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Competitive Authoritarianism

Author: Steven Levitsky
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139491482
Size: 69.29 MB
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Based on a detailed study of 35 cases in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and post-communist Eurasia, this book explores the fate of competitive authoritarian regimes between 1990 and 2008. It finds that where social, economic, and technocratic ties to the West were extensive, as in Eastern Europe and the Americas, the external cost of abuse led incumbents to cede power rather than crack down, which led to democratization. Where ties to the West were limited, external democratizing pressure was weaker and countries rarely democratized. In these cases, regime outcomes hinged on the character of state and ruling party organizations. Where incumbents possessed developed and cohesive coercive party structures, they could thwart opposition challenges, and competitive authoritarian regimes survived; where incumbents lacked such organizational tools, regimes were unstable but rarely democratized.

Instrumentalisation Of Mass Media In Electoral Authoritarian Regimes

Author: Nozima Akhrarkhodjaeva
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 3838270134
Size: 53.90 MB
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Focusing on the case of Russia during Putin’s first two presidential terms, this book examines media manipulation strategies in electoral authoritarian regimes. Which instruments and approaches do incumbent elites employ to skew media coverage in favor of their preferred candidate in a presidential election? What effects do these strategies have on news content? Based on two case studies of the presidential election campaigns in Russia in 2000 and in 2008, this investigation identifies the critical internal mechanisms according to which these regimes work. Looking at the same country while it transformed from a competitive into a hegemonic authoritarian regime, allows a diachronic comparison of these two regime types. The book explicates the subtle differences between competitive and hegemonic regimes, different types of media manipulation strategies, the diverging extent of media instrumentalization, various interactions among state actors, large business owners, the media, and journalists, the respective effects that all these factors and interactions have on media content, and the peculiar types of bias prevalent in each type of regime. This deep exploration of post-Soviet politics is based on extensive review of documents, interviews with media professionals, and quantitative as well as qualitative content analyses of news media during two Russian presidential election campaigns.

Boundary Control

Author: Edward L. Gibson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139851012
Size: 27.91 MB
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The democratization of a national government is only a first step in diffusing democracy throughout a country's territory. Even after a national government is democratized, subnational authoritarian 'enclaves' often continue to deny rights to citizens of local jurisdictions. Gibson offers new theoretical perspectives for the study of democratization in his exploration of this phenomenon. His theory of 'boundary control' captures the conflict pattern between incumbents and oppositions when a national democratic government exists alongside authoritarian provinces (or 'states'). He also reveals how federalism and the territorial organization of countries shape how subnational authoritarian regimes are built and how they unravel. Through a novel comparison of the late nineteenth-century American 'Solid South' with contemporary experiences in Argentina and Mexico, Gibson reveals that the mechanisms of boundary control are reproduced across countries and historical periods. As long as subnational authoritarian governments coexist with national democratic governments, boundary control will be at play.

Revolution And War In Contemporary Ukraine

Author: Olga Bertelsen
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 3838270169
Size: 38.71 MB
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What are the reasons behind, and trajectories of, the rapid cultural changes in Ukraine since 2013? This volume highlights: the role of the Revolution of Dignity and the Russian-Ukrainian war in the formation of Ukrainian civil society; the forms of warfare waged by Moscow against Kyiv, including information and religious wars; Ukrainian and Russian identities and cultural realignment; sources of destabilization in Ukraine and beyond; memory politics and Russian foreign policies; the Kremlin’s geopolitical goals in its 'near abroad'; and factors determining Ukraine’s future and survival in a state of war. The studies included in this collection illuminate the growing gap between the political and social systems of Ukraine and Russia. The anthology illustrates how the Ukrainian revolution of 2013–2014, Russia’s annexation of the Crimean peninsula, and its invasion of eastern Ukraine have altered the post-Cold War political landscape and, with it, regional and global power and security dynamics.

Die Demokratie Und Ihre Feinde

Author: Robert Kagan
Publisher: Siedler Verlag
ISBN: 3641033713
Size: 40.52 MB
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Plädoyer für eine demokratische Weltordnung Robert Kagan bringt die weltpolitische Situation seit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges auf den Punkt. Den demokratischen Staaten steht mit Russland, China und Iran eine wachsende Zahl nach Macht und Einfluss strebender autokratischer Regime gegenüber. Gleichzeitig werden die Werte des Westens vom Herrschaftsanspruch radikaler Islamisten bedroht. Leidenschaftlich und pointiert stellt uns Kagan vor die Alternative, entweder die Welt im Sinne unserer freiheitlich-demokratischen Vorstellungen zu formen oder uns in einer neuen Weltordnung einzurichten, die andere gestaltet haben. Nach dem Ende des Kalten Krieges keimte die Hoffnung, das Ende der Geschichte sei gekommen, eine friedvolle Zukunft liege vor uns. Diese Hoffnung war trügerisch. Die Jugoslawienkriege, der Kosovo-Konflikt und der 11. September zeigten auf brutale Weise, dass Nationalismen, ethnische Zugehörigkeiten und Religion die Völker nach wie vor trennen und in blutige Konflikte stürzen. Auch Großmachtansprüche gehören keineswegs der Vergangenheit an. Russland, China und Iran lassen ihre Muskeln spielen. Eindringlich ruft Robert Kagan die demokratischen Staaten dazu auf, sich zusammenzuschließen und gemeinsam für Demokratie und liberale Werte einzustehen. Die Geschichte ist zurückgekehrt, die hochfliegenden optimistischen Träume, die man nach dem Mauerfall und dem Zusammenbruch des Ostblocks gehegt hatte, sind ausgeträumt. Die Demokraten dürfen die Welt nicht den Despoten und Autokraten überlassen, sondern müssen aktiv an der Gestaltung einer neuen Weltordnung mitwirken. Kagan ist einer der scharfsinnigsten politischen Denker in den USA.

Dragon In The Tropics

Author: Javier Corrales
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 0815725949
Size: 40.84 MB
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This new and expanded edition of Dragon in the Tropics—the widely acclaimed account of how president Hugo Chávez (1999–2013) revamped Venezuela’s political economy—examines the electoral decline of Chavismo after Chavez’s death and the policies adopted by his successor, Nicolás Maduro, to cope with the economic chaos inherited from previous radical populist policies. Corrales and Penfold argue that Maduro has had to struggle with the inherent contradictions of a large and heterogeneous social coalition, a declining oil sector, the strength of entrenched military interests, and fewer resources to appease international allies, which have strenghtened the autocratic features of an already consolidated hybrid regime. In examining the new political realities of Venezuela, the authors offer lessons on the dynamics of succession in hybrid regimes. This book is a must-read for scholars and analysts of Latin America.

Dictators At War And Peace

Author: Jessica L. P. Weeks
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801455235
Size: 63.63 MB
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Why do some autocratic leaders pursue aggressive or expansionist foreign policies, while others are much more cautious in their use of military force? The first book to focus systematically on the foreign policy of different types of authoritarian regimes, Dictators at War and Peace breaks new ground in our understanding of the international behavior of dictators. Jessica L. P. Weeks explains why certain kinds of regimes are less likely to resort to war than others, why some are more likely to win the wars they start, and why some authoritarian leaders face domestic punishment for foreign policy failures whereas others can weather all but the most serious military defeat. Using novel cross-national data, Weeks looks at various nondemocratic regimes, including those of Saddam Hussein and Joseph Stalin; the Argentine junta at the time of the Falklands War, the military government in Japan before and during World War II, and the North Vietnamese communist regime. She finds that the differences in the conflict behavior of distinct kinds of autocracies are as great as those between democracies and dictatorships. Indeed, some types of autocracies are no more belligerent or reckless than democracies, casting doubt on the common view that democracies are more selective about war than autocracies.

Cities And Stability

Author: Jeremy Wallace
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199387214
Size: 77.60 MB
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China's management of urbanization is an under-appreciated factor in the regime's longevity. The Chinese Communist Party fears "Latin Americanization" -- the emergence of highly unequal megacities with their attendant slums and social unrest. Such cities threaten the survival of nondemocratic regimes. To combat the threat, many regimes, including China's, favor cities in policymaking. Cities and Stability shows this "urban bias" to be a Faustian Bargain: cities may be stabilized for a time, but the massive in-migration from the countryside that results can generate the conditions for political upheaval. Through its hukou system of internal migration restrictions, China has avoided this dilemma, simultaneously aiding urbanites and keeping farmers in the countryside. The system helped prevent social upheaval even during the Great Recession, when tens of millions of laid-off migrant workers dispersed from coastal cities. Jeremy Wallace's powerful account forces us to rethink the relationship between cities and political stability throughout the developing world.