parameter estimation on the properties of CUSUM and EWMA procedures New discussions on design of experiments that include conditional effects and fraction of design space plots New material on Lean Six Sigma and Six Sigma programs and training Incorporating the latest software applications, the author has added coverage on how to use Minitab software to obtain probability limits for attribute charts. new exercises have been added throughout the book, allowing readers to put the latest statistical methods into practice. Updated references are also provided, shedding light on the current literature and providing resources for further study of the topic. Statistical Methods for Quality Improvement, Third Edition is an excellent book for courses on quality control and design of experiments at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. the book also serves as a valuable reference for practicing statisticians, engineers, and physical scientists interested in statistical quality improvement.

Wer Dem Gl Ck Hinterherrennt L Uft Daran Vorbei

Author: Russ Harris
Publisher: Kösel-Verlag
ISBN: 3641038227
Size: 47.76 MB
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Ausstieg aus der Glücksfalle: Besser leben als dem Glück nachjagen Kann das sein? Dass unsere Vorstellungen über das Glück uns unglücklich machen? Dieses spannende Umdenkbuch beruht auf einem bahnbrechenden Ansatz in der Psychologie: der Akzeptanz- und Commitment-Therapie (ACT). Die in kürzester Zeit erlernbaren Techniken haben ihre Wirksamkeit in vielen wissenschaftlichen Studien bewiesen. Die Folge: Sorgen und Stress müssen nicht mehr angestrengt bekämpft werden. Selbst wenn uns Schwierigkeiten begegnen, können wir ein tief erfülltes Leben führen. "Das Buch liegt bei mir am Nachttisch und ich befolge fleißig die Übungsanleitungen. Es ist klug, zugleich leichtfüßig und amüsant und bestimmt eine große Hilfe für viele Menschen. Ach was – für alle eigentlich." Konstantin Wecker

Keeping Up With The Quants

Author: Thomas H. Davenport
Publisher: Harvard Business Press
ISBN: 1422187268
Size: 38.40 MB
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Why Everyone Needs Analytical Skills Welcome to the age of data. No matter your interests (sports, movies, politics), your industry (finance, marketing, technology, manufacturing), or the type of organization you work for (big company, nonprofit, small start-up)—your world is awash with data. As a successful manager today, you must be able to make sense of all this information. You need to be conversant with analytical terminology and methods and able to work with quantitative information. This book promises to become your “quantitative literacy" guide—helping you develop the analytical skills you need right now in order to summarize data, find the meaning in it, and extract its value. In Keeping Up with the Quants, authors, professors, and analytics experts Thomas Davenport and Jinho Kim offer practical tools to improve your understanding of data analytics and enhance your thinking and decision making. You’ll gain crucial skills, including: • How to formulate a hypothesis • How to gather and analyze relevant data • How to interpret and communicate analytical results • How to develop habits of quantitative thinking • How to deal effectively with the “quants” in your organization Big data and the analytics based on it promise to change virtually every industry and business function over the next decade. If you don’t have a business degree or if you aren’t comfortable with statistics and quantitative methods, this book is for you. Keeping Up with the Quants will give you the skills you need to master this new challenge—and gain a significant competitive edge.

High Performance Mysql

Author: Baron Schwartz
Publisher: O'Reilly Germany
ISBN: 3897218356
Size: 69.60 MB
Format: PDF
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Einführungen in MySQL gibt es viele. Wer aber größere MySQL-Server betreut, die verlässlich laufen müssen, egal was Programmierer oder Benutzer auf sie loslassen, der braucht weiter reichende Informationen. In High Performance MySQL beschreiben sechs anerkannte Experten mit langjähriger Erfahrung auf großen Systemen alle Stellschrauben, an denen MySQL-Admins drehen können, um Sicherheit, Performance, Datenintegrität und Robustheit zu erhöhen. Von Profis für Profis Hier geht es nicht um kleine Webauftritte mit Datenbankanbindung! Lernen Sie stattdessen fortgeschrittene Techniken kennen, mit denen Sie MySQLs Potenzial voll ausreizen können -- um große, skalierbare Systeme zu entwerfen, zu optimieren und zu sichern. Behandelt werden Benchmarking, Indizes, Storage-Engines, Replikationen, Lastverteilung und Hochverfügbarkeit, Backups, Sicherheit... und zu jedem Aspekt die richtigen Werkzeuge, mit denen sich Ihre Ziele am besten realisieren lassen. Praxiserprobt muss es sein Der eine ist MySQL-Guru bei Yahoo!, der andere Angestellter Nr. 25 bei MySQL AB und dort nacheinander für das MySQL-Manual, die Trainingskurse und die Entwicklung des Supports zuständig, wieder ein anderer war bei MySQL AB im High-Performance-Team – die Autoren dieses Buchs wissen, wovon sie sprechen. Graue Theorie finden Sie woanders, hier geht es um bewährte Techniken aus der Praxis. Die erste Auflage von „High Performance MySQL“ wurde hoch gelobt und hat schon unzähligen Lesern wertvolle Dienste geleistet. Nun war es an der Zeit, dieses anerkannte Handbuch einmal komplett zu aktualisieren, um nützliches Referenzmaterial zu erweitern, neue Features der Versionen MySQL 5.0 und 5.1 zu ergänzen und zahlreiche Themen wie die Optimierung der Storage-Engine InnoDB zu vertiefen.

Factfulness

Author: Hans Rosling
Publisher: Ullstein Buchverlage
ISBN: 3843717451
Size: 70.17 MB
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Es wird alles immer schlimmer, eine schreckliche Nachricht jagt die andere: Die Reichen werden reicher, die Armen ärmer. Es gibt immer mehr Kriege, Gewaltverbrechen, Naturkatastrophen. Viele Menschen tragen solche beängstigenden Bilder im Kopf. Doch sie liegen damit grundfalsch. Unser Gehirn verführt uns zu einer dramatisierenden Weltsicht, die mitnichten der Realität entspricht, wie der geniale Statistiker und Wissenschaftler Hans Rosling erklärt. Wer das Buch gelesen hat, wird • ein sicheres, auf Fakten basierendes Gerüst besitzen, um die Welt so zu sehen, wie sie wirklich ist • die zehn gängigsten Arten von aufgebauschten Geschichten erkennen • bessere Entscheidungen treffen können • wahre Factfulness erreichen – jene offene, neugierige und entspannte Geisteshaltung, in der Sie nur noch Ansichten teilen und Urteile fällen, die auf soliden Fakten basieren

Money

Author: Tony Robbins
Publisher: FinanzBuch Verlag
ISBN: 3862487393
Size: 53.68 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Mehr als 10 Jahre sind seit seiner letzten Veröffentlichung in Deutschland vergangen, jetzt meldet sich Anthony Robbins zurück. Als Personal Trainer beriet er Persönlichkeiten wie Bill Clinton und Serena Williams sowie ein weltweites Millionenpublikum, nun widmet er seine Aufmerksamkeit den Finanzen. Basierend auf umfangreichen Recherchen und Interviews mit mehr als 50 Starinvestoren, wie Warren Buffett oder Star-Hedgefondsmanager Carl Icahn, hat Robbins die besten Strategien für die private finanzielle Absicherung entwickelt. Sein Werk bündelt die Expertise erfolgreicher Finanzmarktakteure und seine Beratungserfahrung. Selbst komplexe Anlagestrategien werden verständlich erläutert, ohne an Präzision einzubüßen. In 7 Schritten zur finanziellen Unabhängigkeit - praxisnah und für jeden umsetzbar.